Print ISSN: 1609-5693

Online ISSN: 2410-7409

Volume 29, Issue 1

Volume 29, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2005, Page 1-201


Bacterial causes of upper & lower respiratory tract infection in Sheep

Hayder Badri Abboud; Jamal Salman Ali

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 1-10

This study was designed to investigate the bacterial species that induce upper and lower respiratory tract infection in sheep, and to find out any relationship which may exist between them.
Therefore two groups of sheep were employed. The first group was suffering from certain respiratory signs. While the second group was apparently healthy. Each group included 50 sheep. Research samples were collected for a period of six months from AL-Shulla Abattoir.
Microbiological investigation indicated the isolation of certain microorganisms from all animals in both groups from nasal cavity, and from 34 lungs of the first group and 16 lungs of the second group. The number of isolates from the nasal cavity, were 200 from different species ,43 isolates from the bronchioles and 70 from the lungs tissue. On the other hand the number of bacterial isolates from the nasal cavity, bronchioles and the lung tissue of the first group were 113, 29 and 55 respectively.
The study revealed the isolation of potentially pathogenic bacteria from the lower respiratory system of both groups, these bacteria were namely Pasteurella haemolytica of serotype (A2), Niesseria spp. and Corynebacterium pyogenes, the number of isolates were 6 for each, and 8 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. These bacteria were also isolated from the nasal cavity. The isolation of these bacteria from the nasal strongly suggested their presence in the lungs and the probable role in lesion formation.
Animal inoculation were performed to study the virulence of P. haemolytica which caused certain hemorrhagic lesion in the lung , liver and kidney, with areas of necrosis in the lungs of the experimentally inoculated rabbit, and caused death in mice. While the inoculation of C. ovis caused the death of rabbits within 72 hours, together with the presence of multiple abscessation on the internal organs and abdomenal wall.
Sensitivity tests indicated a high sensitivity of most isolates to Gentamicin, Erythromycin and Kanamycin.

Isolation and identification of the causative agent of fowl cholera in Iraq and preparation of vaccines against the disease 1- Isolation of the causative agent of fowl cholera and study of it’s properties.

Hatem M .Mhanam; Ather K. Kassab; Esmail K. Shubber

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 11-21

It was possible to obtain 17 isolates of Pasteurella multocida from
infected laying chickens with fowl cholera. Three isolates were from the chronic
phases of the naturally infected chickens and other fourteen were from the acute
phases. The identification of these isolates was considered. Fifteen isolates
belong to the sub species multocida and two isolates to gallicida, ten isolates
belong to the SE-190 isolate and one to SE-077, while six isolates were not
identified. Twelve of the isolates have a capsule. The LD50s of these isolates
were varied. The results of sensitivity to antibacterial drugs revieled that all
isolates were sensitive to Penicillin and resistance to Lincomycin with various
degrees of sensitivity to other antibacterial drugs.

Isolation and identification of the causative agent of fowl cholera in Iraq and preparation of vaccines against the disease 2- Preparation of different vaccines against fowl cholera disease

Hatem M .Mhanam; Atheer K. Kassab; Esmail K. Shubber

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 22-32

Three types of locally isolated Pasteurella multocida antigenes namely the whole sonicated bacteria (WSB) the bacterial cell wall (BCW) and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of bacteria were prepared as a vaccine . Each type of antigenes was used in 3 concentrations that are 107, 109 and 1011 Colony Forming Units / bird for WSB and 250,500 and 750 g/bird for BCW and LPS. Each of the prepared concentrations was injected subcutaneously into a group of broiler breeder chickens and one group was left as a control . The groups were vaccinated 2 times at 10 and 18 weeks. The progress of immune response was monitered throughout a passive haemagglutination, an agar gel immunodiffusion, delayed type hypersensitivity and challenge tests. The results demonstrated that the WSB antigens provided better protection and the concentration of 109 was the superior of all. The BCW antigen was next and the concentration of 500 g/bird was the best among these antigenes, followed by LPS antigen and the best concentration among them was the 750 g/bird.

