Print ISSN: 1609-5693

Online ISSN: 2410-7409

Volume 34, Issue 2

Volume 34, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2010, Page 1-201


Anatomical Study of the Accessory Genital Glands in Males Sheep (Ovis aris) and Goats (Caprus hircus)

Shaker M. Merhish; Azhar S. Khalaf

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 1-8

The study revealed that the ampullae of ductus deferens(vas deferens), seminal vesicle and bulbourethral glands are paired in number and well developed in ram and buck except the prostate gland have only disseminated part surrounding the pelvic urethra (embedded in pelvic urethral wall) without body of gland. The anatomical parameters of the ampullae in ram are generally with mean length 4.98 ±0.28cm,mean width 0.63 ±0.04cm ,mean weight 2.24 ±0.007gms and mean volume 1.4 ±0.03cm3.The seminal vesicle have mean length 3.68± 0.05cm, mean width 2.50±0.06cm ,mean weight 4.42± 0.15gms , mean volume 3.35±0.05cm3 .The bulbourethral gland have mean length 1.59± 0.36cm ,mean width 1.493±0.02cm ,mean weight 3.46±0.01gms ,mean volume 2.35±0.04cm3. The anatomical parameters of the ampullae in buck have mean length 4.87±0.29cm ,mean width 0.62±0.007cm, mean weight 2.18±0.007gms , mean volume 1.15±0.02cm3. the seminal vesicle gland parameters have mean length 3.61±0.01cm ,mean width 2.44±0.01cm, mean weight 4.18±0.15gms mean volume 3.05±0.04cm3.The bulbourethral gland parameters have mean length 1.58±0.005cm, mean width 1.46±0.006cm , mean weight 3.23±0.11gms and mean volume 2.05±0.03cm3.Generally the study did not observe any anatomical differences between the male accessory genital glands of ram and buck.

Pathogenic effect of bunt wheat on male reproductive system in Mices.

Mustafa A.K. Al-Taie

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 9-14

This study was carried out to study the toxic effect of smut wheat on male reproductive system of mice. The experimental study was performed in the laboratory using 20 mice, which divided into two groups, one group feed on normal diet, the other fed on a mixture of 50% normal diet with 50% smut wheat. A histopathological study was done on the testes of Mice fed on smut wheat for 30 days. The histopathological study revealed thickness of basement membrane of semiriferous tubule of mice, and desquamation of the sertoli cells and spermatogonium from the basement membrane of seminiferous tubule and has adversely effect on male fertility. Key words:buntwheat,malemices,reproductive.

The Effect of Crude Extracts of Sonchus oleraceus on Cancer Cell Growth (In vitro)

Talib A. Makkawi; Nahi Y. Yaseen; Zainab R.Zghair

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 30-38

This study was designed to evaluate the anticancer, effects of the ethanolic (EE), cold aqueous (CAE), and hot aqueous (HAE) extracts of Sonchus oleraceus on cancer cell lines (in vitro). In vitro study was performed on three cancer cell lines (murine mammary adenocarcinoma AMN-3 cell line, laryngeal carcinoma Hep-2 cell line) and rat embryogenic fibroblast (REF) as normal cell line. Periods of exposure of cell lines were measured at 24, 48, and 72-hr in a microtitration plate under complete sterile conditions. Different concentrations starting from (78.125 to 10000) µg/ml of two fold dilution for each extract were prepared and tested on each cell line, with three replicates for each concentration. The three extracts showed concentration and time dependence with growth inhibitory effects, and the highest effect was obtained from ethanolic extract at higher concentrations after 48 hr. of exposures on both AMN3 and Hep-2 cell lines, while the cytotoxic effect of both cold aqueous and hot aqueous extracts on AMN-3 and Hep-2 cell lines exhibited that the higher concentrations gave a significantly (P<0.05) and the higher inhibition growth rate of cells were increased at 24 hrs.Conclusion: These results suggest that the cytotoxic concentrations of Sonchus oleraceus extracts showed variation in values among cell lines according to cell types in vitro.

