Print ISSN: 1609-5693

Online ISSN: 2410-7409

Volume 32, Issue 2

Volume 32, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2008, Page 1-298


EFFECT OF USING DIFFERENT LEVELS PERCENTAGES OF SAND TREATED SMUT WHEAT ON HYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETER OF BROILER

Maha A. Al-Hemairi; Layla M. Al-Kinani; Duraid A. Abbas

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 1-16

This study was carried out at the poultry farm of the college of veterinary medicine / Baghdad University during 12/5/2004 – 6/7/2004 to study the effect of substitution of smut wheat instead of intact wheat in poultry ration at the following levels (0%, 25% , 50% and 100%) representing the following groups (T0, T1, T2 and T3), respectively. Physical treatment was obtained for smut wheat by polishing the seed by sand to remove the superficial fungal growth. Each group was sub divided into two sub groups, one was physically treated with sand and the other was not treated to study the hematology traits at 28 and 56 days of the experiment. Characterristics included in this study were PCV, Hb, RBC, WBC, differential leukocyte count and some of serum blood enzymes activity (ALT, AST and AP). The results obtained revealed the following:
Replacing partial of smut wheat at the level of 50% or total 100% caused an imbalance of blood parameters by decreasing PCV, Hb, RBC, WBC and increased blood enzymes activity of ALT, AST and decreased AP activity. Results of differential leukocyte count revealed that heterophils were increased while lymphocytes were decreased significantly (P<0.05) at 28 and 56 days of age. Physical treatment of smut wheat by sand improve the blood parameters by rebalancing these parameter in comparison with these of untreated group .

The Role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Streptococcus thermophilus Single Cell Proteins on the Growth of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio L.

M. O. Muhyddin; M. J.Hindi; J. K. Al-Farragi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 17-28

The present investigation is concerned with utilizing of two types of Single Cell Protein (SCP) designated, Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth for processing P1. And joint growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with lactic acid bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus for processing P2. T2 and T3 respectively, as a replacemente of commercial animal protein T1 . The nutritional performance for SCP was carried out via feeding trials of carp fingerling Cyprinus carpio L.
Values of fish weight rate for carp after 50 days of feeding triales started experiment were 1.15, 1.31, 1.34 gm. The fish growth rate were 0.425, 0.480, 0.500, gm .The averages of daily weight were 0.008, 0.009, 0.01gm/day , The absolute specific growth rates for fish were 0.92, 0.912, 0.932 for T1, T2 and T3, respectively, the statistical analysis showed high significant differences (P<0.01) among T1 and T3. The relative growth ratio was 58.62, 57.83, 59.52,
Food conversion rates were 6.37, 6.56, 6.53, The food conversion efficiency 15.68, 15.16, 15.30, for T1, T2, T3, respectively, the statistical analysis showed insignificant differences (P<0.05) among T1, T2 and T3. The investigation concluded the possibility of utilizing SCP and this modest effort substitute commercial protein sources without adverse effect on the fish growth rate.

study the effect of alcoholic and watery extracts of garlic and onion plants on growth of candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro&vivo

