Print ISSN: 1609-5693

Online ISSN: 2410-7409

Volume 29, Issue 2

Volume 29, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2005, Page 1-121


Effect of Supplimenting Black Seeds (Nigella Sativa Linn) in the Ration on the Immune Response of Newcastle Disease and Some Physiological Aspects of Broiler Chicken

Aamer Rassam; Atheer Kassab

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 1-11

The study was conducted to investigate the role of supplementing the diet of broiler chicken with Black seed (Nigella sativa Linn) broiler chicken in the immune response of the bird .The study has also investigated the level of some serum proteins and the activity of amino group transmitting enzymes. The Black seeds have been ground and supplemented in the diet of the chickens at 2% inclusion rate .A total of 80 Faobro broiler chicks were divided equally into 4 groups.
Group 1: given Black seed supplemented diet and vaccinated at 8 ,16 and 26 days of age with one dose of live Newcastle (ND) vaccine in the crop and injected 0.2 ml oil adjuvant ND vaccine subcutaneously.
Group 2: given Black seed supplemented diet and vaccinated at 8 ,16 and 26 days of age with one dose of live Newcastle (ND) vaccine in the crop but did not injected with oil adjuvant ND vaccine.
Group 3: A control to group 1, but not supplemented with Black seed in the diet.
Group 4: A control to group 2, but not supplemented with Black seed in the diet.
Results showed that the supplementation of Black seed with the diet caused significant increase in the total serum protein, the serum globuline, the ND antibody examined by Haemagglutination test and the body weight. The differences were more obvious when the birds were vaccinated with oil adjuvant vaccine .The enzyme Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine aminotransferase(ALT) have not been affected by the inclusion of 2% Black seed in the diet. It was concluded that the inclusion of 2% Black seed in the diet has led to a better immune response and health conditions shown by the birds.

Cytopathogenicity studied of fowl pox virus by using indirect immunoperoxidase and acridine orange tests

Suad Abdulkarim; Aied B. AL-Zughaibi; Harith M. AL-Hyali

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 12-20

Locally isolated fowl pox virus was inoculated on chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos, leads to the appearances of odema and pocks lesion on the membrane , 120 hours post inoculation .Virus assay showed that the infectivity titer were 106.8 to 107.5 EID50/0.1 ml in embryonated chicken eggs. Monolayer tissue cultures of chick embryo fibroblast cells infected with fowl pox virus were examined by acridine orange staining and indirect immunoperoxidase test to study the cytopathogenic effects of the virus . The most striking cytoplasmic changes observed was the presence of the intracytoplasmic inclusions at 24-48 hours post inoculation, numerous inclusions were clearly seen at 72 hr. P.I.in addition to cytoplasmic vaculation and granulation were clearly seen at 96 hr. P.I. These changes stained brilliant green with acridine orange and dark brown staining with immunoperoxidase . Both tests demonstrated the localization of pox virus antigens in infected cells at same intervals.

Study the incidence of bacterial and fungal contaminants in imported chicken femurs

Sanaria F. Al-Hissen

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 21-25

Incidence of bacterial and fungal contaminants in imported chicken femurs was determined and compared with standard microbiological limits. A total of (12) Kg of imported chicken femurs were randomly collected at two batches from (6) areas in Baghdad city. Total aerobic bacterial count, coli form count and Staphylococcus aureus count were used as an indicator for bacterial contamination, in addition to yeast and mould count as an indicator for fungal contamination.
Data revealed that skins of imported chicken femurs produced high level of contamination, in which most of the bacterial counts were near the maximum standard limit as well as contamination with fungi, whereas the level of contamination in the meat of these femurs were low in comparison with standard limits.

Biological Characterstics Of Buffaloes Hydatid Cysts

M A-A Al-Fetlawi; R H Rahif

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 26-34

Hydatid cysts infection rate was 13.56% in buffaloes, slaughtered at Al-Diwania abbatoir, Al-Qaddisia province,Iraq, during the time period from July, 2000 to June, 2001.The only infected animals were the females, and the higher rate of infection was found in those aged buffaloes. Lungs,livers, livers and lungs were infected with 50%, 37.5% and 12.5%, respectively. The total rate of hydatid cysts fertility was 53.85%, and the sterile, caseated and calcified cysts were 23.08%, 11, 54% and 11.5%, respectively. The mean total rate of viability of protoscoleces was 73.91%, and that of livers and lungs protoscoleces were 82.62% and 70.60%. Results denoted that the numbers of protoscoleces was increased proportionally with size of their cysts, and in contrary to that the viability of protoscoleces diminished with the increase size of cysts. The study concluded that buffaloes have an important role in maintaining the life cycle and epidemiology of Echinococcus granuolosus in dogs in those areas where buffaloes are raised, and this is in controversy with the claims of previous authors.

New study dehydration of soft histological specimens

Baha; F. Al-Hussany

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 35-39

This study represent a new process for dehydration of the histological
specimen that knowledge and used in the laboratory study . Technical and
medical research will be set up a completely great scientific and to addition of
this to make an experiment , to a shortness the time and the material cost that is
used in the different stage of dehydration and these for the soft tissue ( only ) .

