Print ISSN: 1609-5693

Online ISSN: 2410-7409

Volume 35, Issue 1

Volume 35, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2011, Page 215-0

Selenium toxicity and treatment of lambs dosed orally daily with 0.12 mg/Kg.BW of Sodium selenite solution.

A.M.AL-Judi; A.G; Wasan; Al-Dulimy; Saadi; A.G; Al-Sammarraie

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 0-0

Clinical symptoms , hematological picture , biochemical and enzyme changes associated with Selenium toxicity were studied in fifteen male Awassy lambs aged (4-6) months and their weight ranged between (16-26) Kg. were enrolled in a controlled experiment .The lambs were divided randomly into three groups of (5) lambs. The 1st and 2nd groups dosed orally daily with 0.12 mg/ Kg.BW of Sodium selenite solution (1g /L of distil water) for (16) weeks.After the 16th weeklambs of the 1st group treated by N-acytileL-cystine at a rate of (70) mg /kg.BW.divided into four daily doses orally for (2) weeks by working solution prepared by melting (20) grams of N-acytileL-cystinein one litter of distilled water. The 3rd group was left as a control.The lambs were watched daily for (4-6) hr. and clinical symptoms (pulse , respiratory rate , temperature and body weight were taken according to (1) ,blood sampleswere examined every two weeks ( 2 ). Serum samples were used to examine: total serum protein(TSP), total serum albumin (TSA),Acid phosphatase ( ASP), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT) andSerum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) by using specific kits and spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed using statistical analysis system – SAS, to study the effect of groups and weeks in the difference traits. Least significant difference (LSD.) test was used to compare the significant difference between means.Lambs of the 1st and 2nd groups showed the clinical signs after (8) weeks of sodium salenite administration, the clinical signs seems to be accumulative due to time's length of toxin administration. These signs characterized by: severe loss of weight to reach a mean of (17and18Kg.) in the (16th) week of administrations in the 1stand 2nd groups respectively .While the mean body weight of the control group was (44 kg.).An increased in the means ofpulse rate (93and 98/min.)and respiratory rate ( 50 and 48 /min.) in the 1st and 2nd groups respectivelywas significantly different (P< 0.05) incomparison with the control group,while means of temperature in all groups were within the normal range (39.0-40.0C®). All these results were in agreement with (3,4,5,6,7), due to accumulative toxicity sequel.Other clinical signs in the toxicated groups includepica , lambs eating the field floor and the wool of each other, severe emaciation, dullness, lack of vitality, and signs of anemia present because they couldn’t eat or drink to survive so starvation shock may appear, all these data were in agreement with (8,4,9).The P.C.V. in the1st and 2nd groups reached (16 and17%) respectively in the (16th) week , on the other hand, lambs of the 3rd group remained within the normal levels (ranged between 38 – 42%), which was significantly different (P<0.5),this decrease in P.C.V. may be due to selenium- hemolytic anemia (10,11,12).In the 1st and 2nd groupsthe means of RBCs count reach (7-8×106/µl) in the (16th) week. On the other hand lambs of the 3rd group remain within normal value (12 -15×106/µl), thiswas because the majority of the glutathione peroxidase is incorporated into red blood cells at the time of erythropoieses, so a complete response of glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium in whole blood to selenium supplementation will, therefore, require a time span equal to the average lifespan of the RBCs which is approximately (90 to 120) days, (4) and selenium in erythrocytes is distributed between glutathione peroxidase and hemoglobin and selenite is taken up by red blood cells within several minutes, and transferred to the liver (13). On the other hand, the toxicity changes appeared in blood picture in which RBCs vitiated in itsshape from oval to stellar shape due to toxin.Poikilocytosis, and anisocytosiswere seen in blood smears from lambs in the 1st and 2nd groups.The large cells are most likely immature and presence of reticulocytes which indicate early release from the bone marrow (8).The means of Hb concentration of the 1st and 2nd groups decreased gradually from (11-6 and 11-7 ) g/dl respectively. On the other hand, the lambs of the 3rdgroup showed a slight increase (10-14)g/dl due to good feeding and handling, whilethe Hb decrease was due to selenium – induced hemolytic anemia . The decline in the Hb levels could be due to the inhibition of delta- amino levulinatedehydratase, a key enzyme required for the Hbsynthesis.There was a significant difference compared with the 3rd control group (P< 0.05). There was a significant decrease in the means of TSP in the lambs of the 1st and 2nd groups reached (4.2 and 4.4 )g/dl respectively. On the other hand, the lambs of the 1st group had normal values which ranged between (6 – 8 g/dl). These results were in agreement with (2,14,15). The alterations in TSP are dependent upon an understanding of the various physiological and pathological factorsthat might cause such alterations. TSP decreased in animals having liver disease, since the majority of the decreases is direct reflection of hyper albuminemia (2).There were significant (P<0.05) decrease in means of TSA in toxicity groups (2 and 2.1 )g/dl respectively, in the (16th week) . These low serum albumin concentrations present in starvation and malnutrition, as well as, deficient synthesis of albumin occurs most commonlyin association with chronic hepatic diseases. A decrease in the concentration of albumin has been reported to occur in hepatitis, livercirrhosis, andhypoalbuminemia (12). Significant increase in ACP and AKPappeared in the 1st and 2nd groups (P < 0.05), to reach means of ACP (2.9 and 2.8 µ/L) and AKP (260 and 290 µ/L)in the (16th) week compared with the 3rd group in which ACP ranged between (1 –1.9µ/L) and AKP ranged between (70 - 90 µ/L). These results were comported with (16,14), they concluded that the activities of ACP and AKP should have been increased because of tissue necrosis due to selenium toxicity. Elevations of ACP activity indicate cholestasis ,andAKP increased in suppurative hepatic necrosis and sever anemia which occur in chronic selenium toxicities. SGOTof lambs in the 1st and 2nd groupswere (240 and 245 U/L) respectively, during the (16th) week of toxicity ,while(SGOT) of lambs in the 3rd group remain within the normal values (60 – 191 U/L),which was significantly different (P< 0.05) than the toxicated groups.(5,14)indicated that the increase in SGOT activity suggest a liver effect, and increase serum activity of these enzymes indicate hepatocellular damage.(2)reported that SGOT levels may be increased with liver disease in all species but cannot be considered as a specific test for liver damage. The same significantly highmeansofSGPTin the1st and 2nd groups(59 and 58 U/L) respectively during the (16th week) of the experiment, at that time, lambs of the 3rd group remain within normal values (22 – 38 U/L).(16,17,14)reported that the increase in this enzyme activity suggest a liver effect, and increase in the serum activity of both enzymes indicate hepatocellular damage activities and histopathological responses may be related to a variety of factors, including mechanisms and rates of injury and repair, organ adaptation, health and nutritional status, age of the animal, and exposureto a high concentration ofselenium.Lambs of the 1st group showed significant differences after treatment with N-acyytile L-cystine for two weeks started on the (17th week) of the study, as signs oftoxicity started to disappear gradually, the means of body weight increased to (21 Kg.),pulse and respiratory ratesdecreased (83 and35/min)respectively and lambs became more active. Progressive increase in the means of RBCs count (9×106 /µL), PCV (15%),Hb concentration (10g/dl),and a significant increase in the means of TSP (6.2 g/dl), TSA (3.1 g/dl) while the ACP andALP,SGOT and SGPT decreased to (2.0 and 210 U/L) and (195and 42 µ/L) respectively (Tables 1,2and3).(1)reported that N-acytile L-cystine therapy regenerate glutathione, increases interacellular stores of glutathione, increases glutathione conjugation, and decreases the concentrations of reactive metabolites. As well as, supportive treatment (like multivitamins) improved (Vit. E) levels in the body, so normal active metabolisms, absorptions and excretion will take place, and all abnormal parameters were disappeared ( 18).