Prevalence of Listeria in ice creams in Baghdad province

Ali Hassan Ahmed AL-Shamary

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 39-44

The aim of this study was concerned on the prevalence of Listeria spp.in the ice cream samples collected from the different pastry shops and downtown stores of Baghdad province during December 2009 till April 2010. A total of 50 ice cream samples (25 locally produced samples from raw and imported powdered milk and 25 imported samples from different origins) were analyzed and processed according to the standard protocols of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) with some modifications. Growth of Listeria spp. was determined in 7 (14%) of total samples as 4 (16%) isolates from locally produced ice creams , from which one isolate was confirmed as Listeria monocytogenes, and 3 (12%) isolates from imported ice creams. The findings of this study suggest that Listeriacontaminates some dairy products and Listeria infections are not a potential risk in Baghdad province, but it is strongly recommended that these products are monitored carefully.

Histomorphological Structure of The Ultimobronchial Gland In The Indigenous Geese Anser anser ( Gray lage Goose).

Ahmed Mahdi Salih AL- Badri; Fadhil Sabah Mohammed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 45-57

The indigenous geese have symmetrical pair of ultimobranchial gland, pink in color, lenticular or globular in shape. These glands are located in thoracic inlet, posterior to the parathyroid gland, dorsal to the bifurcation of brachiocephalic trunk. In young birds the left gland usually adheres to the caudal pole of parathyroid gland and usually cranio lateral to the origin of common carotid artery, while the right gland is also related to common carotid artery, but it’s separated from caudal pole of parathyroid gland. The gland is supplied by collateral branch from common carotid artery and innervated by branch from the thoracic vegal trunk and directed from the recurrent nerve. The gland is not surrounded by capsule but it’s covered by mass of adipose tissue. The parenchyma of gland consists of epithelial component supported by loose connective tissue which mostly composed of network of collagen fibers interrupted by few elastic fibers. The epithelial component of the gland consists of calcitonin producing cell or C-cell, vesicles and accessory parathyroid nodules. The C-cells are arranged in strands or cords. The connective tissue stroma of gland contains various number of follicles or vesicular structures, which are variable in shape, size, structure and secretory activity. In adult birds, the large vesicles were transformed to cystic structure, which occupied the large part of gland.Key words:Ultimobronchial gland,Indogenous geese,Anser anser.

Anemia and Low Testosterone Associated with Male Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

Noor Adil Abood; Majid Ahmed Naseif AL-Bayati; Samal Hakeem Kareem AL-Jaff

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 58-65

Diabetes Type 2 is associated with low testosterone levels in men, The mechanism of which is unclear .Thus the aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of low testosterone in T2D patients men ⁄ and with aging ,and the possibility of anemia in these patients and the anemia accompanied the T2D cases is due to T2D itself or by the effect of low testosterone. Present work was studied two male groups with different age first, group A age (31-40) years , 60 person {30control & 30 T2D patients} (3 persons for each age),second, group B age (41-50) years ,60 person ,{30 control & 30 patients} (3 persons for each age). Blood was taken from these groups and sugar, PCV, Hb and Testosterone levels were measured comparing with control of each and between two groups and in each data, the mean data of the same age has been taken. Present results showes that male T2D patients have significantly low T. levels P≤0.05 and significantly P≤0.05 low Hb and PCV comparing with sugar level which was significantly high P≤0.05 ,and group B (41-50) age have the lowest T. level ,PCV and Hb with higher sugar levels. We concluded that anemia and low T. level associated with T2D , and the effect of low testosterone on anemia is little .Our data shows that low T. level and anemia increased with age T2D groups in both group A&B , and in control groups in both A&B bout it is more sever and alarming in T2D cases.Key words: Anemia, low testosterone ,diabetestype2,diabetic patients.

The analgesic activity of Mentha piperita (MP) leaves extract

Ahmed Najim abed saleh

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 73-78

In the present work, the antinociceptive action was assayed in several experiment models in mice, Hot plate, writhing and formalin test. The alcoholic extract of MP leaves at a dose of 150mg/kg B.W and 300 mg/kgB.W showed antinociceptive effects in different methods, where the dose of 300 mg/kg B.W showed significant reduction of the nociception by acetic acid. In the formalin test, the extract (300mg/kg B.W) also significantly reduced painful stimulus in both phases of the test. Treatment with extract (300mg/kg B.W) when given orally produced significant increase of the reaction time in hot plate test. These results showed that the leaves extract of MP contain active analgesic principles acting both centrally and peripherally.