A comparission study of locally probiotic with imported probiotic in microbial balance of broiler gastro-intestinal tract.

Galib A. Al-Kaissy

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 40-48

This study aimed the effect of adding 0.5 and 1 kg of imported probiotic /ton feed (T1 and T2) compared with the a percentages of 1.5, 3 kg locally probiotic / ton (T3 and T4) when as T5 used feed free of probiotic .500 dayold chicks were distributed into five treatments and subdivided into two replicates (50 chicks per replicate) to study the effect of adding the two probiotics in the microbial balance of broiler gasto-intestinal tract .The results obtained revealed the following:-
Adding percentages of locally or imported probiotic (T1, T2, T3 andT4) decreased significantly (P<0.01) log no.of Coliform count and fungi count at mid point of intestine (Jejunum), crop and cecum of broiler, at the same time Adding the two probiotics increased significantly (P<0.01) log no.of Lactobacilli count compared with control group (T5) .Whenas significant differences in the log no. of total bacterial count at mid point of intestine and crop. Also no significant differences between locally or imported probiotic were noticed in the studied microbial counts or to the adding percentages. Conclosion is the importance of adding probiotics to the feed for optimum microbial balance to increase resistance of broiler to pathogenic bacteria.

Use of metabolites of therapeutic Lactic acid bacteria to inhibit four species veterinary pathogenic bacteria

H.R.Al sharefe; S.C. Abood; Ali H. A . Hamid

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 49-55

This study aimed to detect metabolites inhibition activity for three therapeutic Lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus (Lb. acid.) , Lactobacillus reuteri (Lb. reut.) and Bifidobacterium ssp. (Bif.) which were grown in whole milk and Man Reqosa and Sharp (MRS) broth as single or double (Lb. acid. + Bif.) or mixed (Lb. reut + Bif. + Lb. acid) culture Cell Free Extract (CFE) of these culture which contained their metabolites of Lactic acid bacteria (exclusion Lb. reut.) showed good inhibition against four species of pathogenic Escherichia coli ; Salmonella typhimurium ; Proteus volgaris and Staphylococcus aureus. inhibition activity against E. coli culture showed that 72 hours was the best incubation time for Lactic acid bacteria to produce more metabolite with best inhibition activity. Metabolite (CFE) of Lb. Acid culture grown in milk and MRS broth showed the best inhibition activity against all of Gram Positive and Gram negative test bacteria with over all inhibition zone diameter was 14.6 and 15.3 mm for milk and MRS broth supernatant respectively and this activity remained for more than one week as inhibition zone diameter were 13.4 and 14.5 mm for supernatant of milk and MRS respectively.

Pathological & cytogenetic effects of different doses of Cobelt-60 in induced chromosomal aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges – in rats

Bushra.I.Al-Kaisie

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 56-66

The present study was done in different period to study the pathological effects of different doses of Cobalt – 60 radiation which represent an example of gamma rays in white rats by study the pathological & cytogentic changes. Two groups of rats exposure ,first : C0 50 second C- 150 gray for (0,30,45,90)days and the 3rd group control .The results show significant increased P<0.01 in micronuclei with high dose (C-150). Chromosomal aberration and SCE showed significant P<0.01 increased mostly in C-150 at (45 7 90)days of exposure with frequency of breaks ,dicentric , acentric and ring shape with significant reduction in mitotic index (MI)and replicative (RI) index. Pathological changes revealed that increased and enlargement with granulomatous lesion of kidney , :Liver , lungs of (C-50) and (C-150)groups. Histopathological lesion showed development of adenocarcinoma in lung , liver with granulomatous lesion in spleen and kidney brain had showed degenerative change with necrosis .

Study of important moulds isolated from milk and its products in Baghdad – with experimental study the pathogenesis of Aspergillus Fumigatus moulds in mice

Jinan Khalid; Bushra.I.Al-Kaisie

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 67-80

This study was designed to isolate and identify the type of moulds and their
percentage of distribution with pathological study of highly moulds isolated from
(130)samples were included in this study with divided into (30)samples dried
milk,(30).samples baby food ,(30)samples raw milk , (40) samples dairy products .
The results revealed the percentage of infection according to total count of
isolation in raw milk were 100 % dairy product 65 %. The most common fungi
isolated from raw milk were Asp.niger of 16.2 % Asp. fumigatus of 15 % Asp.flavus
of 13.7 % Pencillium spp. 12.5 % . From dairy products were isolated with
percentage of Asp. Fumigatus 34.9% Geotrichum spp . of 23 % ,Asp. nager of 11.5
% . Pathological study was carried out to investigate the clinical signs with grossly
and Histopathological changes inoculated with most pathogenic moulds Asp.
fumigatus (30)male white swiss mice were used in this study and divided into four
groups . The first group were injected I/P with 0.2 ml of Asp. fumigatus containing
1X105 spores / ml , 4th group (control)given orally 0.2 ml of PBs.Two mice from
each treated groups and one from each control group were scarified on week (1,2,3,4)
.the clinical manifestation of the 1st group were at 2nd week showed dyspnea .Mould
isolated from blood and internal organs at third week , with no isolation from 3rd
group. The Histopathological observations showed presence of degeneration ,
necrosis and diffused granuloma in liver, lung , spleen , kidney and hemorrhage with
thrombosis in brain and intestine .

