Print ISSN: 1609-5693

Online ISSN: 2410-7409

Volume 32, Issue 1

Volume 32, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2008, Page 1-230


Cross Immunological reaction between Nocardia asteroides and Salmonella typhimurium in mice

Zanab Abd Alzahra; Sahar Hasan Ali; Maysoon Sabah Abbas; Muhamed Juweed Alwan

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 1-12

The aim of this study was carried out to demonstrate the cross-immunity between Nocardia asteroids and Salmonella typhimurium antigens in mice. 18 mice, from both sex,were randomally divided into three groups equally. the first group immunized subcutaneously with 0.0 5 micrometer / animal of Nocardia asteroids antigen and abooster dose of the same antigen was injected after week of the first dose. The second group was treated as the first group with Salmonella typhimurium antigen. .The third group was served as non-immunized control group. Delayed hypersensitivity and tube agglutination test were checked at 30 days post-immunization. By using Nocardin and Sallmonelin antigens.
The results revealed that the animals were immunized with Nocardia antigens given agood immune response against nocardin and sallmonelin and also those animal were immunized with Salmonella antigens showed immune response against nocardin and sallmonelin antigen ,this may be indicated across- protection between Nocardia andSalmonella antigen .

Effect of Temperature on the Viability of Protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus invitro

Amall Hassan Atia

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 13-21

A study was conducted invitro to determine the effects of storage at temperature 4 Cº upon the survival of protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus from 86 hydatid cysts isolated from infected donkeys . Flam cell activity was the choice for viability , in addition using vital stain (0.1% aqueous eosin) . The result showed that higher percentage survival 94.41% in hydatid fluid for 9 days . The longest survival times of any of the samples tested was 81 days with the survival percentage 85% and the lowest was 33% for 13 days , showing movement till the end of this period . Our results proved the protoscolices removed from cyst retain their survival for several weeks at refrigerator temperature when stored in hydatid fluid in test tubes .

Bacteriological , serological and som antibiotics study of Typhoid fever in Baghdad province

AL-Mezrakje A.s; AL-Shaheen z.kh

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 22-33

Two hundreds suspected typhoid fever patients blood and stool samples were collected. The diagnosis of patients was concerned with the clinical symptoms and serologically obtained from Widal test by using both H,O-antigens. The titer of antibodies were concentrated at a levels 80, 160 against each antigens. Typhoid fever infect both sex, but the rate of infection among males was higher (54%) as compared with that of females (46%), while the highest rate of infection was encountered among the age 15-29 years old in males and females 24.5%, 17.5% respectively. Sixty one isolates of Salmonella typhi were isolated from the blood and feces specimens (49,12) respectively. Serological characterization of isolates showed that 49 isolates belong to 9,12-Vi-d serotype and 12 isolates to 9,12-d serotype.The antibiogram pattern against Salmonella typhi cultures showed different results. The majority of isolates were sensitive to Streptomycin, Rifampicin, Chloramphenicol, Gentamycin and Cephalexin and resistant to both Penicillin and Erythromycin.

PREPARING OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVICIAE SYNBIOTIC FOR REDUCING EXPERMENTAL INFECTION OF SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM IN BROILER 1 – EARLY AGE ( 1 – 15 DAYS )

Faris A. AL-Obaidi; Ghada A. Qatan; Shahrazad M. Al-Shadeedi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 34-46

This study was conducted at the College of Veterinary Medicine ,University of Baghdad to prepare synbiotic of Sacch. cerevisiae and used as 0.1 and 0.2 % of feed (T2,T3) for reducing the experimental infection of
Salmonella typhimurium to broiler chicks ( 1-15 days) by using 40 birds divided into four treatments , T1 was negative control with 0.1 % synbiotics and T4 was positive control with experimental infection only , production and blood parameters were studed , and the results showed the following:
A synbiotic of Sacch. cerevisiae was prepared at the first time locally which have 10 7 cfu of Sacch. cerevisiae and 10 mg Mannan Oligosaccharide per gram . Using 0.1 and 0.2 % of Sacch. cerevisiae synbiotic improved production parameters and reduced experimental infection via increase body weight and feed conversion and decrease mortality and physiological stress of experimental infection by rebalance of some studied blood parameters which inclued PCV , RBCs , WBCs and Hb.