Isolation and pathological study of Branchiomycosis from the commercial pond of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fish, in Governorate of Duhok / Iraq.

Khalid Subhi Ibrahim

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 1-9

Branchiomycosis is a fungal disease that infects fish gills. It was identified by isolation and histopathological changes of examined gills in common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) which, were obtained from fish farm in Duhok Governorate, Iraq. The infected fish were suffering from respiratory disorders; gulping air at the water surface, rapid movement of operculum and massive mortality, which resulted in the loss of 95% of fish pond. The gills appear marbled appearance with necrotic areas on the localized damage gills. The causal pathogen was identified as Branchiomyces sanguinis, in which the diameter of spores and non-septated hyphae are 5-7 µm and 12 – 20 µm, respectively. In histopathological preparation, the spores and the non-septated hyphae have been shown to be embedded in the gill tissues contained undivided and sporulating stages.

Chemical Castration of Rabbits Via Intratesticular Injection of Ethanol or Formalin

A A Majeed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 10-15

The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy and safety of intratesticular injection of ethanol or formalin as a novel method for chemosterilization of rabbits. Twenty rabbits, aged (6-8 months) and weighed (1.3-1.5) kg were used. They were randomly divided into two equal groups. In the first group, absolute ethanol and in the second group, formalin1% at a dose of 1ml/testis for each agent were injected under the effect of xylazine, by insertion of the needle from the caudo-ventral aspect of the testis then pushed in the center of the testis toward the cranio-dorsal pole of the testis. Orchidectomy was done at first and second months postinjection, samples from the testes and epididymis were taken for histopathological evaluation of testicular changes. Histopathological examination revealed atrophy of the seminiferous tubules, degeneration or vacuolation of sertoli cells and the leydig cells replaced by fibrous connective tissue. The of epididymis show narrowing of the epididymal lumen. The severity and distribution of the lesions were more pronounced in formalin group, although both agents had the ability to induce sterilization in rabbits.

Seroprevalance of Toxoplasmosis in sheep and goat: Iraq/ Sulaimania

Shadan H. Abdulla; Lazem H. Al-Taie

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 16-24

Back ground: Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis that causes economic losses in animal herds due to abortion and stillbirth as well as changes in the reproductive and neural system of susceptible animals .
Objective: The aims of the present study is to determination the prevalence of T. gondii in farm animals ( sheep& goat)of both genders and different ages in Sulaimani province by using two serological tests (ELISA and LAT).
Methods: Blood samples were collected from farm animals ,142 sheep and 46 goats , of different sexes and ages. Tow different serological tests ,ELISA and LAT for qualitative determination of T. gondii antibody titer in sheep and goats serum samples.
Results: The prevalence rate in sheep was 73 (51.7 %) and 82 (57 %) , and 21 (54.6 %) and 25 (54.35 %) in goats ,by ELISA and LAT respectively. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis was highest in age group 7-9 (66.6%) in sheep in compares’ with other age groups. There was no significant differences between both spp.and tow test.
Conclusion: Statistical results show no significant differences between both tests (ELISA &LAT) at (P ≥ 0.05).The prevalence of toxoplasmosis was increased proportionally with the age of animals, while gender has no effect on the prevalent rate .

Effect of Nocardia on immune response of Heat Killed Candida albicans Antigen against systemic candidiasis