Abd-Alshaheed.D.A

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 29-38

This research included study the effect of garlic and onion plants extracts(alcoholic and watery) in vitro in three different concentrations 15%,25%,35% and in vivo in experimental white mice .Research was performed by three experiments, first one was conducted to study effectiveness of different concentration of alcoholic and watery garlic extract on growth of candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro, showed that the effect of alcoholic extract on the growth of candida albicans was inhibitory,started from 0.4 mm to 0.1 mm compared with control plats 4.2 mm ,where as the results of the effect on the growth of Cryptococcus neoformans showed more clearness and the inhibition started from 0.6 to inhibit all the growth in plat in comparison with control plats1.4 mm. While the effect of watery garlic extract showed less effect and the inhibition began from 0.5 mm to 0.2 mm for candida albicans , but the growth inhibition of Cryptococcus neoformans began from 0.4 to 0.15 mm.The second experiment was the same as the first experiment , but using alcoholic and extracts onion , the growth of candida albicans inhibited by alcoholic exract from 0.6 mm to no growth in the plat , but the inhibition of Cryptococcus neoformans was started from 0.5mm to 0.2 mm for alcoholic onion extract. While the watery onion extract effect on the growth of candida albicans the inhibition started from 1.6 mm to 1 mm ,but the inhibition of Cryptococcus neoformans was began from 1 mm to 0.3 mm.
Third experiment was study the effect of crude garlic and onion alcoholic extract ointment 1% on experimental infection in mice , using 30 experimental mice divided to 6 equal groups,each group include 5 mice
*groups which infected with candida albicans treated :
The group 1,2,3,expermrutly infected with candida albicans ,where as group 3,4,6 were infected with Cryptococcus neoformans for 1,2,3 group ,treted with the ointment of alcoholic extract of garlic, group 2 treated with alcoholic extract ointment of onion, where as group 3 left with no treatment as a control group.
For the group which infected with Cryptococcus neoformans 4,5,6, group 4 treated with ointment of alcoholic extract of garlic , while group 5 treated with ointment of alcoholic extract of onion where as , group 6 (control group) left with out no treatment .
The results showed high activity to treat the experimental infection with candida albicans by 1% of alcoholic extract ointment of garlic and onion , its lead grossly to disappear of inflammatory signs with period between 3-4 days. While the garlic ointment showed highly effectiveness to treat experimental infection with Cryptococcus neoformans with disappear inflammatory signs during 4 days, but onion ointment showed less effect with disappear inflammatory signs in 5 days.
In conclusion this research showed that garlic and onion have an inhibitory effect on the growth of candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro and in vivo due to the presence of some medically active compounds in these two plants.

DNA-Plasmid Extraction Of Salmonella Isolated From Raw Milk

Khilud K.Nazal

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 39-45

Twenty five Isolates of Salmonella were isolated from raw milk samples which were collected from Abu-Graib village to study the relationship between their resistance to antibiotics and their plasmids contents .
Antibiotic sensitivity test for different antibiotics revealed that most Salmonella isolates were resistant to two antibiotics .
The extraction of the DNA-plasmid revealed that most Salmonella isolates which resistant to two antibiotics or more were contained large, individual plasmids size of (50-70)Kilo Base (KB) while the others isolates were free from such plasmid

The effect of Aloe Vera leaf gel in promoting wound healing and as antibacterial

Ali Aziz Al-Khayyat; Lubna Ahmed Kafi; Zena Munther A

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 46-59

This study was carried out to explore the effect of Aloe Vera leaf gel in promoting wound healing and to investigate the antibacterial effect against some pathogenic bacteria in comparison with Nigella sativa oil. Standard dilutions of Aloe Vera leaf gel were made from ten to one hundred percent and its antibacterial effect had been examined in seeded agar method against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa both were previously identified by laboratory and biochemical methods, Nigella Sativa oil which is known to be one of the important medicinal plant was used for comparison . Statistical analysis showed a significant difference (P<0.05) between AVG and Nigella Sativa oil.
The effect of Aloe Vera leaf gel against Staph .aureus was more potent than against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There was a proportional relation between different concentrations of AVG with the values of inhibition zones diameters of the bacteria. Results showed that Aloe Vera was more potent than Nigella sativa against both bacteria.
The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was sixty mg/ml and the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) was eighty mg/ml for Staph .aureus.
In order to investigate the effect of Aloe Vera gel on wound healing, twenty-four local male rabbits were used. They were divided into four equal groups and each animal was wounded in both sides of the back region by making a one by two centimeter square standard longitudinal incision with surgical scalpel. The first group was a control group (wounded without treatment); this group was employed to observe the normal wound healing. The second group was treated with crude Aloe Vera leaf gel twice daily for 10 days. While the third group was wounded and infected with the pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus vaureus without treatment, in order to observe the natural body defense against pathogenic microorganisms. The last group was infected with the same bacteria but treated with crude Aloe Vera leaf gel to observe the antibacterial effect. The wounds in the left side in second and fourth group were left as self-control.
The treated groups were compared with the control group and the self-control in respect to period of healing and feature through visual observation of changes.
Furthermore, in order to assess the effect of topical Aloe Vera gel in promoting wound healing, twelve adult male mice used; they were divided into two equal groups. A hole was induced in each animal by a biopsy needle; the control group received no treatment while the other group was receiving topical treatment with crude Aloe Vera gel twice daily for ten days.
A significant decrease in wound diameter was noticed in the animals treated with Aloe Vera gel in comparison with the non-treated control group.
From the above-mentioned results, it can be concluded that this study is a good step to show that crude Aloe Vera leaf gel promotes wound healing and has an antibacterial effect in vitro and in vivo against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Isolation of Mycobacteria spp from Rats

