Print ISSN: 1609-5693

Online ISSN: 2410-7409

Volume 31, Issue 1

Volume 31, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2007, Page 1-133


Diagnosis Of Fetal Mortality In Ewes And The Time Of Occurrence Using Real- time B. mode Ultrasonography

H.M. AL-Rawi; S.N. Omran

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2007, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 1-11

The aim of this study was to diagnose fetal mortality and the time of occurrence using real-time ultrasonography. 118 ewes were included in this experiment, to synchronized estrus of 47 ewes were carried out by using intravaginal sponges containing 40 mg progesterone for 14 days and then injected intramuscularly with 500IU of eCG at the time of sponge withdrawal, while 71 ewes were not treated and left to cycling normally. All ewes were mated naturally. In order to determinate of fetal numbers and observing fetal mortality, ewes were examined by 5MHz real- time ultrasonography at interval 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39 and after day 40 after breeding. The results showed that embryonic mortality rate in non treated and in treated ewes were 21.4, 45.7% respectively. A high embryonic mortality rate occurred in treated and non treated ewes within 20-24 days of gestation. There was a positive correlation between embryonic number and embryonic mortality in treated ewes.

Survey Of Hydatidosis In Cattle In Anbar Province During Period From 1/2002-12/2002

M.K.Abbass; Y.B.Ridah; M.A.Aziz

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2007, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 12-19

Survey on distribution of hydatidosis in cattle in Anbar province have been done during period from 1/2002-12/2002 .This survey showing that 8.9 ℅ of cattle suffering from hydatosis also showing that the infection of cows had been occurred in all months of the year ,meanwhile the bulls show resistance to the infection of hydatidosis .There was direct relation between the age of cattle (male&female)&infection of hydatidosis .About 879 of slaughtered cattle being inspected in Abattoir of province during the year of 2002

Epidemiological Survey On The Infection With Hydatid Cysts In Sheep In AL- Anbar Province.

M.K.Abbass; Y.B.Ridah

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2007, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 20-27

Survey on the distribution of Hydatiddosis in sheep in A Anbar province have been done during period 1/1/2OO2to31/12/2002. This survey showed that ℅28.29 of sheep suffering from Hydatidosis also showed that the infection is more in female than in male .The incidence was increased in cold season, meanwhile the percentage of organ infection in both male & female being low in liver but higher in lung and the infection the highest in organs, liver and lung together.

Antibiotic Resistance And Plasmid Contents Of Salmonella Serotypes Isolated From Raw Milk

Khilud K.Nazal; Najim H.Najim; Mohammed A. Hassem

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2007, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 28-40

This study lasted for eight months .The main objectives of the study were to identify the main sources of raw milk pollution with Salmonella with a special emphasis on determination of their serotypes. The relationship between their resistance to antibiotics and their plasmide contents were also studied.
Six hundred raw milk samples collected randomly at weekly intervals where the first (300) samples were from the individual milk cans (50 Kg each) at the producers homes in Abu-Ghraib village while the second (300) samples were collected from the scale bulk tanks (2 tons) inside the milk reception and collection center at the same village.
In addition to that (200) swabs were taken from four different location (50 swabs for each) namely: the teats, milkers hands, the inner surface of the milk cans and the sedimemts that were precipitated at the bottom of the scale bulk tank.Data revealed that 5% of the milk cans and 7% of the scale bulk tank were contaminated with Salmonella besides the percentage of the Salmonella isolates from different swabs location were as 10% , 30% , 8% and 52% out of the teats, inner surface of milk cans, milker’s hands and sediments of the bulk tanks respectively .
Seven serotypes of Salmonella were identified from both milk samples and swabs including S. typhimurium 40 %, S. anatum 26.67%, S. Kottbus 13.33 %, S. infantis 6.67%, S. dublin6.67%, S. java 3.33% and S. typhi 3.33%.
Antibiotic sensitivity test for different antibiotics revealed that most Salmonella isolates were resistant to two antibiotics where (36.66%)of the isolates were resistant to Sulphamethazol, (16.66%)were resistant to tetracycline , (10%) were resistant to Streptomycin and (3.33%) were resistant to each of Chloramphenicol , Kanamycin and Ampicillin.
The extraction of the DNA-plsmide revealed that seven out of ten isolates contained large, individual plasmids size of (50-70) Killo Base (KB) while the others three isolate were free from such plamid.