Study of antidiarrhoeal effect of Datura innoxia leave extract against diarrhoea induce by Castor oil and magnesium sulphate in mice.

Farrah R. Jaafar; Duraidd A. Abbass

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 79-84

Aqueous extract of DI leaves was given to mice , at graded dose (100&200mg/kgB.W,P.O) to evaluat its antidiarrhoeal potential by using four experimentally induced diarrhoea treated groups each consis of five mice and one control group.Castor oil and magnesium sulphate were used to induce diarrhoea in mice,The extract at both doses showed a remarkable antidiarrhoeal activity manifested by significant delay in onset of diarrhea , decrease in number of wet stools , total number of stools and total weight of fecal output in 4 hours in both castor oil and magnesium sulphate induced diarrheal groups of mice. The results of this study reveal that The aqueous extract of Datura innoxia leaves contains pharmacologically active substance with antidiarrhoeal properties .These properties may explain the rational use of the plant as antidiarrhoeal agent in the traditional medicine.

Antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracts of pomegranate, sumac, sage, anise, hand bull tongue, thyme, cloves, lemon and mint against some food-borne pathogens

Abbas S. AL-Mizraqch; Zainab A. Al- Dhaher; Maha A. Mahmood

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 85-94

The increasing rate of resistance development for commonly used antibiotics have led to search for newer, more effective, affordable and easily available medicine. Medicinal plants have revived as a consequence of current problems associated with the use of antibiotics. Aqueous extracts of nine plants (pomegranate, sumac, sage, anise, hand bull tongue, thyme, cloves, lemon and mint) were qualitatively and quantitatively examined against twenty microbial isolates, mostly food borne including pathogens. (E.coli, Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans) antimicrobial screening was done by agar diffusion (well diffusion) and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. Among the screened plants, cloves were the most inhibitor against isolates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans followed by the inhibitory effect of sumac against (E.coli, Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans). On the other hand, pomegranate, sage and lemon showed varied inhibitory effect against the tested food borne isolates, whereas the extracts of anise, hand bull tongue, thyme and mint showed no antimicrobial activities against most of the tested isolates. Regarding the inhibition zone and MIC results, the present study certified that Candida albicans was the most sensitive pathogen as compared with the other food borne pathogens tested (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi).

Two Different Diagnosis Methods For The detection of cholera toxin production From Vibrio cholerae isolated from different areas in Iraq

Atheer Abdulrazzaq

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 95-98

Fifty isolates of Vibrio cholerae obtained from different areas in Iraq from patients with acute secretory diarrhea were diagnosed serologically in central public health laboratory(CPHL), Two different methods were used for detection cholera toxin production ,the first based on the degradation of Nicotin Amide Adinine Dinucleotide( NAD) by Cholera toxin (CT). and the second was by detection CT gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).All Vibrio cholerae were cultured in alkaline peptone water, out of 50 isolates 46 (92%) were positive when we used NAD for the detection of cholera toxin(CT).Whereas all isolates gave positive results by PCR. From these data we conclude that the degradation of NAD by CT is simple and can be carried out in small laboratories, it is also easy to perform, and gives reproducible results, while PCR provides a more sensitive and specific assay for rapid diagnosis of cholera than currently available methods.

Histological study of pars tuberalis of the pituitary gland in local male buffaloes ″Bubalus bubalis″.

Hussin; A. M; H. B; Malallah

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 99-102

This study was carried out on the pituitary gland of eight male buffaloes 3-5 years old, examined under light microscope. The histological results revealed that the pars tuberalis contained four types of cells, not similar to any other cell types of the pars distalis. This finding and the location of the pars tuberalis at the gate of pars distalis which control the blood circulation give the pars tuberalis a special functional importance.

