Print ISSN: 1609-5693

Online ISSN: 2410-7409

Volume 30, Issue 2

Volume 30, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2006, Page 1-164


The Use of Iraqi Probiotic and Poultrygrow 250 in Reducing the Experimentally Infection of Broiler Chicks with Salmonella Typhimurium

R. A. Abd Al-Jalile; E. J. A. Al-Ubaidi; G. A. Al-Kaissy

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 1-10

The study was conducted to find out the effect of some feed additives in reducing the infection rate of broilers with Salmonella typhimurium.
Forty broiler chicks at one week of age were divided into 4 treatments, 10 chicks each as follows:
T1: uninfected control.
T2: Salmonella typhimurium infected + Iraqi Probiotic.
T3: Salmonella typhimurium infected + Poultrygrow 250.
T4: Salmonella typhimurium infected only.
One day after feeding on feed additives, the birds were experimentally infected with Salmonella typhimurium through the mouth.
Results show that Iraqi probiotic did not decrease the severity of infection with Salmonella typhimurium in comparison with those of Poultrygrow 250, shown by the percentage of mortality and number of Salmonella excreted with the feaces. Poultrygrow 250 causes a significant (ρ < 0.01) increase in body weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio through reducing feed consumption. Iraqi probiotic has similar effect but for less extent.
It was conducted that adding Poultrygrow 250 to the feed decreases the intensity of Salmonella typhimurium infection in broiler and improves performance.

Effect of Glucose Specific lectins, Alkaloid and Volatile Oil Extracted From Nigella Sativa L Seeds in Blood Glucose Level In Normal Rabbits

Kahtan A.Al-mzaien; Ekhlass H.ALAssadi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 11-22

This study was conducted to investigate the hypolycemic effect of the aqueous extract and some active ingredients of Nigella Sativa seeds in normal rabbits. Twenty four male rabbits were divided into six equal groups. The first five groups were received by gavage needle 160,240,320,400 and 480 mg/kg B.W. of the aqueous extract, while the sixth group which served as control received normal saline solution. After two hours of administration, the group which received 320 mg showed the lowest blood sugar level as compared to control and other treated groups. This dose was considered for the next studies.
Lectin was isolated from Nigella Sativa seeds by 0.2M phosphate buffer containing 0.15M NaCl at pH 7.0, and the activity were measured by hemagglutination method. Glucose specific lectin , was purified by affinity chromatography on sephadex G-50 ,using 0.02M phosphate buffer containing 0.15M NaCl and 0.05M glucose,PH 7.0 as eluent. The obtained results was indicated the presence of 504 glucose specific lectin units activity /320 mg extract which represented 12.9% of the total lectin units activity, with a time of purification of 69.8.
A group of male rabbits (n=5) which was received orally after 12h of fasting 504 glucose specific lectin units activity/Kg.B.W. showed a significant decline in blood glucose level as compared with control one.
Oral administration of Nigella Sativa seeds crude alkaloid to four groups (n=4) of randomly divided male rabbits after 12h of fasting and, at a level of 14,21,28 and 35 mg /kg B.W revealed a significant decline (p<0.01) in blood glucose concentration as compared to the control and other treated groups.
Also, the results of this study showed that, administration of Nigella Sativa seeds volatile oil to four equal groups (n=4) of randomly divided male rabbits at a level of 5,8,11 and 14 mgKg B.W. caused a significant decline in blood glucose concentration as compared to the control and treated groups.

BACTERIOLOGICAL & SEROLOGICAL STUDY OF BRUCELLOSIS IN BUFFALO IN BAGHDAD

S.A. Al-Bayatti; A.N. Al-Thwani; S.A. Al-ammaraie; A.A. Haddi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 23-30

To study the prevalence of brucellosis among buffalo in Baghdad, 144 serum samples were collected and tested serologically using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Tube Agglutination Test (TAT), also 44 milk samples tested by Milk Ring Test (MRT). For isolation and identification of Brucella species and behavior, 15 buffalo aborted fetuses were used. And for evaluation of the health hazzard caused by the consumption of the locally manufactured cream from the milk of buffalo, 76 cream samples were used for cultivation.
The results of the RBPT, TAT and MRT revealed the prevalence of the disease in the percentages (38.19%, 29.86% and 20.45%) respectively.
It was found that Brucella abortus was the main cause of abortion in the buffalo (53.33%). There biotypes were the 8th and 3rd.
The cream samples manufactured from the milk of buffalo doesn’t show health hazzard as a cause of brucellosis in human, because it didn’t revealed any Brucella isolates in all samples used.