Preparing of saccharomyces cereviciae Synbiotic for Reducing Expermental Infection of salmonella typhimurium in Broiler 2 – advanced age ( 16 -30 days)

Ghada A. Qatan; Faris A. AL-Obaidi; ahrazad M. Al-Shadeedi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 47-58

This study aimed to prepare a synbiotic of Sacch. cerevisiae and used as 0.1 and 0.2 % in feed (T2,T3) for reducing the experimental infection of Salmonella typhimurium to broiler chicks ( 16-30 days) by using 40 birds divided into four treatments , T1 was negative control with 0.1 % synbiotics and T4 was positive control with experimental infection only , production and blood parameters were studied , and the results showed the following:
A synbiotic of Sacch. cerevisiae was made which have 10 7 cfu of Sacch. cerevisiae and 10 mg Mannan Oligosaccharide per gram .Using 0.1 and 0.2 % of Sacch. cerevisiae synbiotic reduced experimental infection of Salmonella typhimurium via increase body weight and feed conversion and decrease mortality and physiological stress of experimental infection.

EFFECT OF USING DIFFERENT LEVELS PERCENTAGES OF SMUT WHEAT AND SAND TREATED ON PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETER OF BROILER

Maha A. Al-Hemairi; Layla M. Al-Kinani; Duraid A. Abbas

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 71-87

This study was carried out to at the poultry farm of the college of veterinary medicine / Baghdad University during 12/5/2004 – 6/7/2004 to study the effect of substitution of smut wheat instead of intact wheat in poultry ration at the following levels (0%, 25% , 50% and 100%) representing the following groups (T0, T1, T2 and T3), respectively. Physical treatment was obtained for smut wheat by polishing the seed by sand to remove the superficial fungal growth. Each group was sub divided into two sub groups, one was physically treated with sand and the other was not treated to study the hematology traits at 28 and 56 days of the experiment. Characterristics included in this study were PCV, Hb, RBC, WBC, differential leukocyte count and some of serum blood enzymes activity (ALT, AST and AP). The results obtained revealed the following:
Replacing partial of smut wheat at the level of 50% or total 100% caused an imbalance of blood parameters by decreasing PCV, Hb, RBC, WBC and increased blood enzymes activity of ALT, AST and decreased AP activity. Results of differential leukocyte count revealed that heterophils were increased while lymphocytes were decreased significantly (P<0.05) at 28 and 56 days of age. Physical treatment of smut wheat by sand improve the blood parameters by rebalancing these parameter in comparison with these of untreated group .

Enterohaemorrhagic E.coli O157 in locally produced soft cheese

Fadia Abd AL-Muhsin Al-Khyat

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 88-99

Escherichia coli is consedered to be one of the normal flora of the human and animal intestinal tract, but there are some serotypes which are diagnosed as a pathogenic such as Enteroheamorrhagic E.coli O157 that cause disease ranging in severity from mild to lethal and it's significant as a major food- borne pathogen and as a public health problem. The purpose of this study was to provide the prevalence of E.coli and E.coli O157 in locally produced soft cheeses, detection and enumeration were carried out using specific differential media (CT.SMAC,E.M.B.), serological test (Latex O157) and biochemical test.
A total of 50 samples of locally produced soft cheeses were collected from supermarket in Baghdad City during the period from April till the end of May 2007. The result revealed that there was a significant (P<0.05) difference in the isolation percentage, E.coli was isolated from 47 samples (94%) while E.coli O157 isolated from 40 samples (80%). The data also revealed that there was a significant (P<0.05) difference in the mean of microbial counts E.coli and E.coli O157 recorded (4.7x106 , 2.4x105 CFU/g) respectively. These result suggest that the serotype O157 is prevalent within dairy product and processing environment.