Effect of the median lethal dose of the ethanolic extract of (NeriumOleander) leaves on the histopathology features of the vital organs in mice

Ali Hussien Saliem

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 103-109

Nerium oleander leaves ethanolic extract at median lethal dose of 520 mg/kg body weight were administered orally to six male mice .Clinical signs of toxicosis in mice began to appear about 1 hr after receiving the oleander extract which included abdominal pain, frequent urination, diarrhea, depression, weakness and convulsive movement and death at the end stage.Four mice died within 4 to 24 hrs and two survived. Haemorrhage spots of varying degrees were observed in internal organs at necropsy.Histopathology revealed extensive tubular necrosis in kidneys with haemosiderin pigment in the cytoplasm of convoluted tubular cells, different degrees of coagulative necrosis in cardiac muscle cells associated with haemorrhage and infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells. Scattered necrosis of hepatocytes,congestion and oedema in lungs with severe congestion in the brain also observed histologically.Key words: Narium oleander, ethanolic extract, mice.Corresponding address:Bakir20062006@yahoo.com

Ameliorative effect of black seed ( Nigella sativa L ) on the toxicity of aluminum in rabbits

Amira Kamil Mohammed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 110-116

In the present study the biological activities of Nigella sativa on limitation and ameliorative detoxification of aluminum were investigated through evaluation of some hematological, biochemical parameters and histopathology. Eighteen mature rabbits were divided equally into three groups. Group 1 was served as a control group; group 2 was administrated orally with distill water both of AlCl3 ( sub lethal dose 200 mg / kg body weight ) and NS in dose of 10 g / liter; group 3 administrated NS only in same dose. The results are revealed significant elevation ( P<0.05 ) in RBCs count, Hb and PCV values in group 3 in comparison with groups 1 & 2; while the WBCs count decreased significantly in group 2 and increased significantly in group 3. serum ALT, AST, AP, creatinine, urea and uric acid concentration were increased significantly in group 2, while; the albumin concentration was decreased significantly in group 2, as well as histological changes in liver and kidney in group 2. These results indicate the protective effect of black seed against AlCl3 induced toxicity in rabbits. Key words:AlCl3; black seeds; rabbits; toxicity

The inhibitory effect of some medical plants on the growth of some bacterial isolates from respiratory infections

N.M; Eaal; Abbas; M.S; Al-Jebouri; A.J

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 117-125

This study was carried out to evaluate seven types of herbs being: black pepper seeds (Piper nigrum), celery seeds (Apium graveolens), cubeb seeds (Piper cubeba), camphor seeds (Cinnamomuum camphora), myrrh (Commiphora mol mol), fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum- graecum) and seeds of Lepidium sativum. The antibacterial activity of alcoholic extracts of these plants was performed on gram- positive and gram- negative bacteria isolated from human respiratory tract infections including : S. aureus ,S. pneumoniae, M. antarcticus, Corynebacterium spp. and coagulase- negative Staphylococci (CNS). Gram –negative bacteria included: K. oxytoca, K. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. We studied the bacterial sensitivity to 10 antibiotics: Tobramycin (TOB), Ceftazidime (CAZ), Vancomycin (VA), Ampicillin (AM), Ofloxacin (OFX), Cloxacillin (CX), Cefalothin (KF), Erythromycin (E), Oxytetracycline (T), Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid (CTX). Cubeba essential oil was superior in inhibiting all the examined bacteria compared with other plants. K. oxytoca was most sensitive to Lepidium sativum seeds extract followed by myrrh and fenugreek, while K. pneumoniae was most sensitive to cubeba) 118and camphora. Cubeba followed by myrrh pi spp. was resistant to 5 antibiotics and sensitive to 4 which were: TOB, VA, OFX and KF.

Comparative study of milk somatic cells count (SCC) in cows, sheep and goats in summer and winter in Baghdad.

