Editor-in-chief: Assist.Prof.Dr.Falah Muosa Kadhim AL-Rekabi
Managing Editor: Dr. Akhil M. Alsadwi
Print ISSN: 1609-5693
Online ISSN: 2410-7409
The objective of this study was designed to evaluate the possibility of repairing tracheal cartilage defect in dogs. 18 local breed dogs of both sexes was used in this study, they are allocated into 2 equal groups. A tracheal defect was induced in the cervical part of the trachea as a window about 3cm x 2cm in diameter. The defect was closed in 1st group by using polypropylene mesh and bone cement substance, while in 2nd group polypropylene mesh with fresh auto- bone marrow. Post-operative study including, clinical observation, gross pathology and histopathological evaluation was performed in all animals. The most important postoperative clinical observation was represented by subcutaneous emphysema at the site of operation in the 2nd group animals, which gradually disappeared within few days. Otherwise no other important complications was reported in both groups during the period of the experiment. The gross pathological changes and biopsy collection for all animals was done at 15, 30, 60 postoperative days. The gross examination revealed complete closing of the induced tracheal defect in all operated animals and a mild adhesion with the surrounding tissues. In both groups, the histopathological features was represented by newly granulation tissue formation and areas of hyaline cartilage degeneration and necrosis. The cartilage regeneration was showed only in 2nd group through by formation of new cartilage cells. In conclusion, it can use both techniques for reconstruction of tracheal defect in dogs but the auto bone marrow group was regarded the best due to improvement of the healing process. .
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of platelets rich fibrin and bone marrow on healing of distal radial fracture in local dogs. Twenty four adult animals (males and non-pregnant females of local breed dogs); had mean age 2.6 ±0.15 years and body weight 24.58 ±1.07 kgs were used. The experimental animals were randomly divided into three equal groups. First group (Control group), transverse fracture was induced at the distal portion of radial bone and immobilized by using Plaster of Paris, the fracture line didn't treated with any substance. Second group (Platelets Rich Fibrin group), in which the fracture line was surrounded by the platelets rich fibrin. Third group (Bone Marrow group) in which the fracture line was surrounded by autologous bone marrow. The histopathological results confirmed that the third group was the best one in its response for fractured bone healing in both periods sixth and tenth week, while the second group was came in the second rank, whereas the first group was the slowest response for fractured bone healing, represented by trabecular bone formation. The concentration rates of calcium and alkaline phosphatase enzyme increased at the weeks that follow surgical operation. In conclusion, the using of bone marrow and platelets rich fibrin are enhance the healing of distal radial fracture. .
Twenty Iraqi ducks hearts ( 10 male and 10 female ) have been used for demonstration and illustration of heart's valves and chambers as well as anatomical and morphological site of view to explain what modifications had been take place for ducks heart to perform his normal life at the circumstances of high blood pressure and pulse rate. The heart which has distinctly pointed apex was built in simple manner located in a transparent taught heart pericardial sac. It was pyramidal in shape externally and has a longitudinal salcus passing to the right side, the anterior of the heart is divided into two unequal anterior chamber similar to those of mammalian hear .The heart valves are modified in order to minimize the fraction that occur as a result of high blood pressure and pulse rate of the duck heart , also the muscular trabeculae replace the chordate tendineae , which were present in the mammalian heart in order to minimize the fraction resulting from high pulse rate.. .
This study was done to investigate the electrocardiographic changes in 90 diarrheic nursed Awassi lambs, in comparison with 10 clinically healthy lambs of the same breed. Their ages were ranged from 5 days to 2 months, in Karbala City-Iraq, from November 2015 to April 2016. The diarrheic lambs showed significant (P≤0.05) decreased duration of P-wave (0.039±0.0000001 ms and shorter QRS wave amplitudes 0.6 0±0.042 mV with duration 0.041±0.0008 ms , higher T wave amplitude and duration ( 0.25±0.034 mV and 0.070±0.002 ms) , prolonged QT (0.21±0.004 ms) but ST-segment ( 0.17±0.004 ms) were its observed sinus arrhythmia with tachycardia in lead-II in diarrheic lambs were recorded compared with non-diarrheic lambs group which their QRS duration and amplitude were it was (0.04±0.000001ms and 0.65±0.026 mV ) , T waves duration and amplitude were ( 0.076±0.004 ms and 0.21±0.012 mV ) QT interval (0.20±0.011 ms) and ST-segment ( 0.16±0.011 ms) .The morphological abnormal of ECG changes in diarrheic suckling lambs characterized by a widening or flattening, bifid(mitral) and pulmonale (tall) shape of P wave, increased P-R interval, increased duration of QRS complex and QT-prolongation, ST-depression or elevation .Inverted or board (slurring) tall, symmetric, peaked shape of T waves. These abnormal shapes appeared alternately in lead I, II, III, aVR, aVL and aVF. Conclusively the diarrheic lambs showed serious abnormal changes of electrocardiography.. ....