Isolation and Identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from locally minced meat and imported minced and chicken meat

Zuhair.A.Mohammed; Fadia Abd AL-MuhsinAL-Khyat

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 100-113

A total of 143 samples of meat were examined in this study, these represents 67 samples of locally minced meat, 31 samples of imported minced meat and 45 samples of imported chicken meat. The samples were collected from different areas of Baghdad city during the period from January till May 2006.
Detection, isolation an enumeration of E.coli 0157:H7 were carried out. The result revealed that there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the isolation percentage and the microbial counts of E.coli 0157:H7 when comparing the three types of meat. The highest prevalence were found in the locally minced meat (80% ; 1.6 x 107 cfu/g) Followed by the imported minced meat (65% ;5.9x106cfu/g) and finally chicken meat
(56%; 2.7 x 106 cfu/g).

Comparative cellular immune response study of anthraxin prepared by a modified method with antigens extracted from Bacillus anthracis

am J.L. Al-Juboury; Zahid S. Aziz; Ghazi M. Al-Khatib

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 114-126

The study was aimed to comparison of anthraxin prepared by a modified method from cell-wall extract of avirulent B .anthracis strain 34F2(Sterne) with antigens extracted from the same strain as 1/40 antigen, autoclaved 1/40 and the crude toxin. These antigens were compared on their induction of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in guinea pigs. Animals were immunized and boosted subcutaneously with the Sterne live veterinary anthrax vaccine. Two weeks after the booster dose, animals were skin-tested with the four antigens. Anthraxin was the most active antigen which recorded 16.66 mm a mean of erythema and 2.3 mm a difference of skin thickness after 24 hours. Both 1/40 and autoclaved 1/40 antigens gave approximately the same results which were 12.5 mm as a mean of erythema and 2.25 mm skin thickness for the first one; and 12.8mm ,1.66mm for the other respectively. The toxin showed the lowest results of erythema 7.8 mm with edema. These antigens were also compared according to the histological changes on their sites of inoculation. Marked (typical) picture of delayed type of hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction was occurred for anthraxin.

Comparative study between vasectomy and epididymectomy for preparation of teaser Ram

Al-Dahhan; M.R.A; Amen; A.A; K.I; Al-Badry

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 127-139

Teaser rams were used for discovering estrus in ewes because this technique is very important for super ovulation,embryo transfer and transgenic animals programs.sever techniques were used for preparation of teaser animals especially in sheeps so this study was designed to compare between two surgical methods (vasectomy and epididymectomy).
Six Assaf of breed rams,Clinical reproduction system,libido and laboratory examination (volume ejaculate,mass and individual motility and sperm concentration). were performed 2 week before experiment for qualification of the general health of the animals the animals were divided into two equal groups, Vasectomy in the first group and epididymectomy in the another.Cases were followed up clinically, laboratory examination and histological.
Results showed that surgery of epididymectomy takes longer time than vasectomy.Vasectomiesed animals showed sever pain during first tow days with simple adhesion in the site of operation, while epididymectomy caused sever adhesion between the testis and skin with odema in the site of operation also the pain was sever in addition to, it takes longer time than in vasectomy. The seminal fluid examination showed disappear of life sperms immediately after operation vasectomy or epididymectomy also histological changes were obtained in both types of surgical methods ,which include reduce in the rate of spermatogenisis, thickness of basement membren,while these changes were more sever after vasectomy.
Results of this study was showed that epididymectomy technique should superior results than vasectomy for longer time.