Ruminal acidosis in local bucks fed on al-zahdydates

Laiby.A.K; AL-Sammarraie Saadi AG; AL-Kinani; L.M.Z

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 31-45

Ruminal acidosis was induced experimentally in local bucks fed on AL-zahdy dates at 20 and 40 g/kg B.W. daily. Two groups of five animals each beside another group of five animals as a control reseved 20g/kg B.W. of concentrates beside green roughage. One animal from each group was surgically provided with ruminal fistula. The experiments lasted for four weeks during which the animals examined clinically daily, and ruminal fluid and blood samples were collected weekly.The results showed that the animals in the two experimental groups show significant rise in the means of respiratory and pulse rates,but not in body temperature.The ruminal contractions ranged between weak and reduced in the 1st experiment to temporary loss of contractions in the 2nd experiment. All experimental goats manifested weakness, depression, loss of appetite, however, temporary recumbency was noticed in the goats of the 2nd experiment. The color of the ruminal fluid was light to dark green in the control group while the experimental groups showed light to dark brown color .The pH reached it's lowest levels, and the number and activity of the microflor altered after amount of feeding on dates in the experimental groups to become reduced or dead after six and five hours respectively. The positive to negative bacterial ratio changed in the experimental groups. The level of volatile fatty acids, lactic acid concentrations and ammonia nitrogen in the rumen increased. Also the experimental animals showed biochemical changes in all blood parameters. Feeding of bucks on 20 g/kg B.W.of Al-Zahdy dates daily caused a simple form of ruminal acidosis, while 40 g/kg B.W.of dates daily caused the subacute form of acidosis.

Effect of Adding Poultrygrow 250 and Cr-Yeast in the Productive Performance and Some Health Aspects of Broiler Chicks

Raghad A. Abd Al-Jaleel; Shahrazad A. Al-Shadeedi; Faris A. Al-Obaidi; G. A. Al-Kaissy

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 46-55

A total of 300 one day old unsexed broiler chicks were divided into three dietary groups which were: -
T1: Un-treated control.
T2: Poultrygrow 250 treated group.
T3: Cr-Yeast treated group.
Results have shown that the addition of Poultrygrow 250 and Cr-Yeast have significantly (p < 0.05) improved the performance of broilers express in weight gain and feed conversion ratio compared with control group. The study showed an increase in red blood cell and hemoglobin and reduce in hetrophil / Lymphocyte ratio.It was concluded that the supplementation of poultrygrow 250 and Cr-Yeast in the diet of broiler chickens could improve the performance of the birds.

The Use Of Alternative Stain In Rose Bengal Test Antigen Preparation Which Specific For Brucellosis.

Erada A .J . Saeed; Bayatti; Sahar A. Al

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 56-64

The Rose Bengal test is one of the famous diagnostic test of Brucellosis
specially as a screening test in order to detect the infection in limited area.
Rose Bengal standard stain which producd by specific companies was used in preparation of the test special antigen , The stain gives the known pink colour for the antigen during the test that make the agglutination in positive cases more visible due to the reaction between antigen and the specific antibodies of Brucella which found in the serum sample of human and different animals.
Antigen for the Rose Bengal test in this study is prepared by using alternative stain easily found in local supermarkets using for food colours and not expensive like standard stain. All standard tests were down for the stain like the colour ,pH, stability are same for two stains until the date of expire of antigen.
The antigen prepared with alternative stain was used in comparative with the antigen prepared with standard stain for testing serum samples of human and different animals, the results deal no significant different statistically between them that means as a result we can prepare antigen more easily and not expensive.

The Effect of Licorice roots powder on experimental Infection of infectious bursal disease in broiler chickens

A.K.Kassab; Muhannad.F.Humood

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 65-78

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Licorice roots powder for 35 days in reducing the severity of infection with infectious bursal disease (IBD)and the immune response and performance of broiler chicks .A Total of 150 day old broiler chickens were divided into 5 groups and treated as follows :
Group 1: infected with IBD virus at 21 days of age.
Group 2:infected with IBD virus at 21 days of age and given 1 gm of Licorice roots powder /1 L of drinking water one day after infection .
Group 3: given 1 gm Licorice roots powder / 1L of drinking water at day one of age and infected with IBD virus at day 21 of age .
Group 4:given 1 gm Licorice roots / 1 L of drinking water at 22 days of age .Group 5: untreated control.
Antibody (Ab) of IBD titer was measured by ELIZA , the serum total protein (STP)the serum Globulin(SG)and the blood picture were determined , the water content of the droppings was measured , the body weight , food intake was recorded, there was increase (P<0.01) in the (Ab)titer of IBD virus in the group3 comparing with the other groups, the bursa / body weight index (B:BW)three days after infection was increased (P<0.01) in group1 , the STP , the SG , the PCV and RBCs was increased (P<0.01) in group 3 at age 27 days the food intake (FI) Food conversion ratio (FCR) and body weight (BW) in Group 3 were significantly increased , the dropping water content was significantly (P<0.01)increased in group 3 in comparison with other groups at the period from 23-27 days of age, the morbidity and Mortality rate were significantly lower in group 3 and then 2 in comparison with group 1 (50 % , 63.3%, 90 % ) and (6.6 % , 16.6 % ,30%) respectively.

