Print ISSN: 1609-5693

Online ISSN: 2410-7409

Volume 34, Issue 1

Volume 34, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2010, Page 1-227


EFFECT OF EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTION LAYERS WITH LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES ON SOME BLOOD FEATURES

Faris A. AL-Obaidi; Methaq G. Al-Rubaiey

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 1-8

The object of this study was to determine the effect of experimentally infection dose of layers orally on some blood components. A total of 45 layer were distributed into three groups and each group to three replicates (15 layer per replicate) cosnsisted of T1 (control group free of infection ) , T2 and T3 were orally experimentally infected by 1x105 and 1x1010 (CFU ml hen of L. monocytogenes .
The results of blood tests showed that T1 layer predominant in P.C.V. , Hb , and R.B.Cs. after 6 days of experimentally infection and this differences disappeared after 35 days , when as the differences in W.B.C.s appeared after 9 days and total protein concentration after 21 days and disappeared after 42 days of experimentally infection with no statistically differences in uric acid concentration .

EFFECT OF VINEGER ADDED TO DRINKING WATER ON THE BROILER PERFORMANCE DURING SUMMER SEASON

Ammar. Q. Al-Awss; Najim I. Al-Hadeethi; Shahrazad M. Al-Shadeedi; Mohammad J.B. Al- Shadee

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 9-15

This study was conducted at poultry farm of the College of Agriculture, University
of Baghdad during the period from the 21
st
of July to 26
th
of August of 2001 to المجلة الطبية البيطرية العراقية , المجلد 34 ,العدد 1 , السنة 2009
10
identify the effects of vineger on broiler performance at the two weeks of breeding
period during summer season. One hundred and twenty unsexed faw-bro broiler chicks
divided randomly into two equal groups consisted of 60 chicks in each (3 replicate of
20 chicks each ) they were exposed to one of the following treatments:-
- Treatment 1: tap water for the 7 and 8 weeks of age.
- Treatment 2: water + vineger (0.1%) for the same period.
The results showed that treat.2 enhanced significantly (P<0.05) body weight compared
with treat.1 . The mean body weight were 1200 and 1150 gm at 7 weeks of age and
1500 , 1400 at 8 weeks of age respectively. Also adding 0.1% vineger to drinking
water improved significantly (P<0.05) feed intake, feed conversion and decreased
mortality at 7 and 8 weeks of age .

The study of relationship between effect of some environmental condition in some physiological haematological in cross bread Holstein Friesian Dairy cattle

A.M.Al-Kinan; M.A.Al-Zahir; H.Y.Al-Baiti

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 15-21

The aim of this study was to conduct the effect of environmental conditions (temperature degree and relative humidity) for three seasons ( winter , spring and summer) on some physiological, productive and functional parameters of Friesain dairy cow and their relation with two different lactational stages ( Second and third lactational stages). This study was carried out in Al-Tathamin Dairy plan, Al-Dijyla'a ( Iraqi – Jordan Company) at Waist province. Thirty dairy cows were selected and divided in two groups, each group contains fifteen cows depended on lactation stage. Blood sample were collected at monthly intervals for hematological examination viz; packed cell volume haemoglobin, milk yield and milk traits such as fat percentage, total solid material, and non-fatty solid material was measured. The period of study lasted from 1-January 2006 up to 1-september 2006. The result revealed following:
1. Significant decreased in the haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume were decreased in the two lactation stages (second and third lactation stage).
2. Milk yield was non significant decreased during summer as a result in increased environmental temperature about 14.1co to 36.1co and decrease relative humidity about 62.2% to 20%.
3. Milk percentage decrease and reach it's minimum level during summer for the third lactation stage to reach 2.6%.
4. Total solid and total solid non-fatty material of milk percentage increased for the two lactation stages during spring to reach (12.59%, 9.3%) fore the third lactation stage and (12.22%, 9.6%) fore the second lactation stage.