Study of Using Thymbra spicata leaves to reduce the toxic immunosuppresive effect of aflatoxin in broilers

Hatem M. M. Al-Naemey; afar; Nwal S. Ja; Hassiba A. Omran

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 140-147

The present study performed to evaluate the impact of addition of Thymbra spicata leaves powder of aflatoxin contaminated ration in reduction of the aflatoxin immuno suppressive effect in the immune response induced by Newcastle disease vaccine in broilers.
The study conducted in three groups, The first group fed aflatoxin free ration, second group fed aflatoxin contaminated ration without any treatment, while the third group fed aflatoxin contaminated ration supplemented of 2% Thymbra spicata leaves powder.
All chick groups were vaccinated twice with Newcastle disease vaccine (NDV) at 10 and 20 days of age. ELIZA test was carried out to estimate the humeral immune response at 6, 19 and 31 days of age. Infection challeng were done at day 32 of age with velogenic ND strain (Z-2003).
The results showed that the first group has high significante antibodies titer reach to 3239±249.3 at 19days of age and 10186+845.3 at 31 days of age with significant level 0.01 and high protection ratio against challenge (100%)at 32 days of age, while the second group has the low antibodies titer reach to 2622.6±27.3 at 19 days of age and 5712.5±786.9at 31daysof age and low protection ratio against challenge(66.67), the third group’s antibodies titer and protection ratio lower than first group and higher than second group ,the titers are 3060±542.5 at 19 days of age and 5712.5±786.9 at31 days of age while the protection ratio against challenge is 80% at 32 days of age .
The results showed the immuno suppressive effect of aflatoxin as in second group and the role of Thymbra spicata leaves powder in reduction of these effect.

Some aerobic bacterial causes of clinical mastitis in cows &study some causes of treatment failure

Yousif; A.A; W.A.G; Al-Dulimy; Al-grabawi; M.A

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 148-165

The study included 82 clinical mastitic cows (328 quarters) in two dairy cattle stations, 15 cows in the first station in Baghdad and 67 cows in the second station in Babel, Clinical inspection was conducted on cows and it’s udder, milk samples were collected under sterile condition and subjected for physical, chemical & bacteriological examination with antibiotic sensitivity test of the isolated pathogens.
The mastitic cows in each station were divided into two groups, the 1st (Treated group) in which cows treated by us and the 2nd (control group) in which cows were treated by the staff of station. After treatment all cows were examined clinically and bacteriologly four times (once 10 days). Swaps from milker’s hands and milking machine were also taken.
The results revealed that out of 328examined quarters, 212 quarters were infected (55 quarter in the 1st station and 157 quarter in the 2nd station). The acute form of mastitis represent high percent and the occurance of the disease increased with the advance age. The hind quarters were more frequently affected than fore ones.
Staph.aureus was the only isolate from the 1st station, while 14 type of bacteria was isolated from the 2nd station .Staph. aureus & Staph.epidermidis were isolated from milker’s hand,where as Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae . & Pseudomonas aeruginosa & Pasteurella spp. were isolated from teat cups.
The mastatic cows in the 1st groups of both station were treated locally & systematically with antibaiotics based on the result of sensitivity test. Both treated groups in the two stations showed highest rate of clinical and bacterial cure while the control groups showed clinical cure only
It was conclued form this study that some of the causes of treatment failure could be due to ignorance of field test for detection of early cases of subclinical mastitis, without removal cows with chronic mastitis,occurance of bacterial resistance to many antibiotics due to incorrect uses of these drugs & treatment for many times, in addition to improper disinfection of the udder, or milker’s hands and milking machine, with bad environmental conditions.