A.S.Abood

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 126-130

This study was included a collection of 90 milk samples from 30 cows ,30 ewe , and 30 does ,in mid-term of lactation period , 15 samples collected during summer and 15 samples duringwinter for each other . All samples were subjected to microscopical examination after staining with Newman Limbert stain , to check : The mean number of SCC in cows was ( 426.600 ) cells / ml through the summer , while the mean number of SCC in the winter ( 893.300) cells / ml . The number of SCC in sheep samples were estimated (287.300) cells / ml in summer, and (980.000 ) cells / ml in winter . while the goat were given mean( 533.300) cell / ml in summer and ( ( 933.300) cell / ml in winter . This study gives the difference in milk quality between season and species ( cow , sheep , and goat ) . Statistical analyses gives significant ( p < 0.05 ) between summer and winter in all speciesKey words:milk,somatic cells ,cow, sheep, goat

EFFECT OF COATING TABLE EGGS WITH NATURAL OILS AND STORAGE CONDITIONS ON ITS SHELF LIFE

Shahrazad M. Al-Shadeedi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 131-141

their effects on shelf life properties of fresh eggs. After storage for 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks at room temperature (experiment 1) and refrigerator temperature (experiment 2) . Fresh table eggs were collected from a flock of Isa brown laying hens, the eggs were distributed into four groups as follow :-1-Control group 2-Corn oil group 3-Dill oil group 4-Black seed oil group, the eggs were coated by immersioned in oil at 56.7 C for16 min (Oil thermostabilization) . The results revealed that coating table eggs with oils in general and specially medicinal oils reduced the mean decrease in egg weight , egg weight loss , PH , free fatty acids , total bacterial count and fungi count after storage for 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks compared with the control . Control group eggs expired after 8 weeks of storage at room conditions according to Iraq standard specification for eggs.The significant reduction in shelf life properties of the eggs treated with natural oils started at the second week under room temperature storage, and fourth week under refrigerator temperature. Dill oil or black seed oil thermo stabilization for table eggs were better than corn oil in reduced the reduction of shelf life after storage at room or refrigerator temperatures. Conclusion, coating locally produced or imported table eggs with medicinal oils to prevention the eggs from deterioration and spoilage during storage.

Effect of use varying ratios from fat with minced meat on bacterial load

Fouad kamil salum

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 142-147

This study designed to know the effect of use different ration from mixing between minced meat With fat on total bacterial count of meat ( 80) sample was examine through the period of this study (40 sample for minced meat and 40 sample for minced fat) collected from shops in Baghdad city. The results showed the means of bacterial count was rise for the group contained just minced meat without any mixing in means reach to 9.6x 10 cfu ml follow it with second group which include only minced fat by count 5.5x10 cfuml, and the study showed also decrease in bacterial count for (3) mixing groups ( fat with meat ), so the bacteria count for the third group which included 5%, from fat 1.1x10 cfuml and 1.3x10 for each of fourth and fifth group which contain the percent of fat10%,20%0n respectively. Also the study shows presence of a significant difference in ( p<0.05) between different mixing group (meat with fat) from one side to two qroups which included meat and fat only. Also recorded significant difference and in the same level in the mean of bacterial count between the first group which contain minced meat only, and the second one which contain fat only, there is no significant difference in mean of bacterial count among varying mixing group from statistical side but record obvious and important decline hygienically in bacterial count for each group. The study showed the best mixing percent for fat with minced meat were 10%,20% respectively which recorded the less bacterial count in each of these two groups. Conclusion mix fat with meat in ratios (10% - 20%) to get the beast decreas in bacterial load of meat .

Effect of Coriander Seeds (Coriandrum Sativum) on Wool Growth and It's Traits and Some Haematological Traits of Awassi Ewes

Drgham H. Yousif AL-Zwein

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 148-155

This study was conducted to find out the effect of coriander seeds as feed additive on some hematological traits and wool growth and it's physical traits of Awassi ewes, blood samples were taken biweekly for blood picture, and wool samples were taken every 2.5 months for wool growth and its physical traits. Eighteen Awassi ewes at the age of 2-3 years were randomly divided equally into three groups (6each ) "body weight was considered".Ewes in the first group kept as control and daily fed on concentrate diet (350 g/ head), while the second group was fed on the same diet contain (2.5%) of coriander seeds, while the third group was fed on same diet contain (5%) of coriander seeds. Also all animals were allowed to graze. Blood samples were taken from jugular vein for blood traits viz (PCV) packed cell volume, (Hb) hemoglobin, (MCHC) mean cell hemoglobin concentration. Wool samples (5×5) cm2 were clipped from the last six ribs of the right chest for measuring wool growth and its traits (creasy and clean wool, samples weights, clean wool ratio, staple and fiber lengths and diameters and wool fiber crimps in 1cm of length). The results of blood parameters revealed that the second and third groups were significantly (p<0.05) recorded higher values in their PCV ,Hb, MCHC during most studied periods compared with the control group ,While the second and third groups were significantly (P<0.05) recorded higher values than the first group (control) in their creasy and clean wool, fiber length, wool fiber crimps, while no differences where existed in other wool physical traits.