The study aimed to show the effect of experimental infection with E.coli O157:H7 on some liver and kidney function in adult rabbits. Twenty five domestic rabbits (males and females), aged 6-8 weeks and weighing 1500-2000g, had a negative fecal bacteriological culture of E.coli O157:H7 were used. The rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: infected group (15 rabbits), each animal was drenched orally with 1ml of Phosphate buffer saline containing (2×109CFU) of E.coli O157:H7, while the control group (10 rabbits) were drenched orally (1ml) of Phosphate buffer saline, the clinical signs were daily observed for 30 days, recording of body weight and blood samples were collected at (0, 3, 15 and 30) days for serum to evaluate biochemical tests including Alanine transaminase, Aspartate aminotransaminase and alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, urea and total serum protein. The results showed different clinical signs after inoculation, including diarrhea, lethargy, weight loss, inability to eat or drink, urine was cloudy or milky, while control group remains in normal condition. The serum biochemical tests in infected group showed a significant increase of three enzymes at 15, and 30 days, the highest values of Alanine transaminase; Aspartate aminotransaminase and alkaline phosphatase showed at 30 days post infection as compared with the control group. Serum creatinine and urea recorded a significant increase (P< 0.05) at 30 day post infection as compared with control group. However, total protein revealed a significant decrease in the infected group, and a significant decrease was noticed at 15 day post infection, while the control group showed an increase in total protein co-ordinated with increase of body weight and progressing age. This study concluded that the infection with E. coli O157:H7may cause changes in liver and kidney functions which were more sever at 15,30 days post infection. .
This study was conducted to detect and quantify three mycotoxins Dioxynivalenol, Nivalenol and Fumonisin B2 in seeds of seven wheat cultivars planted in 17 wheat fields in Basra province, Iraq. This was done by using High Performance Liquid chromatographs analysis. The results revealed that Fumonisin B2 was the predominant mycotoxin, which present in 10 fields. The lowest concentration rate of this mycotoxin was 110 µg/Kg and the maximum was 11,228 µg/Kg. Dioxynivalenol as a trichothecene was in the second level detected in 6 fields with a minimum concentration of 8 µg/Kg and a maximum of 1,060 µg/Kg. Nivalenol was found only in 4 fields ranging from 272-1900 µg/Kg. Fumonisin B2 Only three fields showed co-occurrence of two mycotoxins (Fumonisin B2 and Nivalenol) in each, but with various concentration rates. The seven cultivars tested in this study were varied in their reactions to subjected mycotoxins. Adana 99 (A. 99) cultivar showed the highest concentration rate of both Fumonisin B2 and Nivalenol, which present with average percentage of 64% and 58% respectively. While, for Dioxynivalenol, Ebaa 99 (E.99) was on the top, it occurred in 6 fields ranging from 8-1060 µg/Kg with an average percentage of 43%. 43%.
Fate of AflatoxinM1 in soft white cheese and its by-product (whey) and in yogurt locally made from raw sheep's and goat's milk experimentally inoculated with 0.05 and 0.5 µg/l AflatoxinM1 were investigated using ELISA technique. Results reported that AflatoxinM1 was concentrated in cheese at levels significantly higher than that recorded in the raw milk that used for its processing, with a significant decrease in AflatoxinM1 levels in its by-product (whey) comparable to the raw milk used in manufacturing at both inoculated levels. Yogurt produced from raw sheep's milk at second inoculated level exerted AflatoxinM1concentration significantly lower than that present in the milk. Significant differences in AflatoxinM1distribution in cheese and whey produced from sheep's milk comparable to their counterparts produced from goat's milk were recorded. Finally, results revealed the efficacious role of the various dairy manufacturing processes in AflatoxinM1 distribution and the necessity to issue of local legislations concerning the maximum permissible limits for AflatoxinM1 in milk in order to stay within the universal permissible levels for AflatoxinM1 in dairy products to provide greater protection for consumer health. .