Shaimaa Nabhan Yassein

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 25-36

This study was undertaken to prepare Heat Killed Candida albicans Antigen (HK-CA) and to investigate it's effect on elicitation of Delayed-type Hypersensitivity (DTH) and protection from virulent Candida challenged in mice, and described the major effect of Nocardia on the immunogenicity of this Ag.Four groups of 6 males Swiss mice for each group were immunized intraperitonialy(I.p)for 10 days at 5 doses(one day intervals) with 1x108 HK-CA plus Nocardia cell sap as adjuvant(CFA),the second group immunized with HK-CA plus Freund incomplete adjuvant,the third group immunized with HK-CA only and the fourth group treated with normal saline. Another group of 6 animals was immunized intranasally(I.n)with HK-CA only with the same doses as previously.Two weeks following the last application of Ag,50% of animals(3 for each group) were challenged intravenously(I.v)with 106 viable C.albicans to assess the protection rate.and the other 50% of mice were used to evaluate the development of DTH response in each immunization methods.Greatly percentage survival was observed when mice immunized with HK-CA plus CFA,which challenged with 106 live C. albicans in comparison with other groups.And also all animals of the 1st group developed highly significant DTH response which was supporyed by marked infiltration and aggregation of lymphocyte in some internal organs that indicate it's intensive involvement in immune response,while in the other groups,mononuclear cells infiltration were present with moderate to less intensive.
Clearly,HK-CA in conjunction with Nocardia cell sap as adjuvant afforded significant levels of protection,Furthermore,the noval approach of I.n immunization could used for the development of an effective vaccine .

Detection of the Immune Response in Broiler Breeders, and Their progeny to Newcastle Disease Vaccine.

Adil S. Ag; gar

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 37-41

This trail was suggested to evaluate the amount of inherited haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies for Newcastle Disease (ND) from hens to their own progeny via yolk, blood samples were collected from broiler breeders at 51st week of age aiming the collection their sera, these hens were previously vaccinated with ND-killed vaccine at the age 5 and 120 days respectively via subcutaneous route; and ND-alive vaccine at 1and 18 days then monthly intervals by aerosol, random samples of eggs were collected from panels or hatchery machines either after 24h., to detect amount and location of HI antibodies through them, day old chicks were submitted to the same protocol of blood collection as well as mothers. The results showed that the combination manner of vaccines is an ideal way of HI antibodies peak elevation, these antibodies can pass vertically from dam to progeny through yolk, and the yolk material can be used to detect the HI antibody titer by routine process. >

Pathogenesis of Pasteurella multocida in Rabbits by Intra-nasal and Intra-ocular infection

Al-Najjar S. Sarhad

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 42-53

In order to study the pathogenesis of the Pasteurella multocida in its natural rout of infection, this study was done to investigate and compare its pathogenesis after intranasal and intraocular infection.Thirty (30) rabbits were divided into three groups, the 1st group (n=12) infected with 240 CFU of Pasteurella multocida intra-nasal, the 2nd (n=12) infected with 240 CFU of P. multocida intra-ocular (eye drop), and the 3rd group (n=6) served as control negative. The animals were sacrificed if they did not die naturally at 24-48hr, 3, 6, 9, 30 day post-infection (p.i.). The results showed dullness of the animals with nasal and ocular discharge and some animals dead at 48hr and 72 hr p.i. (two animals from the 1st group and four animals from the 2nd group). The gross examination of the dead and sacrificed animals showed hemorrhage in the upper respiratory tract with fibrinous pleuropericaditis and emphysematous lung in the 1st group, while the 2nd group showed eye opacity and in some animal’s eye swelling in addition to the feature noticed in the 1st group. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from the organs of all the infected animals.The histopathological changes in the 1st group were more intense than the 2nd group and concenterated at the upper and lower respiratory tract as acute hemorrhagic treacheatis with fibrinous pneumonia , while the kidney showed hypercellularity of the glomeruli with cellular degeneration of renal tubule and lymphocytic hepatitis, also there is focal gliosis. Conclusion, intranasal infection was the effective route and the main pathological changes observed in the respiratory system characterized by fibrinous pleuropneumonia

Isolate two Crustaceans which infect Cyprinus carpio L. from Bab Al-Muatham fish markets, Baghdad City

Sadiq M. Jawad Al-Shaikh; Nahla Talib Mansoor

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 54-59

During the period from November 2007 till October 2008, a total of 255 specimens of the cyprinid fish, from freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758, were collected from fish markets east of Baghdad city. Microscopic examination of these fishes revealed that they were infected with two species of the crustaceans ]Argulus foliaceus (0.8%) and Ergasilus sieboldi (20%)[.The present study included the following: The clinical signs which were caused by the crustaceans, which included redness and an opacity of the skin, increase of mucus secretion and rapid movements of the operculum. The percentage incidence of the infection with these parasites were also found to be related to different length groups of the host, the larger fishes were more infected (95.2%) while the smaller fishes were less infected (0.8%).