Dystocia In Iraqi Cross Breed cows: causes and Treatment

Ali Shalash Sultan

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 151-156

The study was conducted on 35 Cross breed cows. Three–Six years old suffering from dystocia in various regions of Baghdad province during 1996-2004. The incidence of dystocia was 29.16% (35 /120) from total calving cows. The result showed that the dystocia due to fetal and the dam were 85.71%(30/35) and 14.28%(5/35) respectively.The anterior presentation percentage from fetal dystocia cases was 93.3%(28/30) while the percentage of posterior presentation was 6.6% (2/30) from these cases. Cows delivered male and female calves were formed 77.14% (27/35) and 28.57% (10/35). The calves mortality percentage in both sex was 62.85% (22 / 35). The conclusion suggested that high incidence of dystocia due to fetus was in cows calving male calves .The manual repairing , correction and traction was the best methods when performed early, while Cesarean section was the pervecit especially in the cases accompanied with uterine involution and expulsion of uterine fluids that facilate parturition, as well as fetal over size or that can't be correct manually

Study of Using Vit. C to Reduce the Toxic Immunosuppressive Effect of Aflatoxin in Broilers

Hassiba A. Omran

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 157-161

This study was conducted to investigate the adverse effect of aflatoxine contaminated ration on immune response induced by N D vaccine in broilen and the effect of adding vit C in drinking water in reducing the aflatoxine immune supportive effect.A total of 75 day old broiler chicken were divided randomly in to three equal groups , the first group was feed aflatoxine free ration while second and third groups were feed on aflatoxine contaminated ration at 6 day of age, in addition to that the third group have received vit C in a drinking water (125 mg/litter). The birds were immunized twice with ND vaccine at 10, 20 day of age and ELISA test was carried out to estimate the humeral immunity response at 6, 19, 31, days of age .All the groups were challenged with velogenic ND strain (Z 2003). At 32 day of age. The results showed that the first group has high significant antibodies titer reach to 3239±249.3 at 19 days of age and 10186± 845.3 at 31 days of age with significant level p< 0.01 and high protection ratio against challenge (100%) at 32 days of age, while the second group showed a low antibodies titer reach to 2622.6± 27.3 at the 19 days of age and 5712.5± 786.9 at 31 days of age and low protection ratio against challenge (66.67%). the third group showed a high significant antibodies titer reach to 2795± 930.9 at 19 days of age and 7030.1± 246.7 at 31 days of age with significant level p< 0.01 with a protection ratio against challenge 80% at 32 days of age which mean that the third group showed antibodies titer and protection ratio lower than the first group and higher than second group. This study was concluded that giving diets contaminated with aflatoxine cause adverse effects on immune response while the administration of vit C in drinking water improves it.

Comparative immunologic and physiologic study of Broiler vaccinated with five different Gumboro vaccines.

Emad J. Khammas; Balqees H. Ali

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 162-169

Two hundred and four Broiler chicks was used, divided into six equal groups, each group was vaccinated with one vaccine as fellows: BUR-706 group1 (G1), IBD-L (G2), TAD (G3), CH/80 (G4), D78 (G5) and Control (G6). ELISA test was used to estimate ND and Gumboro disease antibodies. Aspartate amino transferase (AST), Alanin amino transferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, total protein and albumin and globuline concentrations in blood serum were estimated. Newcastle disease antibodies titers were high in G1 but low in G5 significantly. Gumboro disease titers were nonsignificant increase(p>0.05) in G1, G2 and G3 but nonsignificant low(p>0.05) in G4 and G5. Normal total protein, albumin and globuline concentrations and nonsignificant increase(p>0.05) in AST was noticed in vaccinated groups. ALT was significantly increased(p<0.05) in G1, G3, G4 while ALP activity was significantly increased.the BUR_706 and IBDL vaccines showed better results than others in broiler chicks,whileTAD and CH/80 vaccines were better D78.