Maysoon Sabah Abbas

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 60-67

The main aim of this study is to detect infection of Wild brown rats with Mycobacteria . fourtyone Wild brown rats were collected from various quarters of Baghdad city during the period 29/5/2004 – 30/10/2004 . fourty one rats collected from college of Veterinary Medicine farm Baghdad University and from farm of Abu – Ghraib , Baghdad –AL Gedida , AL – Mahmoedia , AL – hurrea . In this study after collection of rats the post mortem change was studied and take one hundred twenty three sample of Lung , Liver and Spleen for bacterial examination one hundred twenty three samples were culture on special media for Mycobacteria . The result revealed that four rats were infected with Mycobacteria . four isolates of Mycobacteria two isolate from Lung , two isolate from Liver . The morbidity rate with Mycobacteria was 9.9% .

Experimental infection of Klebsiella pneumoniae in urinary tract of rats and guinea pigs.

Ibrahim Z.I; Alwaan M.J

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 68-79

This work aimed to study the pathological changes induced in the urinary organs after infection with K.pneumoniae. Two laboratory female animal species ,white rat&guinea pig ,were infected by two routes,ascending (first group) and direct(intra renal-second group).
The infection was examined in different periods through the bacterial culture of urine & kidney samples as well as the pathological changes (grossµscopic) were examined after post mortum.
The resultes of both groups showed a positive bacteriologic culture of the urine & kidney samples concomitant with the gross and histopathological changes of the kidneys which revealed different degrees of inflammation between the two groups as well as within the indivisuals of the same group, especially the kidney specimens which showed pyelonephritis in rats & guinea pigs of both infection routes (ascending and intrarenal).

Study of effect of immunosuppresion caused by H9N2 in broiler

Aida Bara Allawe

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 80-89

This study was concerned with conduction of experiment for these reason three groups of broiler chicks were used.
First group (which consisted of 15 chicks) was vaccinated with live attenuated vaccine (laSota strain) at age 10, 20, 30 days by drinking water. Second group (which consisted of 15 chicks) was infected experimentally with H9N2 (AMR.ANT/IRAQ/2005) 108.6 LD50/0.1ml at age 8 day then vaccinated with live attenuated vaccine (LaSota strain) at age 10, 20, 30 days by drinking water .third group (which consisted of 10 chicks) was considered as a control group without vaccination.
Immune response in all chicks groups were estimated at age (40) days depending on Heamagglutination test and ELISA. The first group showed highest titer in HI and ELISA tests in comparison with second and third groups.

Studying the efficacy of giving anthrax toxin as a vaccine intranasally and subcutaneously

I.A.H; Al-Zubaidy

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 90-99

This study was concerned on the production of Bacillus anthracis toxin and its use as a vaccine. Two groups of guinea pigs were immunized with the toxin which was given in a dose of 0.5 ml subcutaneously to the 1st group while the animals of the 2nd group were immunized by instillation in the nose 4 drops into each naris. The two groups were given booster dose 14 days after the 1st dose. The immunized and control animals were bled by cardiac puncture 20 days after the booster dose.
In the present study, anthraxin was used as an antigen in Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbant Assay (ELISA) to measure the optical density (OD) obtained from adminsteration of vaccine in two different routes. High mean of optical density 1.660 ± 0.07 nanometer was recorded to subcutaneous group and the mean 1.181 ± 0.002 nanometer to the intranasal group.