Effect of mercury on the total and electrophoretic profile of proteins and on the activity of three enzymes in mantle of three species of freshwater clam : Unio tigridis, Pseudontopsis euphraticus and Anodonta spp

Abd Ali Taker; Sulaf M. Ahmed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 166-179

A three species of clam Unio tigridis, Pseudontopsis euphraticus and Anodonta sp. were collected from Al-Habaniya lake, Al-Angor region/Iraq .The animals were exposed to three concentrations of mercury :0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/L . First group of animals were exposed for three weeks ,second group for two weeks and the third group for one week. At the end of the exposure period, the animals were dissected ,then the mantle removed for the further studies on proteins and enzymes. The results were :
1- Total protein concentration in the mantle decreased in the three species of clam exposed to mercury. It was observed that a prominent effect of mercury on the electrophoretic bands of proteins with the decrease in the intensity of protein bands or induction of new bands.
2- The activity of the three enzymes : Alkaline phosphatase , ALT and AST were not stable, either increasing or decreasing according to the different species and concentration of the mercury , for example the activity of alkaline phosphatase increased in the mantle of the first species at lower and decreased at the second concentration but decreased in third species at different concentrations . The activity of ALT increased in the mantle of the first species at all concentrations of mercuy, while the activity of AST decreased in the mantle of the first species and increased at the two other concentrations but decreased in the mantle of third species .
3- We concluded from this study that , the clam responses to the mercury in the environment, which caused a changes in proteins and enzymes. These changes can be used as an indicator to the water pollution with the mercury .

Effect of Feeding Feed Blocks Enriched with Different Sources of Protein on the Performance of Awassi Ewes during Late Pregnancy, Suckling and Milking Stages

Hadeel K. Ibrahim

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 180-197

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of feeding feed blocks (FB) enriched with different sources of protein on the performance of Awassi ewes during late pregnancy, suckling and milking stages. Experiment (1) was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding feed blocks enriched with different sources of protein on the performance of Awassi ewes during late pregnancy. Eighty pregnant Awassi ewes (mean live weight 49.20 ± 1.36Kg), aged 3-5 years were allocated into four groups according to ewes’ live weight. First group (T1) fed ordinary high energy FB (OFB) + straw (ad-libitum). The second group (T2) fed FB enriched with cottonseed meal (FBCSM) + straw (ad-libitum). The third group (T3) fed FB enriched with sunflower seed meal (FBSSM) + straw (ad-libitum). The fourth group (T4) fed barley grains + straw (ad-libitum) (Farmer practice). Experiment (2) was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding high energy feed blocks enriched with different sources of protein on the performance of Awassi ewes during suckling and milking stages. Sixty-four Awassi ewes (mean live weight 43.62 ±1.13 kg), aged 3-5 years were allocated into four groups according to ewes’ live weight and milk yield. First group (T1) fed OFB + barley grains + straw (ad-libitum). The second group (T2) fed FBCSM + barley grains + straw (ad-libitum). The third group (T3) FBSSM + barley grains + straw (ad-libitum). The fourth group (T4) fed barley grains + straw (ad-libitum) (Farmer practice). The experimental diets were fed during the last six weeks of pregnancy, 90 days during suckling stage and 45 days during milking stage. The results of Experiment 1 indicated that despite no significant differences between the four groups on studied traits (ewes weight changes and lambs birth weight), but there was a trend the groups (T1, T2 and T3) fed FB performed better than group T4 fed according to the farmer’s practice. Group T2 that was fed FBCSM had slightly better performance than groups T1, T3 and T4, which were fed OFB, FBSSM and farmer, practice diets respectively. The results of Experiment 2 showed that groups fed FB (T1, T2, and T3) performed significantly (P<0.05) better than farmer practice group (T4) on all traits (ewes’ weight changes, milk yield and lambs weights). Group T2 that was fed FBCSM had higher (P<0.05) ewes’ milk yield during suckling and milking stage and lambs weaning weight (25.63 kg) as compared with T1 and T4 which were fed OFB and farmer practice diets respectively.