Isolation of four types of bacteria that cause kidney damage in broiler chickens.

Harith M. AL-Hyali; Haidar T. Al-Kabbi; Suad Abdulkarim

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 33-42

This study was conducted on 80 cases of damaged kidneys received by poultry disease diagnostic centers in Baghdad. Four microorganisms were isolated E.coli , Proteus milabilis , Pseudomonas aregenosa and Klebsiella pneumonia and formed 55, 22.5 , 17.5 ,and 5% of the infection respectively . While no any kind of bacteria were isolated from kidneys of healthy chicks. To be sure the E. coli could be a cause of kidney damage. An experimental infection with E.coli was carried out on 40 chicks, three weeks old, and randomly divided into two groups. Chicks of the first group was inoculated intravenously with 0.5 ml of field isolated E. coli suspension containing 2x107 colony forming unit (CFU), while the second group was inoculated with 0.5 ml distilled water and considered as control group. The results revealed that chicks inoculated with E.coli showed 70% mortality rate with severely congested swollen kidneys with acute interstitial nephritis. However, this study gave information on kidney damage widely spread at this time; therefore, it could be recommended for other studies to be hold in the future on the other causative agents of each case.

The effect of candida albicans on some blood and biochemical parameters in laboratory mice .

Hnan A. muhammed; Ekbal A. Hazam; muhammed hasan khuder

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 43-50

In the present study , 32 white mice Balb /C (two months age ) were used ,there were divided into four equal groups . Three groups were injected with fungal suspention of candida albicans in doses of 1x106 ,1x108 and 3x108 cell/ml ,whereas the fourth group was regarded as control and injected with 0.5 ml normal saline solution . All were dissected after 6 days of injection to study the physiological effect of the yeast on blood , which include RBCand WBC count , Hb concentration and PCV ratio . And on biochemical content which include the determination of protein , glycogen and cholestrol in liver ,kidney and muscles .
The results showed that the number of RBC were decreased ,while WBC were increased in the injected mice ,but there were no signifficant effect on PCV and Hb . On the other hand ,cholestrol values were decreased significantly in the injected mice in comparison with control,but this decrease was varied in different tissues (P>0.01).The value was lower in liver ,whereas no signifficant difference was found between Kidney and muscles . Protein values were not signifficantly different in comparison with control , but it was different among tissue studied .muscles was the highest value and the liver was lowest . Glycogen decreased signifficantly in comparison with control ,but not among tissues.

The use of vitamin "C" as antioxidant to decrease lesions of atherosclerosis that induced experimentally by hydrogen peroxide in rabbits.

D.S.Diab; B.S.Toma; K.K.Khudiar

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 51-63

This study was designed to investigate the effect of vitamin C in
alleviating the changes in lipid profile and the atherosclerotic lesions induced
experimentally by (0.5%) H2O2 in drinking water. Twenty four adult males
rabbits were divided randomly into four equal (a control and 3 treated "T")
groups for 19 weeks: 1- The Control group: Which was given normal drinking
water. 2- Group (T1): was given 0.5% H 2O2 in drinking water. 3- Group
(T2): which was handled as T1, in addition to vitamin C (100 mg /kg/day) along
the experiment. 4- Group (T3): was treated as T1 till the atherosclerotic lesions
were established at the week 13, then the animals received 100 mg/kg of vitamin
C daily for 6 weeks. Blood samples were taken at the weeks 5, 13, 16 and 19 of
the experimental period to measure the levels of total cholesterol (TC),
triglycerid (TG), HDL-C, LDL-C and VLDL-C in plasma. Samples of aortic
tissue were taken to study the histopatholpgical changes. The results showed that
H2O2 caused an increase in TC, TG, LDL, VLDL-C and a decrease in HDL-C
concentration in plasma. The histopathological sections showed lesions of
atherosclerosis in the aorta as fatty streaks and foam cells. Moreover, results
showed that treatment with vitamin C caused a dereased in the VLDL-C, LDLC,
TG and TC levels and an increase in the HDL-C concentration in plasma. and
regression of atherosclerotic lesions. Results of the present study suggest that the
oxidative stress (produced by 0.5% H2O2) has an important role in pathogenesis
of atherosclerosis in the rabbits and vitamin C has an important effect in
reducing and preventing some of the oxidative stress changes in lipid profile and
atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta. It is worthed to report that this is the first
study undertaken in using vitamin C as an antioxidant to minimize the oxidative
stress effects of H2O2 in rabbits as a model for atherosclerosis in mammals.