Aflatoxin in Chicken's Feed and it's Effects onApoptosis

Emad J. Khammas; Sahar H. A.Majeed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 29-43

One hundred samples of ration, protein, corn, soybean, and wheat were collected from poultry houses in Baghdad and suburbs to examine Aflatoxin occurrence in chicken's diet. ALISA technique was used for this purpose.The results revealed presence of high level of Aflatoxin in ration (P< 0.05) compared with other contents of diet fallowed by soybean (P< 0.05) then corn, wheat, and protein respectively .These contents were mixed and tested by ELISA and presented to the experiment chicks. One hundred and twenty, one day old chicks, were divided to four groups, first group (G1) was fed contaminated Aflatoxin feed and did not vaccinated. The second group (G2) was fed contaminated feed and vaccinated with Newcastle Disease vaccine (NDV) and Infectious Bursal Disease vaccine (IBDV), whereas the third group (G3) was fed uncontaminated feed and vaccinated with NDV and IBDV, and the forth group (G4) -Control group- was fed uncontaminated feed and didn't vaccinated.After four days of the beginning of the experiment, blood, liver, and kidney samples were collected, and this procedure was repeated every four days to estimate total protein, haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, ELISA test to detect (ND) antibody titer. Results showed decrease in total protein and (ND) antibodies in the groups which were fed contaminated feed.Liver and kidney samples were collected for histopathologic examination which showed vacculation, fatty change and hemorrhage in liver and kidney samples in addition to accumulation of lymphocytes. Condensing of Bauman capsule's tufts in kidney. Increased Kupher's cell in the liver. Apoptosis was noticed significantly in group one and group two, compared with group three and control. It was concluded that Aflatoxin in high concentration in chicken feed and feed contents was present, with negative impact of the toxin on ND vaccination and blood total protein, also affects the histology of liver and kidney.

Effect of experimentally infection layer chickens with listeria monocytogenes in isolation of bacteria from organs and egg components

Methaq G. Al-Rubaiey; Faris A. Al-Obaidi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 33-41

The object of this study was focused on transmission of Literia monocytogenes through layer body , the role of this birds in the spread of this bacteria and the effect of experimentally infection dose of the layer orally on bacteria transmitted to eggs ,egg components and internal organs . A total of 45 layer were distributed into three groups and each group to three replicates (15 layer per replicate) cosnsisted of T1 (control group free of infection) , T2 and T3 were orally experimentally infected by 1x105 and 1x1010 (CFU ml hen of L. monocytogenes .
Results indicated that .L. monocytogenes were isolated from ovary, oviduct, uterus, proventiculous, gizzard, heart, liver, spleen, intestine and cecum after 3, 6, 9, 15and 21 days of experimentally infection and the lowest isolated rate from T2 group compared with T3 group .Also , the bacteria were isolated from egg shell , shell membrane and egg albumen of eggs produced from T2 and T3 group layers after 3, 6, 9, days and the isolation rate decreased gradually from the three components of the egg after 15 days ,when as the isolation from yolk membrane , yolk fluid and germinal cell after 6 days of infection and decreased gradually after 21 days .

The Synergistic Effect of Zingiber officinale Roots and Vitamin E on some Reproductivity and Physiological Traits in Rations of Kids Iraqi Black Goat

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 42-52

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of using milled Zingiber Rhizome and vitamin E on some reproductivity traits (serum hormones levels, SSH and testosterone and semen characters).
Eighteen Iraqi Black kids at age of 5-6 months were bought and divided into three groups equally (body weight was considered), each group contained 6 kids. This study was carried out in Animal's Farm, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad from 1st November 2007 up to end of May 2008, and treated as followed:
The first group (Z) (Zingiber group) was fed on concentrates diet (400 g/head) daily which contained 10 g of zingiber (2.5% of diet). The second group (Z+E) (Zingiber group + vit. E) was given the same concentrate diet mentioned above (400 g/head) daily and administered of vit. E with a dose of 400 mg/head orally given bimonthly for each animal. Animals of the third group were fed on a concentrate diet (400 g/head) daily which was free of Zingiber kept as a control group.
The results revealed the followings:
With experimental period progress, SSH hormone level of all groups were increased, while no significant differences among different groups were obtained in spite of mathematically increased in group 1 and 2 compared with the control group. Testosterone hormone level was progressively increased in all groups, the first and second groups showed significantly (P<0.05) increased compared with the control group at end of the experimental period.
The kids in the second and first groups showed their pubertal stage at earlier age than the control group. While the second group showed more earlier than the first group.
Most semen quality characters recorded mathematically or significantly (P<0.05) better in the group 1 and 2 compared with the control group. While the animals in the 2nd group gave better values in most semen characters compared with those in the first group.
It is concluded that by using Zingiber rhizomes caused an improvement of some reproductivity and physiologically traits of male goat kids by administration of Vit. E caused more improving.