Study Of Chick Embryo Vaccination Against Newcastle And Newcastle With Gumboro

Anton S.AL- Bana; Nawal Salih Jafer; Abdel Ameer H.Zahid

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 81-92

This study is considered the first trail study in our country to apply In ovo-vaccination to immunize chicks against avian viral diseases. This method was conducted by using 150 chick embryos classified into three equal groups (50 embryo each group). The first group was inoculated with Newcastle disease virus-NDV (B1-strain). Second group was vaccineted with NDV. and GV( Gambaro virus). All vaccinated groups were inoculated in the amniotic sac, the third group (control group) was inoculated with sterile phosphate buffered saline. Result should the both vaccine did not reveal any negative effect on the percentage of hatchability and liaviability of the vaccinated chicks.
Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) , ELISA and challenge test were used to evaluate the level of immunity in chicks vaccinated with (NDV.) alone and (GV.) & (NDV.) double vaccine beside the control group chicks. The result revealed in spite of lower level of mean antibody titer of HI and ELISA in age of 28 days the two vaccinated group were resistant to challenge with virulent NDV. with 60% mortality rate in the control group.

Bacterial , Cytological and Biochemical study of Arthritis in sheep and goats

A.R. Nazaal; A.M.H.AL-Judi; F.A.Abdulla

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 93-100

Bacteriological , cytological, and biochemical testing were performed on synovial fluid of 160 sheep’s and goats at Basrah slaughter house , 115 sheep (74 females, 41 males ) , 45 goats (34 females , 11 males). The incidence of bacterial isolation from infected sheeps was 40.05 %. in females , 48.78 % . in males ,while in goats it was 54.54%. in males 14.7%. in females. Bacterial isolates were staphalococcus aureus, pseudomonas spp, and Hemophilus spp. Staph –aureus was senstive to impeneam and amikacin Hemophilus spp. was sensitive to cephalexin and Ampicillin , all Pseudomonas spp. isolates were sensitive to penicillin and amikacin. Mucin clot test varied from fair to poor clotting, the total protein of infected animals was significantly higher than that of control group. The total leucocytic count was significantly higher (p<0.01) than that of the control group, with high perecntage of Neutrophils.

Study on blood gases, Acid-Base balance and the therapeutic evaluation of different protocol of treatment of mastitic cows.

Abdulkarim Jafar Karim

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 101-109

This study was planned to reveal the changes in blood gases and acid-base values in mastitic cows and to state the intravenous fluid therapy regimen treatment. A herd with a population of 150 lactating cows was screened for clinical and subclinical mastitis for a period of 6 months. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, twenty-eight cows with clinical mastitis were divided in three groups (mastitic not treated (group M), mastitic treated with antibiotic only (group TA) and mastitic treated with antibiotic and fluid therapy (group TAF) and another five healthy cows (group C) served as controls. Blood gases, SCC, CMT scores, udder health status and cure rate were carefully investigated. There was significant differences between PO2, PCO2, BE, and HCO3-concentration in mastitic cows. Increased pH, BE, and HCO3- referred to metabolic alkalosis whereas increased PCO2 indicate compensatory respiratory acidosis. The results of SCC in milk agreed to CMT scores, and to some extent to udder health status among the entire period of study. Cure rate was earlier in group TAF with less number of treatment than in group TA. It has been concluded from this study that administration of fluid therapy might be useful as an adjunct in case of clinical mastitis in cows to get quick clinical recovery with less number of treatments. However, the role of blood gases and acid – base status in mastitis should be investigated in details.

Evaluation of transfer factor protective efficacy against Tuberculosis in Guinea Pigs

A.A. AL-Samarrae; Ekram; Khalifa A. Khalifa; R.S. Mohammed; Noria

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2005, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 112-121

Transfer factor has been prepared from sensitized guinea pigs against heat killed Mycobacterium bovis antigen and protective efficacy were evaluated in guinea pigs that gave 1 ml of transfer factor equivalent 5x108 cell / ml of sensitized and normal cell donor; then challenged with dose 0.01 mg / animal of virulent Mycobacterium bovis, After 40 days of challenge all animals were sacrificied.
Histologically: - TFs recipient group showed a mono-nuclear cells infiltration’s (Lymphocytes & Macrophages) with a mild emphysema of lungs, and liver showed mononuclear cells ,a small necrotic foci in the lymphocytic organs (spleen & lymph nodes); the kidney showed mononuclear cells in glomeruli and urinary tubules ;While the TFn recipient group were an areas of caseated necrotic materials surrounded by macrophages &Lymphocytes, congestion of internal organs (Liver and Spleen) and Sever congestion with hemorrhage of alveoli tissue, sever emphysema & consolidation in lung kidney showed tuberculle foci in glomeruli and around urinary tubules .
There were no pathgenomic changes in heart muscles of TFs recipient group while a mild congestion in TFn recipient group.