e Effect Of Environmental Temperature In The Growth And Development Of Echinococcus granulosus (Batsch1786)

Usama Ali Mardan Al-Naimi; R H Rahif

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 64-75

The study highligthened on the effect of the field enviromental & controlled
tempratures in the experimental infection with Echinococcus granulosus in
dogs, n = 6 local dogs, at the age of 1.5-3 months, were used . Each dog was
dosed with 8658 protoscoleces with 92.78% viability for 28 and 33 days post
infection (PI). Animals were subdivided into 2groups. Results denoted that the
low enviromental temperatures retarded the growth and development of E.
granulosus.All tapeworms, isolated from the small intestine of dogs housed
under controlled temperatures, with the average of 21.85ºc(group1),had 3
proglottids,whereas those isolated from dogs housed under field temperatures,
with the average of 11.12ºc (group2) ,had only 2 proglottids.The average total
length of E. granulosus ,at the age of 28 days, isolated from
group1,was1.70±0.24mm,longer than those that isolated from group2,with the
average length of 1.13±0.06mm.The average total length of E.granulosus ,at the
age of 33 days , isolated from group 1 and 2 ,was 2.68±0.35 mm and 1.67±0.21,
respectively . Significant statistical differences (p<0.05) were found in the
average total length of E.granulosus isolated from both groups at different ages.
Echinococcus granulosus isolated from group1 were found mature more than
those isolated from group2,and the number of rostellar hooks of the former were
also more than those of the 2nd group, the number of rostellar hooks were, at the
age of 33 days,were34.53±2.19 and29.47±0.62 for the 1st and 2nd groups.

Effect of Vitamin E on some blood and biochemical parameters in ewes

A.M.H Al-Judi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 76-81

The effect of vit.E in feed blocks to ewes were studied in ewes on the
following parameters; Hemoglobin concentration, Packed Cell Volume,
differential leukocytic count, total protein, albumin, and globulin ratios. There
were a significant decrease in Hb concentration & PCV after two,& four weeks,
there were no significant differences in the percentage of lymphocytes,
neutrophils,& eiosinophils, & with a significant increase in monocyte
percentage.
There was no significant different in total protein ratio, while the ratio of
albumin decreased significantly after 2 & 4 weeks, with a significant increase in
the globulin ratio at the same period.

Metabolie profile test of dairy cattle in Al-Ishaqi plan

A.M.H Al-Judi; H.K. Abood; M.N. Al; Siagh

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 82-91

Metabolic profile test was done on Friesian cows of Al-Ishaqi plan. Blood samples were collected from 21 cows in the second lactation stage, 7cows with high Milk yield, 7cows with moderate milk yield& 7cows with low milk yield. Estimation of the following were done; hemoglobin, packed cell volume blood urea nitrogen glucose total protein albumin& globulin, in three periods (1month after calving, 4month after calving, 7month after calving). The results revealed that Hb, total protein& globulin ratios were increased, while the albumin ratio was decreased in the first period, PCV increased in the third period, albumin ratios showed higher levels in high milk yield cows, BUN show higher levels in the first period, increased levels of BUN in high milk yield cows, low levels of blood glucose in the second period.Signification correlation coefficient between total protein ratios& Hb, globulin ratios& BUN were obtained, while significant negative correlation between total protein& albumin was existed. Regression equations between total protein ratios& all blood traits were calculated.

Isolation & Identification of Salmonella spp. which contaminated Poultry slaughter houses.