The isolation and identification of the important pathogenic bacteria from fresh meat

Waffa A.Ahmed; Maysoon Sabah Abbas; Aseel M. Hamzah

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 44-50

This study was aimed to investigate the load of bacterial contaminant in fresh meat with different types of bacteria.One handered and seven samples were collected from different regions of Baghdad . These samples included 37 of fresh beef 70 of fresh sheep meat. All samples were cultured on different selective media to identitfy of contaminated bacteria .The result revealed that The percentage of bacterial isolate from raw sheep meat were,23.8 % of StreptococcusgroupD, 29.4 % of Staphylococcus aureus ,14.7 % of E.coli 4.9% , of Salmonella spp, , 3.5%of pseudomonas aeruginosa14.7% ,. 14.7%of Proteus spp. 2.1 %of Listeria spp while the raw beef meat content 5.55% of Staphylococcus aureus, 8.14% of Streptococcus group D , 1.85% 5.18% of E.coli, 3.7%of Proteus spp 1.85%،of Salmonella spp1.85 % of pseudomonas aeruginosa ،. 1.48 % of Bacillus cereus and.1.48 % of Klebsiella spp.

General survey on the epidemic hydatidosis in Equidae

Khalida Hussain Younis

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 53-67

A general survey was implemented on the hydatid cyst disease in Equidae duing the period from 1112001 till 31102002. The results showed that the infection rate was 7.8% by examining 242 animals, 156 males and 86 females. The rate of hydatid cysts infection reached 8.3% in males and6.97%in females. The livers were the most infected organ by parasitic rate of 68.42% ,in livers and lungs together was 26.31% while in lung was 5.26%.
A198 hydatid cysts were isolate from donkeys livers with rate of 59.59%, from livers and lungs with rate of 38.33% while the isolation rate from lung was 1.5% .
The fertility rate of hydatid cysts in livers reached 50% , most of them were in the examined infected organs reached 11.86% . Fertile hydatid cysts where found near sterile or calcified or caseated cysts in the same infected organ.

Effect of copper on soluble proteins and enzymes in freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha

Ahmad S. Farhan; Abid A. Thaker

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 75-83

Dreissena polymorpha mussel were collected from Al-Kadesia lake - Haditha /Al- Anbar Governorate-Iraq. The animals were exposed to 1, 2 and 4 mg copper/l of water for eight days. The soft tissue was analyzed for the effect of copper on total protein components and activity of six enzymes (using colorimetric and /or electrophoretic methods). Copper was found to cause (a) Change in the intensity of some esterase patterns and increase of total protein by increasing the exposure time to copper (b) Increase in the activity of the enzymes, ِAspartate amino transaminase ِ(AST) and Alanine amino transaminase (ALT), and decrease in the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP) . (c) Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH ) activity was decreased after exposure to the metal. These changes may be useful as an early indicator for water pollution with copper .

Pathogencity Study of the Chronic Toxicological Effects of Covered smut Wheat in Rats.

Kefah Oda Salman Al-Jeburii

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 84-92

The aim of studyblood picture to know the effects of chronic toxicity of infected wheat added to ratios and fed for six months to one year to (20) rats of both sexes divided into two groups to study metabolic, blood chemistry and histopathological changes in organ and tissues .
All these studies performed to evaluate the toxic effects and health hazard in human and animal that used the infected wheat whith fungal spores in food , results on blood and chemistry parameters such RBCs counts, Hb, PCV, WBCs showed decreased in the treated group . The biochemichal changes noticed reduction in ALT, AP , BUN as well as reduction in total serum protein and changes in albumin. The intensity of changes in these parameters were positively related to the changes in histopathology that noticed in liver, kidneys, lung and brain.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell wall Effects on Immunological Response Of Broiler Chicks that Infected with Listeria monocytogenes

Shahrazad M. Al- Shididi; Al- Nassery; Ban S. Abdul- Nabi; Faris A. Al-Obaidi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 93-102