The effect of mild Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) conditions on acid tolerance, bile tolerance, growth and protease activity of the Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LB-12.

Najim Hadi Najim

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 60-70

Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing involves the application of pulses of voltage for less than one second to fluid products placed between two electrodes. So this study was conducted for the quantitative assessments of mild PEF conditions on acid tolerance, growth, bile tolerance and protease activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LB-12. The control and PEF treated samples were prepared by inoculating 10 ml of freshly thawed culture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LB-12 into 990 ml of sterile 0.1% (wt/v) peptone water and treated in a pilot plant PEF system (OSU-4M). The treatments were positive square unipolar pulse width of 3 µs, pulse period of 0.5 second, voltage of 1 kV/cm, delay time of 20 µs and flow rate of 60 ml/min at 40.5°C. The control was passed through the PEF system (60 ml/min) without receiving any pulsed electric field condition. The acid tolerance was determined every 30 minutes for 120 minutes of incubation in acidified MRS broth at pH 2. Growth was determined hourly for 25 hours of incubation at 37°C in MRS broth. The bile tolerance was determined hourly for 16 hours of incubation in MRS-Thio broth . Samples were plated in duplicates using pH modified Lactobacilli MRS agar. The petriplates were incubated anaerobically at 43C for 72 hours. Protease activity was determined by o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) UV- spectrophotometric assay at 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours of incubation of conducted. inoculated skim milk at 40°C. Three replications were The control. The stationary phase of the bacterium was between hours 10 and 18. Moreover significant experimental design was repeated measurements on complete randomized block, Replications were the blocks. Data were analyzed using Proc Mixed model of Statistical Analysis System (SAS).The viability of the control Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LB-12 was lost after 30 minutes of incubation in acidified MRS broth (pH 2), whereas, the bacterium subjected to mild PEF treatment was acid tolerant until the end of 120 minutes of incubation. Mild PEF significantly improved acid tolerance of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LB-12. and the growth reached the logarithmic phase an hour earlier than the decrease in bile tolerance was also recorded.. Mild PEF treatment significantly (P<0.0001) enhanced the protease activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LB-12 compared to the control.

Seroprevalence of cattle brucellosis by rosebengal and ELISA tests in different villages of Duhok province

Mohammed A.Ahmme; Alind M. Amen; Nacheervan M. Ghaffar; Lokman T. Omar

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 71-75

The current study conducted in the Duhok province villages, Kurdistan region of Iraq during the period between September-December 2008, fulfilled by using Rosebengal and ELISA tests cattle of different sex and age were used comparing between these two tests and to determine the prevalence rate by both tests. A total number of 360 serum samples were collected (294 females, 66 males). The infected rate by RBT was 6.38% and by ELISA were 0.83%. According to the different animal ages and sex group showed that the infection rates were 5.4% and 12.1% in females and males, respectively. Cattle in age group 1-3 years and more than 4 years were showed that an infection rates were 3.8% and 11.8% respectively.

Assessment of some liver enzyme activities in healthy Iraqi racing Horses

AL-Hadithy H. AH

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 76-80

The current study was conducted for the measurement of normal range and mean value of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) , aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in (125) clinically normal Iraqi racing horses (males and females , Arabian and Crossbred) , aged 2 – 8 years ; < 4 , 4 and > 4 age groups .
The results revealed that the range and the mean value ± SEM of these enzymes were as follows ; serum ALT 2 – 28 U/L and 11.07 ± 0.62 U/L, serum AST 30 – 210 U/L and 78.00 ± 3.62 U/L and serum ALP 63 – 204 IU/L and 96.84 ± 2.52 IU/L respectively .However, significant difference (P < 0.05) in serum ALT was recorded between Arabian and Crossbred , while serum AST values showed a significant differences (P < 0.05) between males and females , as well as between less and more than four years age groups .On the other hand , there was no significant difference in serum ALP values between the studied groups .
In conclusion , this study recorded and established the normal range reference values and mean ± SEM of serum liver enzymes ALT , AST and ALP in clinically healthy Iraqi racing horses .