Ghazi Mousa Al-Khatib; Sahar Hassan Al-Qutbey; Maysoon Sabah Al-Mashhadany; Basem Muhammed Al-Adad

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 92-97

This study was aimed to investigate the extent of pollution in Poultry slaughter
house with Salmonella spp and their effect on public health .(142) samples
collected from (8) poultry slaughter houses in Baghdad were examined . these
samples included( live chicken cages ,live chicken transporting cars
,slaughtering knives ,workers hands, transport belt , chiller , chick before
packaging stage) .All samples were cultured on special media until the growth
appeared then Biochemical tests were done for diagnosis of Salmonella spp.
The results of this study shown the diagnosis of (14) isolates of Salmonella spp,
all of them were motile except (3) isolates, These isolates were recovered from
the following sites:
1. (2) isolates from live chicken transporting cars.
2. (1) isolate from live chicken cages.
3. (3) isolates from workers hands.
4. (1) isolate from transport belt.
5. (1) isolate from slaughtering knives.
6. (3) isolates from chiller.
7. (2) isolates from stunning.
8. (2) isolates from chickens before
packaging.

Histological study of the quail spleen (Coturnix coturnix coturnix )

Luay O.Hamza; Khawla J.Balash

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 98-110

The present study revealed that the spleen of the quail is coated by
afibrous capsule have two distinct layers , an outer and inner , the capsule being
covered by athin layer of peritoneal membrane . The spleen comprises two
distinct regions , the white pulp and red pulp in addition spares or trabecule .
The white pulp represernt the major part of the organ , it is alymphatic tissue
that could be differentiate into two forms : diffuse and nodular lymphatic tissue
with medium and small size arteries represent the branches extend from the
large trabecular arteries . Then these arteries branch into arterioles surrounded
by sheath of reticular and lymphatic cells called Schweigger Sediel sheath .
The red pulp has randomly distributed between the white pulp regions , it
consist of cellular cord that surround the venous sinuses which had irregular
shape lined endothelial cells separated by small gaps freely .
The capsule consist of two layer , an outer layer that represent large
collagen fiber while the inner layer represent large muscular fiber , thus the
marginal zone between the white and red pulp is absent . the ellipsoid body was
present in the white pulp more than the red pulp . In this study there are two type
of nodules , type T nodule and type B were present . The percentage of the first
nodular type is more than the second , which is the important character of the
spleen of quail differ from other fowl .

Study the pathological changes and the bacterial and parasitic agents present in some internal organs of wild rats.

Mohammed J. Alwan; Haider M. Ali; Sanaria F. Al- Hissen

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 111-118

In order to study the pathological lesion in some internal organs of wild
rats as well as bacteriological and parasitic isolation. Post-mortom examination
of 45 wild rats collected from different parts of baghdad city was done. The rsult
showed that 29 rats from 45 were infected with Cryptosporidia spp , and
Hymenolips spp . Bacteriological and pathological examination revealed the
following bacterial Isolate and pathological changes :
1. Sub acute suppurative hepatitis , Klebisella spp, Salmonella typhimurium
were isolated from this lesion .
2. Granulomatus hepatitis with isolates of Ps.aeroginosa , E. coli and Kl.spp.
3. Acute Fibrinous pericarditis with isolates of Ps. Aeruginosa, Strep.
Pyogens.
4. Nephrosis .
5. Subacute suppurative entritis , with S. typhimurium and Cryptospordia spp .
isolates.
6. Parasitic entritis .Cryptosporidia spp. and Hymenolips spp were isolated from
infected tract .
7. Acute Hepatocellular degenration with bacterial isolates included Staph.
aureus and proteus spp.