The objects of this study were to determine the effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall (SCCW) to induce immunological response of Broiler chicks that infected with Listeria monocytogenes . SCCW was administrated to chicks by adding 30 gm / 100 kg feed. A 30 broiler chicks were distributed into 3 treatments ( 10 chicks/ treatment) which were:
T1 : control group for both experiment fed on (SCCW). T2 : chicks fed 30 gm / 100 kg feed (SCCW) and experimentally infected orally by Listeria monocytogenes 0.1 ml of 1 × 109 CFU /ml. T3 : chicks were experimentally infected orally by Listeria monocytogenes 0.1 ml of 1 × 109 CFU /ml. and study some immunological parameter includes the concentration of - globulin, albumin, transfferin, H/L ratio, single diffusion test, delayed hypersensitivity reaction (DWR). The result obtained revealed that using (SCCW).increased immune response (cellular and humeral immunity) through increased of lymphocyte and decreased H/L ratio and positive reaction of delayed hypersensitivity also increase the percentage of - globulin, albumin compared with infected group (T3).

Inhibitory effect of local Honey on Bacteria in culture media and in laboratory animals

Abbas; H.N.Al-saeed; Saffaa; A.A; Ali; A.Abed Al-abbas

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 103-110

This study was carried out at the animal station agriculture and the food technology research center of Iraqi ministry of science & Technology. In a study to determine the inhibitory effect of honey in the local growth of some pathogenic bacteria in growth media (In vivo) and in laboratory animals (Invitro) was used four types of bacteria brought from the Central Health Laboratory - Baghdad, Escherichia coli , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pyogenus and Pasteurella hemolytica, and their biochemical characteristics were re-examined.The study deals with studying the effect of local honey in the inhibition of the growth of these bacteria on environmental Nutrient Agar (Invitro) to measure the diameter of zone inhibition after incubator the culture media for a period of 24-48 hours, as for the study of the effect of honey in laboratory animals(mouse In vivo) 12 groups of local mice were used, in addition to four mice of each control group. Each group is given (cfu / ml 104 ) of specific bacteria once and then it is given Diluted honey of different concentrations (5%,10%,20%)with drinking water for one week to all groups except the control group.The study showed a different degree of inhibition of honey depending on the type of bacteria and whether the bacteria is negative or positive of the dye gram and the inhibitory effect of the honey in the nutrient broth increased according to the concentration of honey. The results in animals laboratory differed sometimes depending on the type of bacteria, this indicates that local honey is good in efficiency in reducing bacterial growth which might qualify for use as a treatment supporter with drugs and this is what must be expanded in future studies.

Histological study of the licorice extract as Phytoestrogens, compared with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophyin hormone (PMSG) in the female Reproductive system of Awassi ewes

Saffaa; A. B; A .H; AL-timemy; Abbas; H.N.Al-saeed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 111-121

This study was carried out at the Iraqi ministry of science & Technology as well as the Vet. Collage- Baghdad. This research aimed to study the effects of macroscopic and histological licorice extract in the genital tract of ewes as well as to study the effect of the extract on reproductive efficiency to be compared with serum hormone PMSG( pregnant horse) used for this purpose. The study used (36) local ewes which are divided into three equal groups (T 1, T 2, T 3) (Licorice extract 300, PMSG 500 and zero respectively), The first group( T1) of ewes was given licorice extract a single dose of 300 mg / kg body weight weekly for a period of ( 6) weeks, The second group (T 2), they were treated with hormone PMSG with a dose of 500 unit by intramuscular injection on the day of the raising of the vaginal sponges. As for the third group (T 3) which was given normal saline only it was used as a control group .The study results that the use of licorice extract as (Phytoestrogens) leads to a lack of awareness of the pathological changes on tissue of the genital tract of treated ewes or reduction of fertility and reproductive efficiency. As the study showed that the fertility rate increased ( 1,5%) in the Group of licorice extract which is similar to the group PMSG compared with control group which had a 1.0 fertility rate and a proportion of 88,8% of fertility. In conclusion, the licorice extract could be used to raise the rates of certain reproductive efficiency in sheep without causing any satisfactory damage in the canal genital ewes or reduction to the reproductive efficiency.