The relationship between Feeding type and exposure to infection with some Ectoparasites of Marmarij Mastacembelus mastacebelus in Baghdad

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 170-175

40 Mmermrij fish Mastacembelus mastacebelus were collected from different areas in Baghdad , a total of 20 fish from each area; the first 20 from area near a Al Muthanna bridge, and the second from the old Diyala bridge. stomach contents Were taken from these fish and analyzed by the Gel electrophoresis device results showed abandunce of food protein of animal origin, which was identified with the food samples taken from the real environment of these fish. Also two types of parasitic crustaceans were identified which are considered the most common external parasites infected fish ; these were Leranea worms, type Learnea cyprinacea, and fish lice Argulus, type Argulus foliaceus, this is with respect to Almmermrij fish taken from Al Muthanna bridge region.As for the fish brought from the Jisr Diyala area; they were infected by Leranea and free of infection with Argulus , and the severity of infection with Learnea was lower than the first. which shows the disparity of the spread of parasitic crustaceans on fish in both areas because of the different environments and speed of the flow of water in addition to the different seasons of fishing in these two regions. Ket words:Ectoparasites ,marmarij mastacembelus mastacebelus,diyala bridge,fish

Study of Pollution Levels of heavy metals residues in the locally produced cheese & emulsifying salts

Ahmed M.S. Al-Shdid

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 188-193

The study was conducted to indicate the compartive measurements of heavy metals residues
levels were detected by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer in 10 random samples of locally
processed cheeses and in 20 random samples of emulsifying salts collectd from different areas
in Baghdad , results showed that such cheese of low quality and did not meet both local and
international Dairy products standards , Such findings of high concentration of heavy metals
residues indicate that the emulsifying salts used in processing were not nutritional but of
industrial origin and unfit for human consumption . The results show that is the concentration
*[p.p.m.] of heavy metals residues **(±MD) in the locally processed cheeses samples were
< 0.1±0.001 p.p.m. for both of Cd. & Mn. , 3.5±0.28 p.p.m. for Fe. , < 0.05±0.001 p.p.m. for
Pb. , 7.3±0.3 p.p.m. for Zn. & 0.24±0.01p.p.m. for Cu. .. While the concentration *[p.p.m.] of
heavy metals residues **(±MD) in the Emulsifying salts were 1.55±0.145 p.p.m. for Cd. ,
1.7±0.16 p.p.m. for Mn. ,16 ±1.12 p.p.m. for Fe. , 3.15±0.275 p.p.m. for Pb. , 233.1±5.6 p.p.m.
for Zn. & 1.95±0.085 p.p.m. for Cu. .

Acute toxicity study of three type of Nerium.oleander leaves of hexane extract in mice

Zena Ahmed Hatif; Lubna Ahmed Kafi; Ali Aziz Alkhayyat

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2010, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 194-201

Three types of Nerium.oleander leaves of hexane extract were prepared according the color of their flower, red flower group (RFG), pink flower group (PFG) and white flower group (WFG).After drying in the sunlight, grinding by electrical grinder. Extraction with hexane was done by a soxhlet apparatus for each type the extract of each type was dissolved in propylene glycol which was used to dissolve the extract with the aid of magnetic stirrer mixer for ten minutes. The median lethal dose (LD50) experiment for each type, fifty adult mice of mixed sex were used. They were divided into 5 equal number groups and were given different oral doses as following:-The red flower groups (RFG) received oral doses ranging from 225-425mg⁄Kg ,the pink flower group(PFG) received oral doses ranging from 200-400 mg ⁄Kg while the white flower groups (WFG) received doses ranging from 250- 450 mg⁄ Kg of body weight. The LD50 was calculated by employing probit method and found to be 325mg/kg for the RFG, 300mg/kg for the PFG and 350mg/kg for the WFG respectively. These results indicate that the toxic constituents of the leaves nearly same since there were no significance differences between LD50 of the three types.