Determnation of general condition and nutritive value of The fishes Liza abu in Dijila river

Nuhad Abud AL-mahdi; Layla.M.Z.AL-kinani

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 119-126

From dijila river ,weakly five fishes liza abu were caught for aperiod of six month. For (120) liza abu afull sensitive investigations were carried out (general conditions , PH , nutritive value). Investigation results indicated that ;The general condition averagad 0.96 and the calorific value averaged (167.45 kcal/100g ). The main length & wight were (21.79)cm and 100.32gm respectively . The main value of moisture , protein , fat , ash ,dry matter ,organic matter , nitrogen free extract and crude fiber were 72.5% , 16.48% ,7.2% ,1.3% ,27.5% ,26.2% ,2.5% respectively
Conclusion
There were no significant differences in the result of the investigation carried during experimantel period.

Effect of time of using feed blocks as supplementary feed on the weightchanges and reproductive performance of Awassi yearling ewes depend on crop residues as basal diet

Hadeel K. Ibrahim

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 127-136

This study was conducted to evaluate the Effect of time of using feed blocks (FB) as supplementary feed on the weight changes and reproductive performance of Awassi yearling ewes depend on crop residues as basal diet. . Sixty Awassi yearling ewes (mean live weight 45.93 kg) aged 12-13 months were allocated into four groups according to their live weight. First group (T1) fed conventional diet (barley grains + straw). The second group (T2) fed conventional diet plus FB during pre and post mating. The third group (T3) fed conventional diet plus FB during pre and mating. The fourth group (T4) fed conventional diet plus FB during post mating. The results of this experiment showed that using FB as supplementary feed reduced the weight losses of Awassi yearling ewes. FB supplementation improved conception rate of Awassi yearling ewes as compared with control group (T1). The T2 group had the highest conception rate (86.66%) followed by T3 and T4 (73.33%) and the lowest group T1 (66.66%). Using FB during pre mating (T2, T3) reduced mating season of Awassi yearling ewes were 70-82% of these lambed from 1st cycle. Lambing percentage increased considerably due to FB supplementation. The lambing percentages were 100, 87, 80 and 73% for groups T2, T3, T4 and T1 respectively.

Effect Of Garlic (Allium Sativum) And Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum Graecum) Extracts On Aspergillus Fumigatus

Ali A. S. AI Mayah

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 137-142

The effect of garlic (Allium Sativum) & fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) aqueous extracts (GE & FE) were studied with respect to their antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus. Garlic extract (GE) at 5% was completely inhibit the growth of the test fungus in the agar plate method whether the extract mixed with or spreaded on the surface of the medium. Fenugreek extract (FE) at 10% did not exhibit any effect against this fungus in the sane method. Garlic extract (GE) & garlic chips (GC) inhibited the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus inoculated in poultry feed samples. The viable spore count per gram of feed treated with garlic was less than control feed samples. Garlic extract (GE) was more effective than garlic chips (GC). Fenugreek extract (FE) at 10% (did not inhibit the growth of the same fungus and the viable spore count was the same as the control.

Influence of feeding different types feed blocks as supplementary feed on the reproductive performance of Awassi ewes grazing cereal stubble

R. A. Ibrahim; D. A. Ali; Hadeel K. Ibrahim; A. D. Salman

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 143-151

This study was conducted to investigate the Influence of feeding different types feed blocks as supplementary feed on the reproductive performance of Awassi ewes grazing cereal stubble. These types were feed blocks enriched with cottonseed meal (CSM) or Brewers’ grain (BG) as sources undegradable protein (UDP). Ninety-six Awassi ewes (mean live weight 42.2 Kg), aged 3-4 years were allocated into three groups according to ewes live weight and body condition score.

Group (C): Control (No Supplement) stubble grazing only.
Group (FBC): FB enriched with CSM supplement plus stubble grazing.
Group (FBB): FB enriched with BG supplement plus stubble grazing.

All ewes were run as one flock during cereal stubble grazing. The feed blocks were fed to animals (supplementary groups) after their return from grazing wheat and barley stubble (28 days prior to mating and 54 days after introduction of rams). Rams run with the flock during the mating period. The results showed that feeding feed blocks enriched with CSM and BG as supplementary feed resulted considerable improvement in weight gain (P<0.05), body condition score (P<0.05), conception rate (13-16), lambing percentage (25-33%), twinning percentage (13-18%) and decreased the proportion of barren ewes (19 vs. 6 and 3%). Inclusion of small amount of high moisture brewers grain by-product (9%) as sources of undegradable protein in the feed blocks formula as replacement for costly cottonseed meal resulted a dramatic effects on the reproductive performance of Awassi ewes especially twinning rates and lambing rate.

