Print ISSN: 1609-5693

Online ISSN: 2410-7409

Volume 30, Issue 1

Volume 30, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2006, Page 1-110


Anatomical study of the Salivary glands in the indiagenous geeze "Anser anser" (Grey lage goose)

Ibtesam K. AL-Kenani; Fadhil S. Mohammed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 1-11

This study was conducted to determine the anatomical examination of the salivary glands, their position and their opening in the indiagenous geeze (Anser anser).
Eight healthy birds (4 male & 4 female) were used.
The data showed that the geese have well developed salivary glands namely, palatine (lateral and medial) spheno pterygoid glands of the angle of the mouth and cricoarytenoid salivary glands. Those salivary glands opened by means of the main excretory ducts in the oral cavity while the lingual (anterior & posterior) and mandibular (anterior & posterior) salivary glands. Exhibited numerous ducts opened in the oral cavity.

The Comparative Effect of Imported (Biomin) and Local Iraqi Probiotic on Broiler Performance

S.A. Naji; A. AL-Khalidi; Rafid; G. A. Al-Kaissy

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 12-24

Recent reports shown that the supplementation of the broiler ration with a probiotic leads to an ideal microbial balance in the intestinal microflora of their gastrointestinal tract. Such balance, however, would reflect on their health and performance. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of two probiotic products, Biomin and Iraqi probiotic, on the broiler performance characteristics. A total of 500 Lohman broiler chicks, one day old, were randomly distributed into five dietary groups as follow:
T1: chicks fed on diet with half dose of Biomin (1.5 Kg/ Ton diet).
T2: chicks fed on diet with full dose of Biomin. (3 Kg/ Ton diet)
T3: chicks fed on diet with half dose of Iraqi probiotic. (2.5 Kg/ Ton diet)
T4: chicks fed on diet with full dose of Iraqi probiotic. (5 Kg/ Ton diet)
T5: chicks fed slandered diet. (Control)
Results obtained from the present study showed that the supplementation of the diets with probiotic, biomin or Iraqi probiotic, had significantly (ρ > 0.05) improved the final body weight, feed conversion and dressing percentage and decreased mortality. However, Iraqi probiotic seemed to be more effective than biomin in most of these treats. Furthermore, the use of a half dose of Iraqi probiotic (2.5 Kg / ton feed) seemed to be better than the full dose.

A Comparison Effect of the Imported (Biomin) and Local Iraqi Probiotic on Some Physiological Properties and Intestinal Microflora in Broiler Chicks

S.A. Naji; A. AL-Khalidi; Rafid; G. A. Al-Kaissy

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 25-34

The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of two probiotic products, Biomin and Iraqi Probiotic, on some blood and biochemical properties and intestinal microflora population in broiler chicks. A total of 500 Lohman broiler chicks, one day old, were randomly distributed into five dietary groups as follow:
T1: chicks fed on diet with half dose of Biomin (1.5 Kg/ Ton diet).
T2: chicks fed on diet with full dose of Biomin. (3 Kg/ Ton diet)
T3: chicks fed on diet with half dose of Iraqi probiotic. (2.5 Kg/ Ton diet)
T4: chicks fed on diet with full dose of Iraqi probiotic. (5 Kg/ Ton diet)
T5: chicks fed slandered diet. (Control)
Results obtained from the present study showed that both probiotics were significantly (ρ > 0.05) increase packed cell volume (PCV), total count of red blood cells, the concentration of hemoglobin and protein in blood serum. However, the total count of white blood cells, H/L ratio, and the concentration of cholesterol in the blood serum were significantly (ρ > 0.05) decreased. Both Probiotics produce a significant decrease in the total bacterial count, coliform and mold count and increased Lactobacilli count in broiler intestinal contents. Iraqi Probiotic tended to have more compared effect in increasing Lactobacilli count in the intestine with both Biomin and control groups.