Production and Partial Purification of Heat-Stable Enterotoxin (A) Produced by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

Maha F. Al-Taee; Zaid K. Kamona; Rajiha I. Al-Nuaimy

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 122-130

A total of (25) stool samples were collected from children and adults (2- 4) years old suffering from diarrhea to isolate E. coli strains that produce heat-stable enterotoxin a (STa), and after performing microscopic examination, cultural characterization and biochemical identification only (11) isolates showed positive E. coli. STa activity was estimated by using suckling mouse assay (SMA) and from these (11) isolates only (5) showed STa activity and the one with the highest STa activity was selected for large scale production of STa, which was followed by partial purification using ion-exchange chromatography (normal phase) using DEAE sephadex A-50 column. After purification and determination of protein concentration by using the standard curve of bovine serum albumin, the concentration of toxin-protein was estimated as (1.08) mg/ml. The specific activity varied from (350) U/mg protein at the first step of purification to (2366.6) U/mg protein at the final step, while the final purification of the toxin was about (6.76) fold and with a yield of (18.25) %.

Cytotoxic Effect of Datura stramonium Extract on Cancer Cell lines

Nahi Y. Yaseen; Khalil Z. Al- Jeboori; Ala; a H. Merza

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 131-137

In order to investigate the in vitro antitumor activity of Datura stramonium seeds on cancer cell lines. Extract of this plant was prepared by using different concentrations of seed extract 3, 3.25, 3.5, 3.75, 4, 4.25, 4.5, 4.75 and 5 mg/ ml. Cytotoxicity was estimated on mammary adenocarcinoma (AMN3), brain cancer, and normal rat embryonic fibroblast (Ref3) cell lines. The results exhibited that the extract has cytotoxic effect by decreasing the viability of AMN3 (42.91%) and brain cell lines (32.79%). However, it produced little effect on viability of normal cell line Ref3, indicating the specificity of this extract against malignant cells

Investigation of the Phytochemicals Present in the Local Datura stramonium Seeds by Using Two Extraction Methods

Nahi Y. Yaseen; Khalil Z. Al- Jeboori; Ala; a H. Merza

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 138-142

In order to investigate the phytochemicals presence in the seeds of local plant of Datura stramonium rather than alkaloids. For this purpose two types of Datura stramonium extract were prepared. The first was precipitated by acetone and the other was destructed by ether then precipitated with ammonium sulphate. The first extract yielded 2.5gram/ 5 gram of seeds weight; while, the second extract yielded 1.23 gram/ 5 gram of seed weight. Biochemical tests exhibited that lectin and trace amounts of glycosides were presented in the acetone precipitated extract. Whereas, the ether extract contained lectin, tannin, flavonoids, and trace amounts of alkaloids

Evaluation of local injection of Acrylic Denture Base Material in Bucks spermatic cord.

Muna Ridha Al-Dahhan

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 143-150

This study was performed to identify gross and histopathology changes which can be occur in testis and spermatic cord following injection of Acrylic Dental Base Material inside spermatic cord , the agent is widely present ,cheep, quick ,highly solid and used as a substance of chemical castration. It was injected inside spermatic cord of 15 healthy adult bucks in the ratio of 3:1 bilaterally ; Treated animals where divided randomly in to 5 groups depending on time for gross and histopathology examination after injected with the material. Animals were followed up for 7 days, 14 days, 30 days, 60 days, and 150 days after injection. Result showed good and immediate hardening after 20-25 min. of injected material. Gross examination of testis after 7-14 days of material injection didn’t showed marked changes. While after 30 -60 days showed thickening of tunica vaginals which was easy isolated, and the testis was atrophied .And after 150 days showed disappear of testis structures with more atrophied. Histopathology changes of testis characterized by reduce rate of spermatogenesis , thickening of basement membrane ,inflammation was reduce in late stage and deposition of fibrous tissue . While the mean feature of histopathology changes of spermatic cord include, infiltration of inflammatory cells, then fibrosis which lead to complete contraction and obstruction of it from first week after injection.

Prevalence of intestinal helminths in stray dogs of Kalar city / Sulaimani province

Mariwan Musa Muhammad Bajalan

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 151-157

A total of 50 stray dogs, 26 males and 24 females from 3 different areas in Kalar city were killed and autopsied during the period from October 2005 till end of March 2006.The overall infection rates with cestodes and nematodes were 84% and 36%, respectively. No trematodes and acanthacephalans were found in the intestine of the dogs.The rate of infection was 75% in area around abattoir, 92.85% in areas of the periphery of Kalar and 95% in the city center.The following cestodes were identified: Taenia spp. (78%), Dipylidium caninum (26%), Diphylobothrium latum (2%) and Mesocestoides sp. (2%). Only two intestinal nematodes, Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma caninum were recovered with prevalence rates of 36% and 2%, respectively.