Post Partum Pyometra In Iraqi Buffaloes : Clinical and Therapeutical Study

A.Sh.Sultan; T.M; AL-hamedawi; S.O. Hussain

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 152-158

The study was conducted on 118 buffaloes suffering from opened pyometra 20-30 days post partum in AL-thahab AL-abiadh village west of Baghdad Province, their ages ranged from 3-6 years.
They were divided randomly in to 4 groups . Group one included (27 buffalo) treated with 15 mg of PGF2α ( Prosolven )R IM, The 2nd group (32 buffalo) treated with 15 mg of PGF2α and 15 mg estradiol benzoate IM . The 3rd group (29 buffalo) treated with 15 mg of PGF2α and 50 . 100 ml of lugol’s iodine 0.5 % intra-uterine.
The 4th group (30 buffalo) treated with 15 mg of PGF2α and 4 gm of Oxyteracycline 20% (20 ml of Oxy. plus 50-100 ml disilled water) intra-uterine.
Results showed that the 1st and 2nd response in 4 treated groups were 66.2%, 84.3%, 79.3% and 86.6% respectively .The response was high in the 2nd and 4th group (P < 0.01). These responses represent also the conception rate for these 4 treated groups. The means ± SE of days open for above groups were 98.4± 6.4 ,84.2 ± 4.4 ,97.3 ± 3.8 and 82.7 ± 4.6 respectively ,the second and fourth group were significant (P < 0.01).
The number of newly born calves was 94 calves (46 male,48 female) The alive were 87(92.6%) and dead 7 (7.4%), so we conclude that the PGF2α has an effective role in the treatment of pyometra in buffalo and it’s effect increasing when it combined with oxytetracycline 20% and estradiol benzoate together .

Toxic changes in some organs of rats exposed to hypervitaminosis A during different gestation period

F. M. K. AL-Rekabi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 159-164

Forty females albino rats divided into four groups, three of them (T1, T2, T3) dosed orally with 10000 IU Vitamin A according to different gestation periods while the fourth group dosed with distilled water and considered as control (C). Statistical changes in the weight of different treated groups organs were observed specially in the T3 group that represent period of major organo- functional development and minor organogensis. Also the histopathological study revealed sever liver necrosis and sever pulmonary hyperplasia in T1 group. Also there was subcutaneous abdominal tumor (fibroma) noticed in one female of T2 group. We concluded from our results that high dose of vitamin A may cause cellular, histological and functional defects with possible cryogenic effect in some internal organs and tissue.

Investigation Into Prevalece Of Escherichia coli Infection And Some Other Diseases In Broiler Farms In Sulaimani District

Jalal M. Shareef; Nahla M. Saeed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 165-178

In regard to broiler diseases in Sulaimani district, different factors like environmental temperature, humidity, wind velocity, the source of hatchery eggs and day-old chicks were studied. The study involved the history, some concurrent diseases, methods of protection against viral diseases, clinical signs, post mortem lesions, isolation and identification methods (cultural and biochemical) and sensitivity test. The 4th and 5th weeks ages were the exposed ages for respiratory diseases, precisely Escherichia coli infection. The temperature factor (high and low) was among the most prominent predisposing factors, since 39% and 30% of E.coli isolates obtained through winter and summer seasons successively. The low environmental temperature (5.2˚C) accompanied by high humidity rate (72.3 %), caused high number of infections. The high temperature (32.6 ˚C), with lower rate of humidity (26.2%); has also increased the number of infections. Field investigation including 12 months survey was conducted in the present work. The survey involved 1256 batches from broiler farms, which involved (11,564,385) chicks. A total of 946 (75%) batches showed respiratory signs, including 709 E.coli infected batches. Other infections by Salmonella and Proteus were also discovered. The sensitivity test of 200 E.coli isolates revealed that 165, 156 and 118 isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacine, gentamycin and chloromphenecol respectively. While 182, 181, and 175 isolates were resistant to flumequine, ampcillin and lincomycin consecutively.