The present study was carried on twenty adult males of Guinea pigs to evaluate the histomorphological and histochemical features of adrenal gland. Morphologically, Guinea pigs had a couple adrenal glands brown in color were located craniomedially attached to each cranial pole of kidney, the right adrenal gland had pyramidal shape, while the left had elongated shape. The statistical results showed that there is significant difference between the right and left adrenal gland in the weight, length, thickness, width and volume. The histological and histochemical results showed that adrenal gland was composed of cortex and medulla. The cortex was consisted of three zones. The zona glomerulosa was consisted of columnar or cuboidal cells arranged in groups as glomeruli, the zona fasciculata and reticularis were composed mainly of polygonal cells arranged in regular and irregular cords.The medulla region was composed of ovoid group of cells (chromaffine cells) that arranged in irregular cords separated by blood sinusoid and surrounded by central vein, contained two types of cells, the first cell was columnar in shape and brownish in color representing the epinephrine secreting cell, the second cell was polygonal in shape and light brownish in color with spherical nucleus representing the Norepinephrine secreting cell when fixed in chromate salts. All parts of adrenal gland exhibited strong to moderate reaction for Periodic Acid Schiff stain. The statistical results showed that there is significant difference between the right and left adrenal gland in the thickness of capsule, zona glomerulusa, zona fasciculata, zona reticularis and medulla region.
The present study aimed to estimate the efficiency of both a cellular bovine pericardium and bovine urinary bladder matrix sheets in the reconstruction of large ventro-lateral hernias in Iraqi bucks by using of molecular evaluation depending on real time-polymerase chain reaction technique to investigate the level of basic-fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor genes during the healing process and reconstruction of the abdominal defects. Under sedation and local anesthesia, (6cm X 8cm size) of ventro-lateral hernias were induced in 24 of Iraqi bucks. The animals were divided randomly into two main equal groups. In bovine pericardium-treatment group, the hernias were treated with onlay implantation of bovine pericardium. While, the hernias in UBM-treatment group were treated with onlay implantation of urinary bladder matrix, 30 days post-inducing of hernias. The molecular evaluation along the period of following-up recorded a significant up-regulation of the level of basic-fibroblast growth factor gene specific for presence of fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and collagen deposition in urinary bladder matrix -treatment group in comparison to bovine pericardium -treatment group with significant difference even at the end of the study. While, a significant up regulation of the levels of angiogenesis classic gene vascular endothelial growth factor were recorded in the bucks of bovine pericardium -treatment group compared to urinary bladder matrix -treatment group. In conclusion; molecular detection of the level of growth factors in target tissue can be used as an important criterion..
A total of 20 healthy adult male guinea pigs were used in this study to investigate the anatomical, histological and morphometrical characteristics of the kidneys, ureter and urinary bladder. The gross anatomical study showed that the right kidney had a bean shape with reddish pink color whereas the left kidney had a heart shape. The renal cortex appeared darker than medulla with reddish brown color, while the medulla was pale in color. The mean thickness of cortex was more than that of medulla in both left and right kidneys and the ratio of cortex to medulla was 1.06: 1 in both kidneys. The mean length of right ureter was 10.3±0.62 cm while the mean length of left ureter was shorter. The filled urinary bladder appeared as a pear-shaped hollow sac situated in the pelvic cavity and only the rounded cranial part of bladder was expanded. Four histological regions of renal tubules were found in kidney. The Proximal convolutes tubule is first longest and coiled segment of renal tubules which originate from urinary pole of renal corpuscles and measured about 25.421±0.3µm in diameter and lined with simple cuboidal epithelial cells. The Nephron loop (Loop of Henle) was consisted of the descending and ascending thin limbs, the descending thin limb was measured 13.591±0.1µm diameter, whereas the thick ascending limb was measured (19.987±0.5µm) in diameter. Distal convolutes tubule was shorter than the proximal tubule and measured about 21.139±0.5µm diameter. The collecting duct was measured about (31.759±0.2µm) diameter. It was lined with simple cuboidal or columnar epithelium. The cross section of Ureter was possessed a star shape lumen and its wall consist from four tunics (mucosa, lamina propria submucosa, muscularis and serosa). It was lined by transitional epithelium. The histological structure of Urinary Bladder was resembles the ureter, the lamina propria contain few mucous glands..
Forty normal turkeys divided into four age groups:1 week, 1 month, 2 months and 7 months. The cecal tonsils were separated and prepared for histological and Immunohistochemical studies. At 1 week old the tonsil appear as lymphoid aggregation of the lamina propria submucosa around central fossula. No septae among follicles, no germinal centers observed. At 1 month old the cecal portion which included the tonsil easily separated from other parts due to an increase cecal wall diameter was increased. The tonsil composed of a lot of tonsil crypts. The tissue septae among the crypts observed. At 2 and 7 months old the tonsils bulging from the internal surface of cecum toward the lumen as a rough large mass white to pink in color, germinal centers were present in the lymphoid follicles, the cecal tonsil diameter is increase with ages. The lymphocytes diameter is increasing with age also the internal surface of tonsil was lined with simple columnar epithelium (intestinal mucosa). The dimensions of cecal tonsils and lymphocytes measurements and tonsil mucosa are significantly increase with age. (CD268) antibody revealed presence of mature B lymphocytes within the parenchyma of bursa at two and seven month’s old turkey. CD8 no expressed at the first month age while different degrees of expression appeared at the other ages...