Protozoans infection of Cyprinus carpio L. from Bab Al-Muatham fish markets, Baghdad City

Sadiq M. Jawad Al-Shaikh; Nahla Talib Mansoor

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 158-164

During the period from November 2007 untill October 2008, a total of 255 specimens of the cyprinid fish Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758, were collected from fish markets east of Baghdad city. Microscopic examination of these fishes revealed that they were infected with five species of ciliated protozoans [Chilodonella cyprini with 1.6% percentage of infestation, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (3.5%), Trichodina domerguei (21.6%), Apiosoma piscicola (0.4%) and Epistylis solidus (1.2%)].
C. carpio is considered as a new host (third host) in Iraq for Epistylis solidus.

Study Antidiabetic Effect of Momordica Charantia (bitter gourd) seeds on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

Nibras N.A. Al-Abassi; Auroba M.S.Ibrahem

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 165-170

The aim of the present study is to investigate the antidiabetic effect of the aqueous extract of Momordica charantia seeds in alloxan - induced diabetic rats. Forty male albino Wistar rats were used, divided randomly into four groups (10 each). Oral administration of the seed extract at a dose of 150 mg/kg B.W. for 30 days showed a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose. Our results were greatly lower after oral administration of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia seeds in alloxan- induced diabetic groups than glibenclamide treated group. Also Momordica charantia extract and glibenclamide administered rats showed progressive increase in body weight.

Study the antinociceptive effect of the Zingiber officinale ethanolic extract and Vitamin C in rats.

Wisam. H. S. AL- Shebani

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 171-176

The present study was designed to investigate the antinociceptive activity of seperate and combined treatments of ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale rhizomes and vitamin C on visceral nociception induced by intraperitoneal injection of 2% acetic acid which produced writhing in rats. The preliminary chemical tests were performed on the extract and revealed the presence of flavanoids, alkaloids and tannins. Visceral nociceptive responses including the latency time to beginning of the first writhe, number of writhes per hour and the inhibition percentage of writhing. Seperate i. p. injection of ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale at dose of 25 and 50 mg/kg BW caused significant (P<0.01) increase in latency time and significant (P<0.01) reduction in writhing number. Seperated i. p. injection of vitamin C at dose of 10 mg/kg BW caused significant (P<0.05) reduction in writhing number, whereas, i. p injection of vitamin C at dose of 15 mg/kg BW produced significant prolongation in latency time and reduction in writhing number (P<0.01). Combined treatment with ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale at dose of 25 mg/kg BW and vitamin C at dose of 10 mg/kg BW. i.p. produced significant suppression (P<0.01) in pain responses as compared with the effect of the same doses when used each seperately. It is concluded that both ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale rhizomes and vitamin C are able to suppress visceral pain, and vitamin C potentiates the antinociceptive effect of the ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale rhizomes.

Prenatal Study of Testes Growth and Histological Development 2-Fetal Goat.

Alwan A.F; Amin; F.A.S.M

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 177-184

This study was conducted on 53 samples of female local Kurdi goats uterus contained one or two fetuses .These samples were collected from Sulaimani slaughter house, A total of 53genitlia were consisted of 36 (67.92%)single and 17(32.08%)twin fetuses ,with a total of 70 fetus,of them 33(47.14%) and 37(52. 86%) were located in the right and left horns, respectively. The number of fetuses with macroscopically clear external sex organ was 55, the total number of male fetuses was 34(48.57%) while the female was 21(30%).The fetuses whose external organ could not be diagnosed were 15(21.42%). The weight of the fetal testes and the length of scrotum were increased steadily with an increasing in the fetal Crown Rump Length(CRL). When the CRL is 2.5-5cm testes location is close to the kidney, while testes are located in the inguinal ring and/or scrotum at about20-23 and 28cm.Histological sections of testes showed the density of fibroblast layer and connective tissue capsules as well as the appearance of seminiferous tubles containing a few spermatogonia cells and small leydig cells at early stages of CRL=8cm. With an increasing in CRL , the seminiferous tubules filled with different types of spermatogonia cells, spermatocytes cells ,increasing in number and size of sertoli and leydig cells. Different Types of spermatid were also present in sections of more than 20cm CRL. The study indicated that the fetal testes secreted testosterone hormone which is essential for testes development and descending.