Study of the changes of some physical & chemical parameters accompanied to Ovine and Caprine urinary system infections

Wahab A. Hassan; Khalid M. Hamadi; Zaid S. Hussein

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 198-206

This study was devoted to determination of normal physical and chemical values of 100 sample of Ovine and Caprine urine with microscopically examination of urine samples sterilely collected from sheep & goat slaughtered in Al-Shulla governmental slaughter house between may and November 2004 as well as demonstration of changes in these values in case of presence of microbes in urine .This study illustrated no significant differences(P<0.05) of urine analysis values between sheep & goat but these values significantly changed(P<0.05)with the presence of microbes in urine and these changes included opacity of urine, decrease of specific gravity & increase of urine pH.
25 sample were positive to protein test with concentration extent from 200 to 1000mg/dl , 11 samples (44%) were positive to penzedin test. The bacterial culture of the urine sample showed different species of bacteria the total presence of bacteria was 25% in both sheep & goat including Staphylococcus aurous, Streptococcus spp, Corynobacterium renale, Escherichia coli, Protes vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumonia .

Study the pathological and Residual Toxic effect of Malathion in Mice Nervous System

Soad Abdulkareem Mohammed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 207-213

In present experiment , study was done on the pathological and residual effect of malathion in mice 50 white mice randomly divided into 3 group : 1st group including (20)mice was given single oral dose .1.5 ppm in drinking water 2nd group contain (20) mice given single dose 1.5 ppm malathion orally in drinking water and repeated the same dose at 2nd and 3rd week i.e (three repeated doses), the 3rd group (10) mice act as control group .The long of experiment was 60 days , the following parameter were done .
1- Clinical Signs: treated group 1st and 2nd groups showed nausea and diarrhea
2- Pathological changes : 1st and 2nd group showed lesion which were more significant in 2nd group .Pathological changes characterized by neuron necrosis , Brain odema , and mononuclear cell present with spinal cord damage .
3- Residual investigation: which were more significant in 2nd group at 60 days of treatment, the Malathion residual reach 0.90 ppm in brain and spinal cord.

Treatment and prevention of Salomellosis in puppies using Lactobacillus acidophilus.

Al-Samarrae; S.A.G; Al-Judi; A.M.H; Muhsen. R.K

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 214-222

This study was carried out to evaluate the ability of Lactobacillus acidophilus to prevent and treat Salmonella typhimurium in puppies. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity test of S. typhimurium was made and the result revealed that Ciprofloxacin is the most effective.Isolation of L. acidophilus from the intestinal tract of the normal dogs and also revealed that all Lactobacillus strains were biochemically identical to standard strain. A bacterial strain that had high ability to inhibit the growth of S. typhimurium in vitro with high ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and tolerate the low pH and bile salts was chosen for the experimental study.
Twenty puppies were divided into four groups and treated in different ways. The clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters were obtained from all animals at the period of two days before inoculation until the death of animals of the first group at the sixth day post infection. The results revealed that , puppies experimentally infected with S.typhimurium showed both septicemic and gastrointestinal forms of the disease accompanied with isolation of S.typhimurium from the blood and stool throughout the experiment. The statistical analysis of the results of all parameters among all groups revealed ,for the first time, that L.acidophilus plays an important role in the prevention of S.typhimurium infection in puppies . It also has high therapeutic effect against S.typhimurium, which was almost similar to that of Ciprofloxacin.

Avian Influenza (H9N2) Outbreak In Iraq

Emad J. Khamas

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 223-230

An outbreak of avian influenza (AI) (H9N2) occurred in broiler, layers and breeder chicken farms in Iraq during 2004-2007. Mortality between 30% and 70% in broilers and 5% and 10% in layers and breeders were commonly observed on the affected farms. Mixed infections of the influenza virus with other respiratory pathogens particularly Newcastle Disease (ND) virus and Infectious Bronchitis (IB) virus were thought to be responsible for such high mortality. ELISA test was used to detect ND, AI and IB antibodies. Clinical signs included , decrease feed consumption, swelling of the face and typical severe respiratory signs. Gross lesions included extensive hyperemia of the respiratory system, cheesy exudates in the tracheal bifurcation extending into the secondary bronchi, hyperemia and hemorrhagic ulcers in the proventriculus and intestine.