A comparative study between E.Coli O157:H7 and Coliform bacteria isolated from locally soft cheese

Raghad A. Abd Al-Jaleel

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 100-107

The main objective of this study was to isolate, identify and enumerate the E.coli O157:H7 bacteria and coliform bacteria from locally manufactured soft cheese.
A total of 50samples of local soft cheese were collected and examined from local markets of (5) different areas of Baghdad city which was { Al-dora,Al-Amria,Al-Kadmia,Al-Karada,Al-Kazalia} 10 samples for each area.
The results showed that the highest average counts of E.coli O157:H7 and coliform bacteria was in Al-Dora 73.63 × 105and 956 × 105cfu/ml while the lowest average counts in Al-Kazalia 3.12× 105and 43.7× 105cfu/ml .
The result of the statistical analysis showed that there were a significant differences (p<0.05) between E.coli O157:H7 and coliform bacteria between Al-Dora and the other areas in this study which was {Al-Kadmmea,Al-Karada,Al-Ammrea,Al-Kazalia} but there were no significant differences (p<0.05) between the tow kinds of bacteria in each area.
It was conducted that the higher average of pollution for locally soft cheese with E.coli O157:H7 was in Al-Dora , the reason of this higher pollution may be due to un healthy condition during milk collection used for milk processing or during the processing itself.

Survival Enterohaemorrhagic E.coli O157in locally produce soft cheese in Baghdad city and studying the effect of some physical factors on its viability

Ahmed Hadi Mohammed; Zina saab khudhier; Najim Hadi Najim

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 108-119

A total of 24 samples of three different kinds of locally produced soft cheese manufactured from raw milk of Cows , Buffaloes and Ewes
( 8 samples of each) were collected at weekly intervals from different areas of Baghdad city in the period from the beginning of December 2007 till the end of January 2008.
The main objective of this study was to isolats , identify and enumerate Enterohaemorrhagic E.coli O157from locally produced soft cheese , besides that , to study the effect of cheese storage temperature
(4 ْC) and different salt concentration solutions on the viability and survival of E.coli O157 in stored cheese .
Data demonstrate that 11 out 24 of samples 45.84% were found to have Enterohaemorrhagic E.coli O157 and their average counts were
1.6× 104 CFU/gm.
The result of statistical analysis demonstrate that cheese samples manufactured from cows raw milk had significantly ( P> 0.05) higher E.coli O157 counts and isolation rates over both cheese samples that were manufactured from Ewes and buffaloes raw milk .
the average count of Enterohaemorrhagic E.coli O157 in cheese manufactured from cows milk were 3.8× 104 CFU/gm and the isolation percentage was 75% while their average counts in cheese manufactured from Ewes and buffaloes milk were 7.3 ×103 & 2.4 ×103 CFU/gm respectively and the isolation percentages were 37.5 % & 12.5% respectively.
Data revealed that all soft cheese samples that were found to have Enterohaemorrhagic E.coli O157 and stored at refrigeration temperature (4 ْC) had non significant ( P<0.05) reduction in the average counts of E.coli O157after 3 weeks of storage and this indicate that the refrigeration storage temperature (4 ْC) had no significant effect on the viability and survival of E.col O157 .All soft cheese samples that were found to have Enterohaemorrhagic E.coli O157 were stored in brine solutions at different salt concentrations such as 2.5%, 5%,7% and 10% for 24 hr,1 week, 2weeks & 3weeks . Data revealed that brine solution at high concentration of salt such as 10% had non significant effect on the viability and survival of E.coli O157after 3 weeks of storage.