The impact of Levamisole on Newcastle disease antibodies titer in broilers fed with diet contaminated with Aflatoxin

Hatem M. M. AL- Naemey

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 35-42

This study designed to know the immuno suppressor effect of aflatoxins and the efficacy of levamisole to reduce these effects in the titer of antibodies and protection against challenge for Newcastle disease vaccine in chickens.
This trail include three groups, first group fed on ration free from aflatoxins contamination, Second group fed on ration contaminated with aflatoxins, while the third group fed on the same ration of second group and given levamisole via drinking water with the dose of 10mg/kg of body weight.
All groups vaccinated twice against Newcastle disease at 10 and 20 days of age. The immunity evaluated by ELISA test at 6, 19, 31 days of age and challenged at 32 days old.
The results indicate that the second group has the lowest titer of antibodies and protection ratio after challenge, while the first group has the hightest titer of antibodies and high protection ratio after challenge. The titer of antibodies and the protection against challenge in the third group had higher titer than them at second group and lower than them at first group.
These results revealed the role of aflatoxins in immunosuppression for Newcastle vaccines and reduce the efficacy of vaccination process and reduce the protection ratio after challenge, also reveal the role of levamisole in reducing of these effect and elevation of immune response to Newcastle vaccine in chickens.

Cross protection between Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans in mice

Nabhan; Mohammed J. Alwan

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 43-53

In order to know the cross –protection between antigene of T.rubrum and C.albicans,17 mice were used and they were divided into (3) groups,1st group(7 animals) was immunized with T.rubrum antigen,two doses, and injected S/C with virulent C. albicans,the 2nd group (5 animals) was infected with C.albicans and considered as positive control,3rd group was served as negative group which injected 0.5 ml of sterile normal saline s /c The results showed that the antigen of T.rubrum stimulated a good immune response in immunized mice against C.albicans.

Changes of general & physical characters of sheep wool in Induce copper deficiency in Awassi sheep

Layla M.Ali; Saadi AG AL-Sammarraie; Genan A. AL-Khaledy

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 54-63

To induce copper deficiency in sheep 15 Awassi ewes were choosen from the veterenary medicine collage and randomly divided into three equal groups for the experimental period (18 weeks).
the 1st group were fed on balanced concentrated diet with low level of copper (2.6) mg/day was used to feed the primary deficiency group while the 2nd group were fed on a balanced concentrated diet contained 5.2 mg/day copper in addition of the green food and the protein ratio and energy level were considered. The secondary deficiency group received an oral mixture of ammonium molybdate 100 mg with 1 g of sodium sulphate in 100 ml of water daily.
Wool samples from the ewes and their lambs were collected to study the hanges in wool physical traits
The experimental ewes were treated in two different ways. The primary deficiency group fed on balanced concentrated diet contained high level of copper (7.4) mg/day, while the secondary deficiency group treated orally with copper sulphate (1.5) g/ewe/day dissolved in water for (6 weeks). After two weeks of treatment the parameters raised and the ewes in the two groups looked more healthy, the wool start to grow and by the end of that period all symptoms and changes return to normal in comparison with the control group

Steady State Levels of Tilmicocin and Enrofloxacin in Lung Tissues and Plasma of Broiler Chicks

A .A .Al; Khayyat; A .A. Shalash; L. A.Al-Ani

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 64-72

A total of 54 broiler chicks were used to study the steady state levels of Tilmicocin and Enroflxacin in lung tissues and plasma.
Microbiological assay, using Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 9225) or Saricinea leutus (ATCC 272) as test organisms for Enrofloxacin and Tilmicocin respectively, was employed to estimate the drugs levels.
The birds were divided equally into two groups at the age of 21 days. The first group received Enrofloxacin at an estimated dose of 10 mg/kg body weight in drinking water for three consecutive days, while Tilmicocin was given in the same way but at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight .Samples of lung tissues and plasma were collected from birds of each group at scheduled periods (6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours after beginning of treatment). The plateau of enrofloxacin level in lung tissues and plasma was achieved after approximetly 12 hours of the beginning of treatment and ranged from 0.90 – 1.26 ug/ gram and 0.50 – 0.86 ug/ ml respectively.
The level declines immediately after termination of treatment (72 hours). Tilmicocin plateau level was achieved after 18 hours and ranged in lung tissues and plasma from 2.25 -2.70 ug /gram and 0.98 -1.65 ug/ml respectively but the platuae level continue through out the whole time of the experiment (120 hours). The ratio of Tilmicocin level in the lung tissues to plasma was significantly higher than that of enrofloxacin at 12 and 48 hours periods.It was concluded that Tilmicocin may be more effective than Enrofloxacin in respiratory diseases.