This study is conducted to investigate Theileria spp. by traditional and molecular methods. A total of 150 blood and 50 lymph samples were collected from local breed symptomatically and asymptomatically cattle of both sexes with age ranging from less than 6 months to more than 1 year during the four seasons of 2018, in different parts at Baghdad city / Iraq. Microscopic examination of Giemsa stained blood smears revealed 39.33 %( 59/150) rate of infection with bovine theileriosis and 34 %( 17/50) positive lymph smears. Statistically no significant difference recorded between female and male: 42.04 % (37/88) and 35.48 % (22/62) respectively. Higher rate of infection 57.97 % (40/69) were recorded in more than 1 year age and 0 % in less than 6 months. 48.93 % (23/47) rate of bovine theileriosis was recorded during summer and 39.53 % (17/43) ; 37.5 % (15/40) rates were recorded during spring and autumn respectively, while the lower rate recorded in winter 20 % (4/20). DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (conventional PCR) were done on all cattle blood samples the result recorded that 22 out of 25 samples were positive for Theileria spp and Theileria annulata with percentage of 88 %. Also DNA sequencing analysis and genetic relationship were conducted by phylogenetic analysis..
This experiment was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of pomegranate seed oil against toxicity- induced by sodium fluoride and in normal rats. Twenty adult female Wistar rats were divided into four equal group and treated daily for 40 days as follows: Group C administered tap water and served as control , group T1 : received sodium fluoride 120ppm in drinking tap water, group T2: received both sodium fluoride 120ppm in drinking water and administered orally pometone (pomegranate seed oil) 30mg/kg B.W. and group T3 : administered pomegranate seed oil as in group T2 orally. Fasting blood samples were collected at 0, 20 and 40 days to estimation of some biochemical parameters and oxidative stress biomarkers . In addition, sections from liver were taken at the end of the experiment for histopathological study. The results revealed that SF (group T1) caused a significant increase in serum aminotransferases (serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) activities, total cholesterol ,total bilirubin and peroxynitrite radical concentrations, while GSH concentration was a significantly decrease. PSO caused an alleviation to the hepatic dysfunction induced by sodium fluoride (group T2) manifested through significant elevation of GSH concentration, in addition, a significant reduction in serum transaminases activity, total cholesterol, peroxynitrite radical and total bilirubin concentrations. In contrast, administration of pomegranate seed oil (group T3) showed no alterations in most of these parameters. Furthermore histopathological examination of liver tissues of group T1 manifested aggregation of mononucleated cells, proliferation of hepatocyte, cytoplasmic fat droplet and granulomatous lesion consists of aggregation of macrophage and lymphocyte. All these alteration in liver histology were modified by treatment of rats with pomegranate seed oil (group T2) and no pathological lesion was reported in group T3. On conclusion, this study documented the beneficial effect of pomegranate seed oil against the deleterious effects of SF on liver functions of adult female rats
This study was aimed to investigate any possible neurotoxic signs and teratogenic anomalies that may result from pre incubation dipping of fertile eggs in Enrofloxacin concentrations as a preventive measurement against omphalitis. E. Coli sensitivity against Enrofloxacin was examined in a dose dependent manner by using 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 µg/ml. Forty two non-infected newly hatched chicks at age of 5-7 days were divided into six groups of seven chicks each, subjected to behavioral tests namely; Open Field Test and Tonic Immobility Test. For Open Field Test results showed that the lowest latency period was recorded significantly in chicks whose eggs dipped in 10µg/ml of Enrofloxacin (6±0.78 sec.) in comparison to control group (32.43±1.52 sec.) while the highest latency period was recorded insignificantly in chicks whose eggs dipped in 2µg/ of Enrofloxacin (29±1.61 sec.). The highest number of lines crossed by both feet was recorded significantly in chicks whose eggs dipped in 10µg/ml of Enrofloxacin (31.43 ±2.7) in comparison to control group (12.43 ±1.02) while the lowest number of lines crossed by both feet was recorded insignificantly in chicks whose eggs dipped in 2µg/ml of Enrofloxacin (14 ±1.87). The highest number of jumps was recorded significantly in chicks whose eggs dipped in 10µg/ml of Enrofloxacin (8.85 ±0.3) in comparison to control group (1.14 ±1.0) while the lowest number of jumps was recorded insignificantly in chicks whose eggs dipped in 2µg/ml of Enrofloxacin (2 ±0.17). The highest number of defecation times was recorded significantly in chicks whose eggs dipped in 10µg/ml of Enrofloxacin (1.6 ±0.23) in comparison to control group (0.86 ±0.26) while the number of defecation times were insignificant in the rest of groups. Both of call and backing times in all groups were insignificant in comparing with control group. Results for Tonic Immobility Test showed that shortest time needed by the chick to upright itself and stand unaided was recorded significantly in chicks whose eggs dipped in 10µg/ml of Enrofloxacin (1 sec. ±0.1) in comparing with control group (2 sec. ±0.11) while the longest time needed by the chick to upright itself and stand unaided was recorded insignificantly in chicks whose eggs dipped in 2µg/ml of Enrofloxacin (1.8 sec. ±0.1). Pre-incubation dipping of fertile eggs in Enrofloxacin concentrations showed insignificant changes in body weight, body length, leg length, wing length and beaker length. We concluded that using low concentrations of of Enrofloxacin and Ciprofloxacin to dip eggs in has resulted in minimized neurotoxic and teratotgenic effects.