Effect of of Levamisole as immunostimulatoron the humoral and cellular immune response in sheep vaccinated with Brucella melitensis Rev-1 vaccine

Yousif; A.A; Talal A.K; Al- saigh

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 120-139

This study was designed to determined the influence of levamisole administration as immunostimulator for sheep vaccinated with Brucella melitensis vaccine (Rev-1). The sixty sheep (males and females) were divided equally into four groups *The first group (vaccinated group ) the animals were vaccinated with Rev-1 vaccine at a dose of 1 ml s/c which contain 2 x 109 viable bacteria *The second group ( vaccine and levamisole ), was vaccinated with Rev-1 as the same of the first group as well as levamisole was given orally at a dose of 10 mg / kg B.W a week before vaccination and with vaccination and a week after vaccination and then levamisole was given at monthly intervals up to the end of the experiment.* Third group (levamisole group) was given levamisole orally at a dose of 10 mg / kg B.W at the same regimen of the time of the second group.
*The fourth group kept as a control group which was given 1 ml of PBS s/c
The humeral and cellular immunity assessed on animals at 0 time ,2,4,6,8,10,12,14 weeks.The vaccinated animals showed a high temperature after vaccination in the Ist and 2nd groups, the highest rate value was recorded in the first group 40.93C. Same trends were noticed in respiratory and pulse rates. No changes were recorded in the third and fourth groups.
The vaccine stimulate humeral immunity ( first and second groups ). Rose Bengal Test gave a positive result in both vaccinated groups only. The second group revealed high means significant antibody titer 1160.53 than the first group, while the third and fourth groups showed a negative result in the antibody titer as detected by passive haemagglutination test (PHA).
While the cellular immunity showed the following results .Delayed type hypersensitivity test was positive in the vaccinated groups and the second groupshowed significantly higher average in redness area and its thickness, than the first group,while in third and fourth groups the results were negative . The E-Rosette test in second group showed significantly high activated and total lymphocytes ratio compared with the other groups followed the second,first group and fourth group didn’t show any increase than the normal ratio..
Serum total protein concentration was increased in the two groups which received the levamesol 2nd &3rd groups compared with 1st and 4th groups.

Control of the infection with Brucella melitensis in cattle

Hussein.A.S; Abd-Alrahman.A.M; Nadia A.A

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 137-146

Sera from1722 cattle of different age (3 months to 8 years) were examined by the Rose Bengal and tube agglutination test: 134 cow give positive result and the overal Brucella seroprevalence was (8%) milk samples zeropositive milking cattle were cultured on Brucella selecative media.
Seropositive cattle (102) were treated for the first time with long acting oxytetracyclin at the dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight administered intramuscularly (i.m) every 2 days for 30 days and streptomycin at 25 mg/kg (i.m) every 2 days for 16 days.
The regimen was found to be effective in eliminating the shedding of Brucella organisms by cattle in milk.
Moreover all treated cattle became zeronegative within 16 months after treatment…zeronegative cattle (1588)were vaccinated for the first time with the Br.Melitensis as follows
1. 362 young cattle(aged three months to one year)were each inoculated subcutaneously with a full dose(1×109)viable organisms in 1 ml, Brucella antibody titers were detected 2-4 weeks post vaccination then decreased gradually until the animals became zeronegative 8 months after vaccination.
2. 1226cattle aged more than one year were each inoculated subcutaneously with reduced dose (1×106 viable organism in 1 ml)antibody titers measured 2-4 weeks post vaccination then decreased gradually until the animals became zeronegative 3 months post vaccination.No Brucella organisms were seen from repeated udeer secretion samples from all vaccinated milking cattle, and no abortions were recorded among pregnant vaccinated cattle.