Preliminary study on the epidemic disease spores cache in some children Areas of the Valley of the beach

Mohammed TH. Saleh

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 79-84

The aim of this study to detect Cryptospordiosis among children
(1 day – 10 years) in some Wadi Al-Shati areas (Brack,Akar,Al-Qurda and Wanzreek).
A total of 280 faecal samples were examined by flotation with sheather’s sugar solution and acid fast staining techniques to detect Cryptospordium oocysts .The results of study demonstrated that 29 samples (10.3 % ) were positive with highest infection rates in young children between (days and 1-2 years, which reached 34.2 % and 23 % respectively.

Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Al qinnabry Plant Cardaria draba (L.) Desv. on the dwarf tape worm Hymenolepis nana.

T.I. Alalousi; D.A.M. Alsawah; Saadiah S.H. Alobaidi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 85-94

This study involved effect of alcoholic extract of Cardaria draba (L.) Desv. Plant on Hymenolepis nana at dose (50,100,250) mg/ml respectively and acomparison between effect of the extract and mebendazole drug in all experiments. The results of these experiments were indicated that the out put rates of the egg of H. nana in the Faeces were effected the efficacy of extracts and drug treatments were varied in the daily counts through the experiments and it appeared that they were proportional increasing with the increasing of the dose they are (91.5%, 86.7%, 86.2%) on days (8, 9, 10) at (250) mg / kg dose for the Fresh plant and (89.7%,87.7%,83.9%) for the drug part respectively. The mebendazole drug appeared the effect ivness comparing with the extract efficiency was (100%) in the fifth day at (250) mg / kg. After the oral administrating the maxture off egg and plant extracts for the mice, the effect of extracts was evident on the growth and the development of the eggs. The number of eggs increased according to the dose raising the patient period were delayed about of the 4 days by using (250) mg / kg of the extracts. Further more, the number of eggs were decreased at the same doses of the fresh and dry extracts, when the count were (110, 100) eggs/gram of faeces respectively, in comparing with control group the effect of mebendazole drug was more than that of the extracts in that patient periods was delayed for (8) days in the concentration of (250) mg/kg the output of the eggs was decreased to low levels comparing with extracts and control group.

Genetics aspects of reproductive performance for Holstein

Al-Samarai F.R; Al-Anbari N.N; Al-tmimi Y.K

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 95-107

A total of 16678 records of age at first calving and ages at next calving , in addition to 14058 records of calving interval belonged to Holstein cows were analysed over period from 1992 to 2003 , at the Nasr Dairy Cattle Station, United Company for Animal Resources Ltd., Al-Soueira ( 50 Km South of Baghdad ). Data was analaysed using General Linear Model within the SAS program to study the effects of some fixed factors on the studied traits .
Components of variance for the random effects was estimated by the Minimum Variance Quadratic Unbised Estimation Procedure ( MIVQUE ) , also phenotypic trend was estimated for all traits .
The overall means for age at first calving till the age at sixth calving were 48.17 , 62.77 , 77.41 , 91.35 , 105.53 months respectively , and the heritability for the same traits was 0.10 , 0.01 , 0.03 , 0.04 , 0.02 , 0.11 respectively . whereas the overall mean of calving interval and heritability was 458.59 days and 0.07 .
The results obtained that there was a significant effect of year of birth on age at first calving , whereas the season of birth was not .
All the estimates of heritability were low so it’s reflect the role of environment factors in the traits variation.Phenotypic trend was negative and significant ( p <0.01 ) for age at first calving ( - 1.05 month / year ) and calving interval (- 2.03 day / year ) .

EFFECT OF ADDING TWO DIFFERENT CONCENTRATION OF ORGANIC CHROMIUM ON PERFORMANCE OF THREE BROILER STRAINS

Faris A. AL-Obaidi; Khalid A. AL-Soudi; Amer A. Rashed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 117-129

This study was carried out to determined the effect of adding 0,150,200 ppb of organic chromium in feed on dressing percentages and meat composition of three commercial broiler strains (Lohman ,Ross and Hubbard) .A total of 450 day old chicks (150 chicks per strain)were distributed into nine treatments and each treatment

Divided into two replicates (25 birds per replicate) .The data obtained reveald the following results:
Adding 150 and 300 ppb organic chromium increased significantly (P<0.05) dressing percentages with or without giblets , and no significant differences appeared in edible organs percentages includes liver, heart and gizzard , also adding 150 or 300 ppb of organic chromium increased meat production through the significant (P<0.05) increase of primary carcass cuts which were breast and legs ,also increased significantly(P<0.05) protein , carbohydrates and decreased significantly(P<0.05) lipids, and moisture in these cuts meat.
No significant differences appeared for the interaction between adding chromium and genetic factors for the three broiler strains in dressing percentages and meat composition and the effect was significant(P<0.05) in carcass cuts except legs percentages .