One hundred fifty fecal samples of sheep were collected from September, 2017-March, 2018 in Baghdad city areas (Abu-Grab zone, Dora zone, Saydyia zone, Arab jbure zone, Al-Usfia zone, Al-Fudhalia zone and College Veterinary medicine –University of Baghdad). Samples were cultured on MacConkey and Eosine Methylene Blue agar for E.coli isolation, Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate and Salmonella –Shigella agar for S. typhimurium isolation. Results showed high percent (78.57%) of infection in female of E.coli than 68.42% in Salmonella typhimurium. E.coli was recovered with an infection rate 93.33% in Al-Fudhalia area, and S. typhimurium with an infection rate 12.66% in Arab Jbur. Also, the results showed an infection rate of E.coli 78.75% (110/140) and 21.43% (30/140), and S. typhimurium was recovered in 68.42% (13/19) and 31.58% (6/19) in females and males respectively
The study was conducted to investigate the effect of harvesting methods (Scoring and Aspiration) on maturation oocytes, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo development. This study was conducted at the laboratories of Theriogenology Department of Surgery and Obstetrics, College of Veterinary Medicine Basrah University, during the period extended from December 2018 to the end of March 2019. Samples from female and male reproductive system testis (50 Ovaries and 10 testes) were collected from (Al-Basrah abattoir house) after slaughter at fifteen minutes. All samples were transported in sterilize and clean boxes at (37ºC) within 1-2hrs to the center research unit. Oocytes were collected by Scoring and Aspiration methods. Only grad A and B quality oocytes were selected and incubated in an appropriate maturation medium (TCM-199) at 5% CO2, 38.5 °C and 95% humidity for 24-28 hrs. Spermatozoa were obtained by slicing of caudal epididymal of buffalo's bull. Sperms with matured oocytes were incubated in an appropriate maturation medium at 5% CO2, 38.5°C and 95% humidity from 16 -20 hrs. Fertilized ova was re-incubated in fresh media with changes 50% of media every day and examined every 24hrs for (3) days to follow embryonic development .The results showed: high significant (P<0.05) difference in the mean of collected oocytes in Scoring method than Aspiration method. There was high significant (P<0.05) difference in the percentage of grade A collection oocytes in aspiration method than scoring method. On the other hand the percentage of grade B and C oocytes in Scoring method was high significant (P<0.05) difference than Aspiration method. The percentages of Oocytes maturation in aspiration method was high significant (P<0.05) than scoring method, while the rate of oocyte fertilization was non- significant between two methods. Besides, the percentages of embryos development ( 2, 4 and 8) cells in aspiration method was significant than Scoring method..
This study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative role of betaine on hepatic and renal dysfunction caused by acrylamide in female rats. Thirty two (32) adult female rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups (G1, G2, G3 and G4) and were treated for (65) days as following: Group G1 (Control group), G2: rats were intubated 250mg/kg B.W of betaine; animals in group G3 were intubated 1mg/kg B.W of acrylamide, in addition to acrylamide. 250mg/kg B.W of betaine were administered orally to rats in groups G4. Fasting (8-12 hrs.) blood samples were collected by cardio puncture technique at the end of the experiment, serum were collected for measuring the following parameters A: liver enzyme makers; serum activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) B; renal function parameters including: serum creatinine, urea and uric acid concentration. The hepato and renal protective effect of betaine was clarified in groups (G2 and G4) manifested by significant decrease in serum, ALT, AST and ALP activity, as well as significant decrease in serum creatinine, urea and uric acid concentration comparing to acrylamide (G3) treated group. Such functional changes were accompanied with structural (histopathological) alteration in hepatic and renal tissue. In conclusion, the results of the current study documented the negative effect of acrylamide on liver and kidney function and documented hepatorenal protective effect of betaine..