Study influence of Salinomycin and Anticoccidial Vaccine on Pathological changes in intestine of Broiler Chickens experimental infected with Eimeria spp

Dalia Ahmed Kalef

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 147-158

To conduct the influence of salinomycin & anticoccidial vaccine on pathological changes in intestine of broiler chickens experimental infected with Eimeria spp. By using 40 broiler chicks divided randomly to four groups( 10 chicks of each group ) First group vaccinated with anticoccidial vaccine (coccivac) at 8 days of age in drinking water while the second group feeded salinomycin in concentration 60ppm from one day old ,the third group left non vaccinated nor given salinomycin as a control group at(26 days )of age chicks in that three groups infected with different species of Eimeria spp .with high dose (100x10³) Oocyst /chick by group inoculation & the fourth group consider negative control not vaccinated or treated .At (33 days)of chicks age all the chicks were killed for measuring lesion score of intestine which their results +1.75 , +3, +4 with mortality rate 0%,10%,20% for vaccinated ,salinomycine treated & control groups respectively then took samples for Histopathological changes the results pointed high pathological changes in intestine of positive control group with sever necrosis & degeneration of epithelia with sever tissue damage companied with maturation first & second generation sporozoite in the endothelial layer of intestine. While the pathological changes was less sever in salinomycine treated group with necrosis & degeneration of epithelial layers accompanied with exist of sporozoite in endothelial layer of intestine . while the vaccinated group showed no clear pathological changes in intestine except hyperplasia of global cells & infiltration of lymphocytes cells in the layers of intestine , it was concluded that the vaccine which was given to chicks provide good protection & decrease dangerous of coccidiosis infection .

Effect of Anaplasma spp. infection on some blood parameters in Awassi local breed sheep.

H.M.A.S. Al-Rubaii

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 171-180

The aim of this study to investigation the effect of Anaplasma spp. infection on some blood parameters by collecting 65 blood samples
from Awassi local breed sheep. The total infection rate 26.15 % which divided into 25 % in males and 26.31 % in females. The parasitemia range between 0.5-4 % (mean 1.97 %).
The infected animals showed anemia represented by decrease means of packed cell volume (P<0.01), red blood cell count (P<0.05) and haemoglobin concentration, While increase corpuscular volume, corpuscular haemoglobin and corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (P<0.05). As well as decrease total white blood cell count and monocytes while increase lymphocytes, neutrophils , eosinophils, basophils and platelets comparison to non infected animals.
Our conclusion refered to the direct effect of Anaplasma parasite on some blood parameters in the infected Awassi local breed sheep.

foot and mouth disease in some areas of Nainawa province during may 2007

Zaid Salah Hussein

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 181-203

For the determination of FMD infection in Nainawa province Serum samples were collected from 92 suspected cases (42sheep,50cattle)this was performed in September 2007 and included nine region(Talafar ,Basheca, Al-shamal, Hamamalaleel ,Cokajlly ,Zamaar ,Al-Namrood ,AL-Koosh and Hemedaat), these samples were send frozen to the labs of state Vet. Company in Al-Nahdaa , the special test FMD-3ABC bo Ov enzyme immune assay on sheep serums showed that 30.95% were positive to the test and 19.05% were ambiguous while the test on bovine serums showed increase in both positive and ambiguous results (42%,26% respectively), 8 serums that showed the highest positive result to the former test were submitted to the special immunological test FMD Elisa Kit Liquid Phase Blocking Immunoassay for detection of antibodies of foot and mouth disease virus test which revealed that all sores of the samples were infected with O serotype FMD

Pathological & Residues study of Cadmium Chloride in rabbits

AL -Kaisie.B.I

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 207-213

In the present research, the pathological effect of CdCl2 residue study was done on white male rabbits. 42 white male rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups : 1st group included 30rabbits were given CdCl2 13 Mg / kg / day for 12 weeks via drinking water .2nd group included 12rabbits fed on normal rabbit diet .The following parameters were observed on the above groups:
1- Clinical signs: Treated rabbits showed, vomiting and bloody diarrhea .
2- Residual investigation on liver and kidney : CdCl2 residue present more significant in liver and kidney mostly at 8 and 12 weeks : 108.0 ,447.0 mg/kg dry weight in liver and 113.1,447.0 mg/kg dry weight in kidney respectively .
3- Histopathological changes: The liver & kidney of treated rabbit showed in liver and kidneys typical form of macrophage granuloma surrounded by fibrous connective tissue.