THE VAGINAL EXFOLIATIVE CYTOLOGY OF AWASSI EWES DURING POST-PARTURIENT PERIOD

Amer M. Hussin

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 130-137

This trail was carried out on twelve Awassi ewes in the Animal Farm of College of Veterinary Medicine in June 2005 to study the cellular changes that occur in the vaginal epithelium after parturition, by using vaginal smear method. The post-parturient period was divided into three periods; 4th, 16th and 28th days after parturition. Each period presented different sizes of vaginal epithelial cells, some of them were predominant. Keratinization takes place in all periods. The 2nd period was characterized by cellular division, presence of vacuolated epithelial cells and WBCs mainly neutrophils cells. The conclusion, variations in the vaginal epithelium may relate to the physiological status and the hormonal activity of the animals.

Effect of Prostaglandins F2 on the Evaluation of Vaginal Epithelial Cells of Iraqi Ewes during Puerperium

Nazih Wayes Zaid

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 138-144

This study was carried on 24 adult multipara Iraqi ewes in experimental farm related to College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad during 2005. This study revealed the effect of prostaglandin F2 during puerperium period through the evaluation of vaginal epithelial cells by using vaginal smear methods. Intramuscular injection of 1 ml prostaglandin F2 (Iliren®) (tiaprost-trometamol=0.196mg) was done in the 4th days after parturition to 12 ewes. The vaginal smears were taken in the 4th, 16th and 28th days. Histological examination revealed that the intermediate epithelial cells were a predominant. Keratinized cells were takes place in all epithelial cells. Vacuolations were present in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells, meanwhile presence of WBCs in the 16th and 28th days were obvious. This indicates the benefit usage of prostaglandin F2 during puerperium period to accelerate ovarian rebound.

HYPERTONIC SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION, PENTOSTAM AND SILVER NITRATE FOR TREATMENT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS

MOHAMMED A. KADIR; HAYDER A. EL-GORBAN

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 145-150

The study was conducted on 107 patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis, from Dour town, Salahadeen province attending the Dermatology Department of Saddam General Hospital, Tikrit.
Patients were divided to 4 groups for purpose of treatment and comparison, followed up for two months duration.
Group A: treated with intralesional hypertonic sodium chloride solution (9 % HSCS).
Group B: treated with intralesional pentostam injection, 1 cc. per day for 6 consecutive days.
Group C: treated with silver nitrate cauterization one to two doses of three days interval.
Group D: left without treatment as a control group.
It was found that the efficacy of 9% hypertonic sodium chloride solution and pentostam were 94% and silver nitrate was 78%. No patient cured among untreated control group.
It was concluded that the efficacy of sodium chloride solution and pentostam was greater than silver nitrate solution.

Toxicological Pathologic Study of effect of various Insulin doses in mice

Buthaina.J.Jwaad; Saleh.K.Majeed; Enaam.B.Falih

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 151-164

This study concentrate on the effect of synthetic insulin in laboratory animals, 80 white mice, randomly divided into four main groups of males and females control – untreated, treated as low dose, intermediated dose and high dose, then every group also divided in two subgroups, the first subgroup was given Actrapid and second subgroup was given Monotrade , the tested material was given daily subcutaneously untreated control group .
The injection was continued until animals were killed after 24 weeks of treatment .Clinical, macroscopical and microscopical studies of experimental mice in comparison with the control group and the result were as follows :
1- Injected mice showed normal activity, with increase body weight and low food consumption in comparison to controls. On several occasions, there were attacks of hypoglycaemia with coma in treated mice.
2- Macroscopic examination of treated mice showed presence of several layers of adipose tissue around visceral organs , in peri renal region , in the serosal areas of small intestine , in peri bronchial region, in subcutaneously , peri pancreatic region , splenic enlargement in scattered treated animals ,
3- Histopathological changes were seen as fatty infiltration / degeneration in the liver, dilated cortical tubules in the kidney and enlarged zona fasciculate of the adrenals. In addition to atrophy and / or depletion of pancreatic islet of langerhans, also extramedullary haemopoiesis and / or atrophy of lymphoid tissue in the spleen, with peri follicular deposits of amyloid in Splenic white pulp and in glomeruli of kidneys of group B. Furthermore, there were evidence of steatitis (focal inflammation of adipose tissue) and enlargement of zona fasiculata in adrenals.