The purpose of this study was to describe of some histological structures and histochemical features of the absorptive cells and goblet cells in intestine of common carp. In this study, Fifteen adult male common carp were catching alive from the AL-Forat river, with age about (7 - 12) months and mean of their weight was (2100 ± 81 g) and mean standard length was (50.4 ± 3.1 cm), immediately after death.Incision was made through the midventral line of the fish just from cranial to the anus to expose the intestine, specimens of intestine were taken and washed with (0.9 %) normal saline solution. Ten samples were obtained from different regions of each portion of the intestine (anterior, middle and posterior), fixed by either 10% neutral buffered formalin or Bouin’s solution approximately 24 hours at room temperature and then treated by routine histological processing. The stains were used, Hematoxylin and Eosin, periodic acid Schiff, Alcian blue pH 2.5, and Combinated Alcian blue PH 2.5 plus periodic acid Schiff. The Mean number, height and width of mucosal folds were measured and counts of goblet cells in the mucosal folds of each portion of the intestine. The results showed that the intestinal epithelium is simple columnar, the enterocytes were tall columnar cells with brush border; goblet cells were ovoid, located between the enterocytes. The folds composed of the entire thickness of the mucosa, mean number, height and width of the mucosal folds were few in posterior portion of intestine compare with that in other portions. The anterior portion of the intestine has largest number of mucosal folds, while has less number of goblet cells compare to middle and posterior portions of the intestine. The epithelial cells stained red-purple by periodic acid Schiff stain with Alcian blue, the goblet cells were take positive reaction with periodic acid Schiff stain, and with Alcian blue plus periodic acid Schiff, while negative with only Alcian blue stain. Glycoprotein staining intensity varied from very weak to moderate, whereby the presence of neutral, acidic and sulphatedglycoconjugates. In conclusion, numbers of goblet cells were observed to be increased towards posterior portion of intestine required as lubricant for fecal expulsion, and reversed relation between number of the folds and goblet cells..
The study aimed to investigate the effect of cryptococcal sonicated antigen and chitosan on the infection with this fungus which isolated from human skin lesions. Isolate of Cryptococcus neoformans was used to prepare the sonicated antigen, also 60 white mice from both sexes, at average age 8-10 weeks were getted and divided randomly into 4 groups equally and treated as following: First group: fifteen mice were immunized with 0.5ml of whole sonicated Ags(Wsc Ag) (protein concentration14mg/ml) subcutaneous two doses, one week interval.Second group: fifteen mice were fed diet supplemented with chitosan 1g/kg diet for 6 weeks.Third group: Mice were immunized as 1st group and at the same time fed diet supplemented with chitosan as 2nd group. Fourth group: Mice, which seted as control positive group.
At day 28-30 post-immunization, delayed hypersensitivity and indirect passive haemagglutination tests were done, then 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups were administrated intraperitoneally with 0.3 ml of fungal suspension containing 1X107 fungal cells, all animals were sacrificed at day 30 post-infection. The results showed that the immunized animals and fed diet containing chitosan had values of delayed hypersensitivity test(1.99±0.02 at 24hours and 2.11±0.03 at 48 hours)and value of antibodies(160±29.6) higher than that of immunized animals only(1.75±0.03 at 24 hours and 1.81±0.03 at 48 hours)and value of antibodies(136±28.2).The immunized animals with whole sonicated cryptococcal antigens (1st group) expressed high values of delayed type hypersensitivity and high levels of Abs titer, as well as the chitosan stimulate the immune system in the second group and the best results of immunization were getted in the third group while all animals of control positive(fourth group) were died at the first week post-infection.