The Use Of Ultrasonography To Detect The Response Of Local Awassi Ewes To Synchronization Of Estrous And Superovulation To Different Intravaginal Progestagen sponge And eCG

K. A. Hussein; S.N. Omran; H.M. AL-Rawi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2007, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 41-49

The aim of this study was to induction of estrous synchronization and supper ovulation by using intravaginal sponges and injection of different time and dose of eCG and count the number of corpora lutea and nonovulated vesicles by using 5MHz ultrasonography in local Awassi ewes
This study were included forty Awassi ewes aged about (3-5) years and 5 rams of same breeds. These ewes allotted randomly into five groups (8 ewes for each group). Ewes of the first four groups were treated with progesterone hormone by using intra vaginal sponges. Saturated with 40 mg of flourogeston Acetate (FGA) for 14 days, while the fifth group was used as a control not treated with any hormone. Ewes of group 1 and 2 were injected with 500 and 750 I.U of eCG. I.M subsequently at time of sponges removal, while ewes of groups 3 and 4 were injected with 500 and 750 I.U of eCG I.M subsequently before 48 hrs from sponges removal. The results of the present study showed that significant difference (P<0.05) in mean of time of estrus after removed of sponges. The results also showed significant differences (P<0.05) in the length of mean of estrus phase between four treated groups. Also the results showed that the injection of different time were lead to increase in mean of corpora lutial number in treated groups, and there was significant difference (P<0.05) in ovulation rate.

Preparation Of Live Attenuated Vaccine Against Strangles

A.M.H. AL- Judi; M. M. Kaisium

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2007, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 50-54

Live attenuated vaccine of Strept. Equi was prepared by culturing the bacterium in increasing concentration of acriflavin and the vaccine was given by installation in the nose of rabbits. The treated group showed immune response, the titer of the antibodies was 59.4 ± 4.57 after 2 weeks of vaccination, 237± 18.28 after 4 weeks, 475.4 ± 36.57 after 6 weeks, & reach atiter of 512 ± 0 after 8 weeks, and the treated group did not show any signs after challenge dose, while the control group died after challenge.

A laboratory Study On The Effect Of Temperature And pH On The Stability Of Tilmicosin

Lubna Ahmed Al-Ani

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2007, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 55-61

The effect of temperature and pH on the stability of the antibacterial “tilmicosin” was evaluated in this study. The temperature degrees studied were 25 , 45 and 65 oC each for 24 hours , while the pH values studied were 6 , 7 and 8 each at room temperature and for 24 hours also.
A microbiological assay method was employed for analysis of the collected samples.
The results of analysis indicate significant drop in activity of the drug as a results of exposure to temperature or pH.
The above mentioned results necessitate the maintenance of drinking water in the storage depots of the field below 65 oC especially in summer season, so to keep the chemical structure of the drug and to offer enough therapeutic concentration to reach the tissue.

Bacterial Contamination in the Components of the Chickens' Eggs

S. A. Abed; S.M. Heeder; Z.G.Mohammed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2007, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 62-69

In 120 hen eggs ( local eggs , hatching eggs and table eggs ) a bacteriological pollution with high rate was observed by isolating 427 bacterial isolates from which 199 isolates related to the egg's shell , 117 isolates related to albumen sac, and 111 isolates related to yolk sac .
The Salmonella ssp isolates were the greater number (142 isolates) , Echerichia coli ( 138 isolates ) , Streptococcus ssp ( 89 isolated) and lately

Staphylococcus ssp ( 58 isolates ) which was never isolated from internal egg components (Albumen Sac and yolk sac) .
The study explains that the shell of the egg is more contaminated than Albumen Sac and yolk sac and that the table egg is more contaminated than the other groups.