BIOCHEMICAL PROFILE OF HYDATID CYST FLUIDS OF ECHINOCOCCUS GRANULOSUS OF SHEEP IN DUHOK AREA

S.A.ABED; A.M.ABDULL. A; O.H.AZIZ; S.M.AL-BAYATI

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 185-190

Twenty two ( 11 from lung and 11 from liver of lung-liver cross infection ) hydatid cysts fluid collected from sheep slaughter in Duhok abattoir and there biochemical analysis done for several parameters (total protein , Glucose, Cholesterol , triglyceride, creatinine , Urea , Uric acid , Calcium and Magnesium ions ) by colorimetric assay kits for the first time in this area . The biochemical parameters varies in there measures as for protein increased significantly ( P<0.01) in lung cysts fluid ,while in liver some increased significantly like cholesterol ( P<0.01) ,triglyceride ( P<0.05 ) , creatinine (P<0.01) , calcium (P <0.01) and magnesium ( P<0.05). In compare with previous studies the results reflected some differences for many values ,and also among lungs or livers , which may pointed some strain variability in parasite metabolism, growth rate or even strain variation.

Prenatal Study of Testes Growth and Histological Development 1- Fetal Sheep.

Alwan A.F; Amin; F.A.S.M

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 191-200

This study was conducted on 200 samples of females Karadi sheep genitalia contains 207 fetuses . These samples were collected from slaughter house in Sulaimani reigion during the period from June 2007 to the end of May 2008. Sheep genitalia consisted of 193(96.5%) single and 7(3.5%) twin fetuses, amonge them 122 (58.92%)and 84(41.06) were in the right and left horns ,respectively. The genitalia that contain fetuses with clear external sex organs was 141, of these 74 male and 67 female fetuses different Crown Rump Length (CRL), while 66 fetus their sex could diagnosis after abdominal opened. The results showed the weight of the fetal body and testes as well as the length of scrotum were increased with an increasing of the fetal CRL. The appearance of the fetal testes in the inguinal ring was when CRL=22cm .80 day; in the scrotum 32 cm. 100 day ; Histological sections of the fetal testes were showed the density of fibroblast layer and connective tissue capsules as well as the appearance of seminiferous tubules containing a few spermatogonia cells and small sertoli and leydig cells at early CRL=10 cm 55 day; , with increasing fetal CRL the seminiferous tubules filled with different types of spermatogonia and spermatocytes cells as well as increasing in the number of sertoli and leydig cells were recorded at CRL= 20.3 cm. 75 days; While the metamorphosis spermatid were seen at CRL=24cm . 80-85 day; Conclusions : Fetal sheep seminiferous tubules early in gestation contain different types of spermatognium and spermatocyte cells appear in the testes after 50 days, and metamorphosis spermatid were seen after 80 days of intra uterine life no sperm was seen in fetuse testes.. It was concluded that the fetal testes in early gestation could be secreted testosterone which lead to increases in fetal testes development and growth of the germinal and somatic cells.

Determination of Patulin By TLC From Mouldy Apples

Thkra A. Hassen; Khalid N. Jassim; Omar J. Al saree

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 201-207

Analysis of the decayed apples (van. Starking delicious), collected from the local market, for patulin mycotoxin, using column chromotography and TLC Plates showed that the presence of the amount of patulin mycotoxin in the mouldy tissues (1.3 , 2.5 , 3.4 , 4.2, 5.5, and 6.4 ) cm in diameters were (5.1, 5.8, 6.3, 10.5, 12.3, and 14 ) µg patulin/g moldy tissues respectively. According to this research also, Patulin mycotoxin could diffused to the surrounding mouldy tissues. It is found that (0.5and 0.2), (1.0 and 0.5), and (1.5 and 0.5) µg patulin/g tissues in the first and second centimeters after mouldy tissues 4.2, 5.5 and 6.4 cm respectively, this phenomenon due to the presence of intracellular spaces in the tissues which allow to patulin to diffuse from mouldy to the healthy tissues there was no patulin found in the other surrounding healthy tissues. Gram positive bacteria found to be more susceptible to patulin, the zone of inhibition against Staphyllococcus aureus was 10 to 11 mm in diameter at concentration 10 and 30 mg /ml respectively when compared with 0.3 µg/ml streptomycin and 0.06 µg/ml ciprofloxacin while no inhibitory effect found against Gram negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli.