The current study showed that all the non-immunized and infected animals of the fourth group were died during the first 2 weeks post-infection with severe fungal cells isolated from internal organs and severe suppurative inflammatory reaction in the examined organs during early stage of infection with granulomatous lesions appear at day 14 post-infection while no mortality rate was seen in animal fed diet supplement with chitosan with or without immunization(2nd and 3rd groups) moderate fungal isolation and granulomatous lesions were recorded in the examined organs of animals sacrificed at day 30 post-infection while the immunized animals and fed diet containing chitosan showed that there is no fungal isolation and nor fungal cells in the histological sections with few histological degeneration and small granulomatous lesions and sometimes absence of them in the examined organs. It concluded that cryptococcal sonicated antigen and chitosan have important role in protective immunity against C.neoformans infection
Mannheimia haemolytica together with Pasteurella multocida represents as a major bacterial causative agent of cattle, sheep and goats respiratory diseases and its one of the most important causes for economic losses to these animals .Commercially available vaccines were used to prevent infections caused by P. multocida and M. haemolytica. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the cross protection efficacy of two vaccines to protect mice against M.haemolytica, studying humeral immunity, using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Forty five mice were divided into three equal groups, group one and two were inoculated subcutaneously 4μlJOVAPAST® and 1μl of Al-kindy vaccines respectively, while the third group was with 0.5 ml sub cutaneous PBS. LD50for M.haemolytica was estimated as 2× 106 cfu ml and challenge test was conducted by dropping 0.05 ml 2× 106 cfu ml intranasally after three weeks of immunization for the three groups. The results of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, showed significant increase of antibody titters at (P<0.01) in (group 1 and 2) after first and second weeks post immunization, in comparison with control group. Also, the re-isolation of M.haemolytica from lungs tissue of all groups after challenged were positive with significant difference between control and immunized group, control group was 4× 108 cfu ∕ml which was higher than immunized group one and group two,which were 2.5×104 cfu∕ml and 3,5×105 cfu∕ml respectively after 24 hour of vaccine. In conclusion, the two commercial vaccines showed good cross protection efficacy against M. haemolytica, but JOVAPAST® vaccine showed higher efficacy than Alkindy vaccine, as that it contain two heterologous killed strains and providing the basis for production a vaccine from the two pathogen of local strains. .
Sperm capacitation refers to the physiological changes in which spermatozoa must undergo in order to have its ability to penetrate and fertilize a mature oocyte. Recognition of the phenomenon was quite important to early in vitro fertilization (IVF) experiments as well as to the fields of embryology and reproductive biology. This initial study is designed to study the process of capacitation of ram sperm with three heparin levels (50,100,150 IU). 140 pairs of abattoir testicular samples (70 pairs each season), with 70 ewe genitalia specimens (35 each season). Spermatozoa sample were capacitated with heparin in CO2 incubator for 45 minutes, and evaluated by its total motility and its ability to penetrate oocytes zona pellucida for fertilization. Different heparin level for spermatozoa capacitation in relation to seasonal influences revealed that; in regarding to capacitation index there was an increased spermatozoa activity and motility significantly for the three levels within season, but capacitation index showed significant variations between the three heparin levels out of breeding season in which the highest heparin level gave the best capacitation index than the other two. Results of oocytes collection in relation to seasonal influences revealed to; total oocytes number was 2035 oocytes on both season in which 1039 oocytes were obtained within season while a number of 1006 oocytes was collected out of season. Oocytes maturity index within season time is about 40% for the oocytes grade V.good and good grade, fair and poor grade is 25%.Oocytes collected out of breeding time showed range between 25% for the v. good and good grade to 10% for the other. Fertilizable index for embryos development after capacitated spermatozoa adding to the medium containing matured oocytes is range from 35% for the v. good and good graded oocytes within a season to 10% out of season. In conclusion; heparin can induced spermatozoa capacitation in any levels through the breeding season while the high level of heparin gave better results, fertilizable index and embryo production are both gave best result via breeding season. .
The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify of the pathogenic fungi of canine dermatophytosis in Baghdad governorate Iraq, also study the epidemiology and describe the clinical signs of dermatophytosis, from January 2018 till December 2018. Out of 653 dogs 165 (25.3%) were with dermatomycoses and 103 (62.42%) dogs with dermatophytosis. The mycological diagnosis were conducted by direct microscopy and by culture the specimens on each sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with chloramphenicol and cyclohxemide and dermatophytes test media. The identified dermatophytes were represented Microsporum sp.(80.6%) appeared Microsporum canis (87.9%); M. audounii (8.4% );M. gypseum (3. 6 %) and Trichophyton spp (19.4%) in which divided between Trichophyton ruburum (60.0 %) and T. terrestre (40.0%). Microsporum canis and Trichophyton ruburum were the most common species isolated (87.9%),(60.0 %) respectively. The overall prevalence of dermatomycosis and dermatophytosis from various parts region of Baghdad city were Al Karkh district (32.0%), (64.6%) and Al Rusafa district (22.4%), (60.4%) respectively. Moreover, a higher percentage of infection in young age 55 of 84 (65.47%) and lower infection in old age 8 of 18 (44.44%) with significant difference at P< 0.05. The effect of breeds on the prevalence of canine mycosis show high percentage of infection in German shepherd dog (47.96%) and lower infection in Bulldog breed (10.63%) as well as, high prevalence of dermatophytosis recorded in Rottweiler (100%), Pomeranian (83.3%) and lower prevalence (40.0 %) in each of Boxer and local dog breed. The relation of hair coat showed significantly high percentage of infection in long hair dogs (69.0%) than short hair coat (48.0%). There were no significant difference between the sex and habitat but, recorded a high (%) in shelters habitat (67.19%) and low (%) in plantation habitat (56.25%). The prevalence of infection was showed no signficantly high percentage of infection in cold climate winter (67.74%) in which low temperature and high humidity while low percentage of infection in dry climate autumn (44.4%). In addition the effect of season on the prevalence of dermatophytosis recognized by a higher (%) of infection in cold weather, winter (67.74%) and lower infection in dry weather, autumn (50.0%). Other dermatomycosis isolated were Chrysosporium Nannizziopsis dermatitidis (9.1%); Malassezia pacydermatis (7.9 %) and saprobe fungi from domestic dogs represented by Alternaria alternate (21.4%); Aspergillus spp (60.7%); Aspergillus flavus (25.9%); Aspergillus fumigatus (28.2%); Aspergillus niger (23.5 %); Aspergillus nidulans (22.4 %); Penicillium sp. (4.3%); Curvularia sp (3.6%) and Rhizopus sp (2.1%). Rhizopus3 (2.1%..