Mechanism of the Tracheal Smooth Muscle Relaxant Activity of the Cordia myxa Plant Extract in Sheep

Muhannad A. A. AlBayaty; Farid J.. AlTahan

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 214-226

Isolated tracheal smooth muscle of sheep, which is pharmacologically precontracted by acetylcholine, induces relaxation when exposed to Cordia myxa plant extract. The aim of the present study was to typify the mechanism of Cordia myxa extract induced by relaxation in the sheep trachea. 1. Cordia myxa extract relaxed both epithelium-intact and denuded sheep trachea rings contracted by acetylcholine. The scale of relaxation on Cordia myxa extract was dependent on the treated dose and slightly greatly in epithelium denuded rings than in epithelium-intact preparations. 2. L-NAME (10 nM-100 uM) but not D-NAME completely inhibited the relaxation in a concentration dependent manner. 3. The Cordia myxa extract -induced relaxation was inhibited by methylene blue (1 -100 uM), and verapamil (100 nM), and removal of extracellular Ca2+. In contrast, Cordia myxa extract - induced relaxation was potentiated by Nw-nitro-Larginine (L-NOARG) treatment. These results put forward that Cordia myxa extract -induced relaxation may be due to nitric oxide from exogenously administered L-arginine as well as endogenous nitric oxide donors such as amino acid and arginine derivatives. Additional suggestion is that Cordia myxa extract stimulates the expression of nitric oxide synthesis, and its activity for nitric oxide generation is dependent on cytosolic Ca2+ originated from extracellular space.

Comparative study between the prophylactics Effects of aqueous extract of Black Currant (Vitis vinferia.L) and vitamin E on some biological parameters related with heart diseases in oxidative Stressed rats

A. H; Abdul-Katum; Khudair; K.K

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 227-252

This study was designed to investigate the prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of black currant concentrate on some biological markers related with heart disease in male rat treated H2O2. It also aimed at comparing the prophylactic effect of black currant concentrate to that of vit E.
Forty adult male rats were divided randomly into equal groups (ten rat/group) & were treated as follows for 42 days. Rats in the first group (G І) were received normal water with oral intubation of sun flower oil 1ml /rat and consider as control group. Animals of the second group (G Π) were received 0.5% H2O2 in drinking water, while rats of the third group (G Ш) were received 0.5% H2O2 in drinking water with oral intubation of vit E 400 I.U/Kg.B.W diluting in sun flower oil for each rat daily .While animals in the fourth group (G ІV) were intubated daily 60mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of black currant concentrate plus 0.5% H2O2 in drinking water.
Fasting blood samples were collected at 0, 21, and 42 days of experiment to study the following parameters:
A - Platelet count (PC) and prothrombin time (PT).
B- Serum concentration of total cholesterol TC, triacylglycerol TAG, High density lipoprotein-cholesterol HDL-C, Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol LDL-C and Very low density lipoprotein- cholesterol VLDL-C of each group were measured. These parameters were regarded as biomarkers of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). Furthermore section of heart & aorta were assessed for histopathogical studies.
The result revealed that administration of 0.5% H2O2 in drinking water for six weeks (42days) caused significant increase (p<0.05) in platelet count & in serum TC,TAG,LDL-C, and VLDL-C concentration with significant decrease(p<0.05) in prothrombin time and HDL-C concentration as compared to other groups, on other hand oral intubation of vitamin E or aqueous extract of black currant concentrate in addition to H2O2 (groups Ш and ІV respectively) decreased the serum concentration of TC, TAG, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and platelet count comparing to H2O2 treated group & the control. Besides, the black currant concentrate and vitamin E caused significant elevation in serum HDL-C concentration & prothrombin time.
Histological study revealed that 0.5% H2O2 intubation initiated aortic atheromatus lesions characterized by collagen proliferation, thickness of the intima, infiltration of inflammatory cells& focal foamy cell in subintimal layer with narrowing of the blood vessels. While histological section of aorta& heart of H2O2 plus black currant concentrate showed complete regression of atheromatus lesions caused by H2O2 intubation.
It seems that black currant concentrate exert protective actions against H2O2 induced oxidative stress, atherosclerosis & change in some biological Markers related to heart disease. Such effects were more effective than vitamin E in some parameters.
According to the available literature it seems that this is the first study showed the antiatherosclerotic properties of aqueous extract of black currant concentrate & it’s more potent than vitamin E in this issue.