Epidemiological study of cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent & immunocompromised children, prepared parasitic antigen and used it in IFAT

Shether.M.M; Kawan.M.H

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 73-82

An epidemiological study was done on 2 groups of children infected with watery diarrhea in some hospitals of Baghdad (group 1: immunocompetent outpatients, group 2: immunosuppressed inpatients).
Modified cold Ziehl Neelsen stain was used in diagnosis. The whole
oocysts antigen prepared after conduction of experimental infection in 2 calves by using isolated oocysts from children stool, and this prepared antigen was used in Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique (IFAT).
The percentage of infection in the 2 groups of outpatients and inpatients were 21.2% and 32% respectively, and there was a difference in percentage of infection between the 3 groups of children, the highest was 36.4% in group with leukemia and received chemical and radiotherapy.
There was no significant difference between the two sexes.
The clinical signs of experimental infection began after 4 days and continued for 10 days. The oocysts appeared in IFAT as spherical in shape with clear walls and bright yellowish green color. There was no significant difference between the 2 methods used for diagnosis (stain and immunological test).

Evaluation of Medicinal Constituent (Gingerol) in Iraq Cultivated Ginger

Muhannad A.A. AL-Bayaty; Falah J. Ibrahim; Mohammad W. Hayani

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 83-90

The evaluation of gingerol as medical entities in Iraq and Jamaica cultivated ginger was done in this experiment. Two different types of cultivated ginger (Iraq and Jamaica) of the same species (Zingiber officinal) were extracted to achieve the subject of this study. Extraction was performed by two different stages: the first stage preparative and extraction. Harvested ginger was prepared for extraction by wash, denotation, drying, grinding, and extracting by acetone under heating. The second stage is separation by two steps via TLC and HPLC. The quality and quantity of oleoresin and gingerol in each step of separation were checked by spots diameter and RF value of spot migration in TLC ginger compounds and quality of whole extract and number of peak in HPLC as well as quantity of gingerol after HPLC separation was done for both Iraqi and Jamaica ginger. The results of comparison between cultivated ginger of Iraq and Jamaica showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in quantity of extracts and spot diameter of oleoresin where as no significant change (P<0.05) in gingerol quantities by HPLC separation was found in Iraqi species. These results showed no effect of different cultivation conditions of both peak Jamaica and Iraq species on medical entities of ginger content of gingerol.

Evaluation of the Cow's Fertility using Artificial Insemination in Sulaimani Region from 1999 to 2002

Faraidoon A.S.M.Amin

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 91-99

A total number of cows artificially inseminated and became pregnant in Sulaimani region during 1999-2002 were 36952 and 15020 respectively.
The year 2001 showed the highest numbers of those inseminated and became pregnant,while year 1999 showed the lowest numbers,1039 (5.197% ) .
The overall mean of fertility rate was 40.647% however the total number of cows those treated with hormone was 8101 ( 21.92%) .
In August 2002 the total number of cows artificially inseminated was
2070, Sharazoor center performed the highest numbers followed Rania center then Kalar and Chamchamal, while Sulaimani center performed the lowest numbers. The fertility rate after GnRH treatment was found to be (74.71% ) while the fertility rate of cows during August 2002 for all locations was 53.87%
The objectives of this study was to the evaluate the reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Sulaimani region throughout the evaluation of the status of the process of Artificial Insemination from year 1999 up to 2002.

Vaccination of pregnant guinea pigs with aromatic dependent Salmonella typhimurium to protect their newborns

Yousif .A.A; Habasha.F.G; Khalifa. A.K

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2006, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 100-110

Genetically altered stable non reverting aromatic dependent (aro) Salmonella typhimurium,strain SL1479 was administrated intramuscularly to healthy pregnant guinea pigs as alive vaccine. Twenty one pregnant guinea pigs were divided into two groups, the first group (15 animals) was vaccinated twice with 1ml containing 17 C.f.U /ml approximately fourth and second week pre-parturition and the second group (6 animals) injected with 1ml trypticase soy broth (TSB) as a control group.
Adverse reaction to vaccination were not observed in the pregnant guinea pigs, which parturated normally. The vaccine induced humoral and cellular immune response as measured by tube agglutination test and delayed type hypersensitivity(DTH)-skin test in the immunized dams and transfer of this response to the newborns, which revealed a high titers of O(somatic)&H(flagller) agglutination titers and positive delayed type hypersensitivity(DTH)- skin test.
The newborn overcome the challenge with virulent Salmonella typhimurium at 3,6 &8 weeks of age, compared with the control newborn which died. These results revealed the efficacy of the prenatal vaccination with aro Salmonella typhimurium to transfer the passive immunity to the newborn.