Quantitation of Leydig Cell in Testicular Biopsies of Gossypol Treated rats

Dr. Muhannad A. A. Al Bayaty

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 179-189

Leydig cell density was evaluated quantitatively in bilateral testicular biopsies from twenty male rats of two equal groups Gossypol treated and control. The method utilized for this quantitation is based on the determination of total number of Leydig cells, Leydig cell clusters and seminiferous tubules in the entire histological section of each biopsy and the calculation of the following indices: mean Leydig cells per seminiferous tubule, mean Leydig cell clusters per seminiferous tubule and mean Leydig cells per cluster. A significant positive correlation between Leydig cells per tubule and Leydig cell clusters per tubule was demonstrated. The results of indices curve showed shifted all the curves to the right in Gossypol treated group, a significant reduction in plasma testosterone levels of Gossypol treatment group as compared to control group which is due to decrease in Leydig cells number, suggesting that determination of Leydig cell clusters per seminiferous tubule in testicular biopsies is an objective and clinically applicable method for quantitative evaluation of Leydig cell density and indirectly evaluated the secretary activity of the testicular Leydig cells. The results are attributed to the direct effect of Gossypol on secretary site of testosterone in Leydig cells or presumably indirect disturbance of hypothalamic – pituitary gland – Leydig cells axis. An Association of Gossypol treatment with Leydig cell hypo-function and decrease number of cells was noticed for the male rat testosterone level. To our knowledge this is the first report of quantitative analysis of Leydig cell density in rat with Gossypol treatment and it is suitable for clinical evaluation of testicular dysfunction.

Isolation of Tetrahymena pyriformis From Several Infected Pet Fish Species And a Regime For Its Treatment.

Omar Bassim Ahmed Al- Tayyar

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 190-195

Tetrahymena pyriformis has been firstly isolated from brood Goldfish (Carassius auratus) Common, Fantail, Ryukin, Veiltail and Moor, Black molly (Poecilia sphenops), Gourami (Trichogaster trichopterus), red Swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri), Guppy (Poecilia reticulata), deep Angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) and brood Algae eater (Hypostomus plecostomus) in Iraq. The infected fish suffered from mucus hypersecretion large hyperemic areas on the skin, and slight shedding of the scales. The incidence percentage of infection was 100 %. Rising water temperature was up to 29 – 30cْ for one time and methylene blue was at a concentration of 5 ppm for 24 hours. Sodium chloride at a concentration of 2 % for one minute and two minutes has no obvious effect on Tetrahymena pyriformis. Treatment with NaCl at the concentration of 1% for 20 minutes for three consecutive days achieved the best results.

The Effect of Baytril against Salmonella london Infection in Chickens

Z. A. Al-Chalabi; A. Abdul-Aziz; N. R. Mahdi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 196-201

The purpose of this study was to obtain additional information regarding the effectiveness of Enrofloxacin (Baytril®) against artificially induced infection of S. london in chickens.
One hundred and sixty one day old chicks of mixed sex were divided equally into two groups A (treated group) and B (control, infected non-treated group). Chicks were reared on separated rooms on wood shavings litter, and given water and irradiated feed continuously for 55 days. All chickens were infected at 3 days with 4×105 S. london/ml in drinking water. The administration of salmonella was followed by intestinal colonization, detected by isolation of salmonella from cloacal swabs, caecal contents and quantitative numeration per grams of caecal contents, weekly for 8 weeks.
Group A was treated with Enrofloxacin (Baytril®) 0.5 ml/L drinking water on day 45 for 5 days. Twelve days after the end of the therapy the presence of salmonella could not be detected by cloacal swabs and in caecal contents.
This suggests that Baytril seems to have a good efficiency in total elimination of salmonella from the intestine of infected chickens.