Histological study of the Vagus, Accessory and Hypoglossal nerves nuclei in one humped camel Camelus Dromedarius

T.A.Abass

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 253-265

The present work making histological studies of certain part of medulla oblongata on seven one humped camel ( Camelus Dromedarius ) of different ages and sexes. The location of Vagus X, accessory XI and hypoglossal XII nerve nuclei. The hypoglossal nerve XII nucleus consist of two nuclei dorsal greater and ventral smaller and the dorsal nuclei observed. Connected with dorsal motor vagal nucleus X by specific arch of fiber in many sections and another observation the root fiber of hypoglossal nucleus XII pass along the lateral border of inferior olivary nucleus and some sections the root fiber penetrate lateral part of inferior olivary nucleus.

A survey on diseases of chickens in five villages around Baghdad and study the effect of concurrent infections on Newcastle Disease antibodies titre

Bushra Hamza Faris

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 266-280

In order to identify the major diseases condition and factors constrict chicken production, a survey was undertaken in 5 villages in district around Baghdad. Field data were collected during the period from July, 2007 to March, 2008. Diagnosis of each case was depending on case history, clinical signs, gross pathological lesions and isolation of Newcastle disease virus.
The result revealed that different viral, bacterial, parasitic and nutritional diseases were reported, Newcastle disease was considered the most important one of these diseases.
Further the significance of these infections was not known in details, and there were some indications that the concurrent infections have an immuno- suppressive effect on the immune status in chicks, thus enhancing the pathogenicity of other diseases.

The incidence of coliform mastitis caused by E.coli

Hazhaow Omar Muhammed Murad

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 281-289

Dairy project of private sector was selected to find out the incidence of mastitis due to E.coli or other pathogen .This dairy project was under bad managemental feeding, housing and health practices. This dairy project was included 80 cows ,thirty two cows were at milking period while the other 48 were dry .Milk samples from the teats of each milking cow was collected to find out the infected quarters or udder with mastitis either by E.coli or other microorganism using nutrient agar ,eosin methylene blue agar and MacConky agar then using the biochemical test as completed tests .The result revealed that twenty six cows out of thirty two were shown positive result with mastitis .E.coli infection was highly designated (65.38 %).Single infected quarters showed high infection rate .Anterior right and posterior left quarters recorded higher infection rate than other quarters. Single infection of the anterior right quarter manifested among other single infected quarters .E.coli was not specialized in any quarter.

Fluorescent Antibody Technique For Detection Of Salmonella Typhimurium In The Intestine Of Experimentally Infected Calves

Faisal; G. Habasha; Abdul Wahab Abul Razak

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2008, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 290-298

A systemic study on the pathogenesis of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection was carried out in calves. Sixteen normal, colostrum-fed, friesian calves, ranging in age from 3 to 6 weeks were used. The calves were divided into two equal groups. Group I calves were inoculated orally with 1.5 x 1011 CFU of Salmonella typhimurium and group II calves served as control.
Using an indirect fluorescent antibody technique, it was found that Salmonella typhimurium has an apparent predilection for the small intestine particularly jejunum and ileum. The results of this study suggest that this technique can be considered as a rapid reliable technique for diagnosis of salmonellosis in endemic outbreaks.