Biosynthesis of selenium nanoparticles is safe, inexpensive, eco-friendly, non-toxic materials, furthermore, is more stable due to natural coating of the organic molecules and do not aggregate with time, here by the present study designed to investigate the bioactivity and safety of a new biogenic Selenium- nanoparticles using synthesized by propolis. To evaluate biogenic Selenium-nanoparticles, 27 adult rats were divided in to 3 groups: first group consider as control(C), seconed group (T1) received inorganic selenium by orally administration in a dosage of 100μg /kg BW third group (T2) received Selenium nanoparticles orally in a dosage 100μg /kg BW for 4 weeks. Body weight, food intake, blood Selenium binding protein, Catalase, and liver enzymes Aspartate Amino Transferase and Alanin Amino transferase were evaluated two weeks interval. Results showed that body weight and food intake were elevated significantly during the experiment periods. Rats had selenium nanoparticles showed significant increase in Selenium binding protein and Catalase correlated with normal values of liver enzymes. It can be concluded that the new propolis mediated Selenium- nanoparticles improve the availability of the Selenium to its binding proteins that limit its toxicity when compare with inorganic selenite. .
The aim of our study is to detect the incidence of Brucella infection in rams in Sulaimani region by using Rose Bengal, 2 Mercaptoethanol and indirect ELISA tests. The following research was conducted on 253 rams in different fields of sheep they were distributed in eight districts, represented by Pebaz (12 ram), Chamchmal (53 ram), Barika (32 ram), Damrkan (27 ram), Qalghanlw (41 ram), Darbasara (26 ram) , Dawye (38 ram) and Bazian (24 ram). Blood samples were collected from jugular vein. All blood samples were proceeds for sera preparation in veterinary teaching hospital / college of veterinary medicine / university of Sulaimani. Out of 253 rams 61 (24.11%) and 192(75.89%) were positive and negative for brucellosis respectively during Rose Bengal test. All rams showed the infection by brucellosis throughout the titer of antibodies. The serological test by 2 mercaptoethanol used for distinguishes the acute and chronic infection by assessment the titer of IgG and IgM antibodies. A percentage of 51(83.61%) and 10(16.39) for acute and chronic infection of brucella respectively were recorded. The results by iELISA manifested rams in all field 42(68.8%) were positive while 19(13.15%) were negative. The research showed 18(29.50%) of rams were manifestation the clinical signs represented by epididymitis, hyperthermia and orchitis. Static analysis revealed there is no significant (P-value<0.05) differences between iELISA and 2ME test. Our conclusion from this study confirmed that this disease of brucella is endemic in province of Sulaimani; in addition the disease is spread in the flock of sheep via sexual contact during mating. Control of the diseases must be implement a global program represented by vaccination as well as transfer of animals and eliminate the infected ram from the herds. .
Buxtonella sulcata multiplication in lumen of the intestinal tract lead to Diarrhea. A total of 120 sheep faecal samples were collected (23 males and 97 females) with ages ranged from less than 1 year to 3 years. Also, 11 sheep drinking (river) water from Al-Suwaira city, Wasit governorate, for the period extended from September 2015 to the end February 2016. Laboratory methods used were direct wet film and iodine and Giemsa staining to detect the cysts and trophozoite of the parasite . Results recorded (30.83%) infection rate of Buxtonella sulcate in sheep, while the contamination rate of water (45.45%). Females are infected more than males which reach (35.13%) (13.04%) respectively. The highest infection rate (44.00%) showed in age group 2-3 years, while, the lowest (21.42%) found in age group (˃ 2). %), with significant difference (p<0.05) between ages and genus. Our conclusion is contamination of water acts as a good sourse for the spread of infection with Buxtonella sulcate . Buxtonella sulcate.