Evaluation of general anaesthesia by using Propionylpromazine, Xylazine and Ketamine in rabbits

M. J. Eesa; R. A. Omar; H. H. Mohammad Nazhat

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 208-217

Safe and effective anaesthetic regimens have been described for use in rabbits, partially because of the susceptibility of this species to fatal respiratory arrest. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of anesthetics, analgesics combinations an anesthesia in twenty five local breed rabbits. Rabbits were injected intramuscularly by: Propionylpromazine 0.5mg/kg B.W. as premedictation, after 10minutes later Xylazine and Ketamine Hydrochloride at a dose of 20mg/kg, 50mg/kg respectively. The results of the physiological parameters of the control group at the period of zero time concerning rectal body temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate were 38.00±0.29 ºC; 96.36 ±3.33bpm; and 147.20±6.46/minutes respectively. While in treated group at the periods 10, 20, 35, 50, 65, 80 and 95 minutes were 37.76 ±0.61; 37.34± 0.28; 37.00± 0.29; 37.00±0.35; 36.92±0.38; 35.80±0.40; 34.92± 0.53 ºC; 96.36±3.33; 41.00±1.37; 45.00±2.01; 45±2.01; 40.00±1.31; 40.00±1.31; 39.20±1.01 bpm; and 147.20±6.46; 142.00±3.73; 145.00±3.26; 144.48±3.31; 130.00±4.18; 140.00±3.49; 138.68 ±2.93 beats/minutes. The results of biochemical tests: Glucose, ALP, GPT, GOT in control group (zero time) were: (137.40±1.97 mg/dl; 53.09±2.13 U/L; 51.48±4.31 U/L; 116.9±09.82 U/L) respectively. And in treated group at the periods (10, 20, 35, 50, 65, 95 minutes and 24 hours) respectively were 139.60±0.79; 207.60±5.00; 222.20±7.42; 359.20;±18.89; 341.60±15.30; 337.7±76.39 and 199.92±9.14 mg/dl; 39.74±2.74; 42.55±3.29; 39.65±4.13; 42.48±2.62; 56.56±2.16; 47.41±3.61 and 42.84±4.16 U/L; 46.17±3.92 ; 39.34±3.01; 44.69±3.05; 49.98±3.16; 51.65±4.03; 47.22±2.54 and 72.63±4.98 U/L, and 94.72±8.24; 86.22±5.59; 90.82±6.89; 76.65±4.12; 82.70±4.69; 100.6±7.39 and 126.6±7.77 U/L. The conclusion of this study investigate that the lose of righting reflex was 4.760±0.421 minutes; induction time was 8.44±1.05, the time to complete muscle relaxation was 3.920±0.321 minutes, surgical time 41.48±2.11 minutes, and recovery time was 45.76±2.43 minutes; in which the surgical period was enough for the most of surgical interference, while the recovery period was smooth and short in comparison with another anaesthetic regimen.

STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF Sonchus oleraceus ON CANCER CELL GROWTH (In vivo)

Talib A. Makkawi; Nahi Y. Yaseen; Zeinab R.Zgheir

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 218-227

The in vivo study was designed to evaluate the anticancer effects of these three types of the extracts on the AM-3 (Murine mammary adenocarcinoma). The LD50 was (5 g/kg, 6 g/kg and 8 g/kg) for ethanolic, hot aqueous and cold aqueous extracts respectively. The therapeutic doses of extracts were daily injected subcutaneously for two weeks, three weeks and four weeks. The histopathological study revealed pathological changes in some organs; the group that treated with ethanolic extract showed sever deposition of amyloid in some organs like spleen. The blood vessel filled with inflammatory cells as neutrophiles and cells infiltration in the lung tissue. Hot and cold aqueous extracts showed inflammatory mononuclear cells infiltration in the kidney and lung, section with necrosis in most of the cancer cells in the lung tissue; with few necrotic changes in the normal tissue were noticed after one month of treatment by hot and cold aqueous extracts.