Study of some Impact Of Enterococcus faecium As Probiotic On Chick 1- Body Weight And Pathological Changes In Air Sacs And Intestine

Emad J.khamas; Amjad H.Elaywe

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2007, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 70-77

To investigate the impact of Enteococcus faecium as probiotic in layer chicks, this bacteria was given in feed at a dose rate of 1.5 gm per kg feed, each kg of feed contained 5×1011 cfu along the period of the study (57 days). 150 one day old males were divided into five groups, 30 males each. The 1st group was given the probiotic only in the feed, the 2nd group was given the probiotic and exposed to high temperature and bad ventilation as a stress, and the third group was given the probiotic with chlortetracycline in feed while the fourth group was given the probiotic and then infected with E. coli on 21 day of age and the fifth group was given feed with out probiotic as the control group. The results showed that there was increase in body weight especially in the last weeks of the experiment. Turbidity of the air sacs was mild in the four group compared with control. Intestinal villi became elongated due to using of probiotic and there was less sloughing compared with control, and those groups showed resistance toward E. coli infection.

Study of some Impact Of Enterococcus faecium As Probiotic On Chick 2- Newcastle Disease Antibody And White blood cells

Emad J.khamas; Amjad H.Elaywe

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2007, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 78-86

ٍTo investigate the impact of Enterococcus faecium as a probiotic in the performance of layer male chicks and some aspects of immunity, Newcastle disease antibodies and the blood picture, this bacteria was given in the feed of layer male chicks with a dose rate of 1.5 gkg of feed, each kg of feed contained (5×1011CFU) along the experiment which last 57 days. 150 male chicks were divided into five groups, the 1st group was given the probiotic in the feed, the 2nd group was given the probiotic and was exposed to bad ventilation and high temperature as a stress, the third group was given the probiotic and chlortetracycline in the feed, the fourth group was given the probiotic and then infected with E. coli on day 21 of the experiment, and the fifth group was given the feed only without the probiotic as a control group. Results showed that giving Enterococcus faecium in the feed had insignificant effect on Newcastle antibodies tested on day 37 of the experiment, and the effect was significant on day 57. Also, the differential count of the white blood cells was increased while the heterophilelymphocyte ratio was decreased in the groups which were given probiotic, compared with the control.

Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of watery and alcoholic extracts for anchusa strigosa on growth of gram positive pathogenic bacteria isolated from pharyngitis and tonsillits cases

HANAN A. AL-AYMI; AMINA N. AL-THAWANI; FARID J. AL-TAHAN

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2007, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 87-103

The effects of Anchusa strigosa plant extract were studied in respect to their of gram positive bacterial growth inhibition. were isolated from cases of pharyngitis and tonsillitis . alcoholic and hot water extracts of the plants as well as their dried powders were prepared . The preliminary chemical tests revealed acidic pH of all extracts.
The dried powder , watery and alcoholic extracts of A. strigosa contained resins ,tannins , phenols, flavonoids, glycosides and avery little amount of alkaloids in its watery and alcoholic extract.The alcoholic extract of A. strigosa showed more patent inhibitory effect on resistant bacteria than its watery extract and the best effect was on growth of Strept.salivarius and Strept.pyogenes inhibition zone diameter 27.0,26.0 mm. In the present study , the Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum bacteriocidal concentration (MBC) of the plants extracts were measured for the more predominant gram positive isolates and the results varied according to different kinds of plant extracts and different types of bacteria . The least values of MIC and MBC were for alcoholic extract of A. strigosa on Staph.epidermidis which valued 10% ,20% respectively .It has been noticed that the watery extracts of A. strigosa , have a sedative effect when given dosing 5 g/kg for laboratory mice , these extracts however, showed a synergistic sedative effect when mixed with pentobarbitone and caused prolongation of sleeping time in experimental mice .Neither the alcoholic nor the watery extracts of the plants showed any toxic effect on the laboratory mice after oral dosing of 2.5 – 15 g /Kg B.W.
Watery and alcoholic extracts, Anchusa strigosa , Pharyngitis ,Tonsillitis . Pathogenic bacteria

A Comparative Between, Enzyme and Yeast Chromium in the feel On The Intestinal Microflora Balance In Broiler Chicks

Galib A. Al-Kaissy

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2007, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 104-112

This experiment aimed to study the effect of diet supplementation with feed enzyme (Poultrygrow) or chromium yeast (Biochrom) on the intestinal microbial balance of broiler chicks. A total of 300 broiler chicks, one day old, were randomly allocated into three treatment groups and named T1, T2¬¬¬ and T3 respectively. Chicks in T1 used as control while chicks in T2 and T3 were feed diets with two feed additives, Poultrygrow and Biochrom, respectively.
The data show that the two feed additives were decreased the total bacterial count and coliform count in crop, Jujinum and large intestine but the statistical analysis showed that the effect were not significant. Supplementation of diet with Biochrom were significantly reduced total aerobic bacteria and increased Lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacilli).
The overall data revealed that the diet supplementation with Poultrygrow and Biochrom had a positive effect on microbial balance, a reduction in total aerobic bacteria and coilform and significant increases in Lactobacilli were shown in most digestive tract parts of broiler chicks

Comparison Of Bacillus anthracis Prepared Used Antigens As Diagnostic kit Of Anthrax In Laboratoy Animals.

Al- Jebouri A.J; Ghazi Mousa Al-Khatib

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2007, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 113-125

This study was concerned on the preparation of several antigens on different
types of culture media like brain heart infusion, tryptic soy agar and broth. A
comparison was carried out among the prepared antigens using skin test in non-
vaccinated guinea pigs which showed negative results. Another trials were conducted using sensitized guinea pigs with live attenuated anthrax vaccine. After three weeks of immunization, skin test was conducted and all antigens revealed positive skin reactions. The highest means were recorded by the dilution 1/40 on the brain heart infusion agar with the mean of erythema of 16.38 mm and a difference of thickness 3.44 mm, while on tryptic soy broth the mean of erythema was 14.14 mm and the difference of thickness was 3.43 mm. The mean of erythema and thickness were 10.21 mm and 2 mm subsequently observed on the dilution 1/40 on tryptic soy agar. The antigen gained from brain heart infusion gave a mean of erythema of 9.5 mm and 3.02 mm thickness. The results mentioned above indicated that the best antigens for the diagnosis and evaluation of anthrax vaccines are the antigen prepared on tryptic soy broth and the two diluted antigens as well.

Cheddar Cheese Fluoridation and Dental Health

Najim Hadi Najim

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2007, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 126-133

The main objective of this study was to determine what effect the addition of sodium fluoride would have on the Cheddar cheese quality. Raw milk was pasteurized and separated for three treatments as follows: control, supplemented with 4 ppm and 40 ppm fluoride. Cheddar cheese was processed for each treatment and ripened for 120 days at 7oC and sampled at 60 and 120 days.
Analyses performed included both sensory evaluation and gas chromatography with headspace sampling (GCHS). Under conditions of this study significant
P< 0.05 higher mean flavor and body/texture scores were observed in both the control cheese samples and those with 4 ppm added fluoride than those with 40 ppm added fluorides.
The predominant flavor criticisms in Cheddar cheese treated with 40 ppm added fluoride after 120 days were flat, lacks flavor and bitter. The predominant body/texture criticisms noted in Cheddar cheese treated with 40 ppm added fluoride after 120 days were open, mealy, corky, crumbly, pasty and curdy. GCHS results showed that Acetone, 2- butanone, ethanol, 2-pentanone and propanol increased significantly (P< 0.05) with aging of the Cheddar cheese. However after 60 days of ripening, the control cheese had significantly (P< 0.05) lower Acetone, 2-pentanone and higher ethanol values than the fluoridated cheese. By 120 days, the control cheese had significantly (P< 0.05) higher 2-butanone values than both treated cheese and higher ethanol than the cheese fluoridated at 40 ppm.