Impairment of liver antioxidant defense activity of broiler chickens exposed to benzo[α]pyrene

Ali A.H. Shalash; I.K. Latif

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 81-87

The antioxidant defense activity system is greatly involved in protecting cells against damage initiated by a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of Benzo[α]Pyrene (BαP) administration on the liver antioxidant defense system. Chicks were assigned into five equal groups, as control, tricaprylin group and three groups treated with BαP (1.5 µg, 150 µg or 15 mg/kg BW). Five birds were sacrificed at days 7, 14, 21 and 35 from each group. To assess the liver antioxidant defense system, glutathione (GSH) concentration, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were employed. It was found that 15 mg of BαP level create significant increase (P<0.05) in the GSH level, GSH-Px, SOD and CAT activities (18.483, 9.88, 69.44 and 89.88 respectively) of broilers at day 7 post-instillation (p.i.) in compared with control (12.392, 6.51, 41.08 and 50.83). Nevertheless, significant decrease (P<0.05) in the GSH level, GSH-Px, SOD and CAT activities at 21 and 35 days. A key finding from this study is that exposure to BαP may induces oxidative stress on the liver and impair the antioxidant defense system in broilers.Key words:antioxidant ,broiler, benzo[α]Pyrene,liver

Histological study of the constituents that related to the immune defensive mechanism in the vagina of ewes

Nazih W. Zaid; Amer M. Hussin

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 88-99

In order to study the vaginal defensive mechanisms in ewes, vaginal smears and biopsies were collected from eight adult Awasi ewes. The biopsies samples were processed by the routine histological methods and stained by H & E and PAS stains, while the smears samples were stained with MB. Samples were examined under light microscope.
The resent study revealed that the vaginal wall lacks many important constituents, among these were the vaginal glands, goblet cells, muscularis mucosa and lymphatic nodules. And as the vagina was the nearest organ to the external environment and as it receives the male copulatory organ, so it is more liable organ to be infected by external pathogens. On the contrary, the vagina has special compensatory histological mechanisms i: e, its epithelium was thrown into deep folds which serve to increase the surface area and in turn raise the epithelial efficiency. The study suggested that these folds were a remnants formed as a result of a failure during embryonic development of the glands as the gland formed by invagination of the epithelium. Moreover, the vaginal wall had a thick basement membrane. It appeared segmented due to accumulation of the defensive cells on some parts of it during their migration from the blood vessels to the epithelium. Besides, the vagina contained a great numbers of defensive cells, such as neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells and mast cells. In spite of the relation of dendritic cells with immune defense, this study couldn't recognize them by using only the general stains.
On the other hand, the vaginal smears demonstrated that the vagina had many defensive cellular mechanisms among these, the process of keratinization of the vaginal epithelium; the process of sheet formation which lining the vaginal lumen; the presence of apparent junctional complexes which coalesce the cells of the sheet formation. These junctional complexes close completely the intercellular spaces leading to prevent any entrance of any foreign materials and pathogens to the underlying tissue. Some vaginal cells showed a pale foamy (vacuolated) appearance. Vacuolation was another defensive phenomena, it was indicative of increase cellular activity. Moreover, the recent study reported the process of metachromasia which is associated with cellular activity in protein synthesis, keratin, finally this study referred to the important of endogenous microorganisms which act to convert the cellular epithelial glycogen into lactic acid. The latter act to decrease the pH of the vaginal lumen and prevent the pathogenic bacteria from proliferation in the acidic environment.It is concluded that all the above cellular constituents and mechanisms support the vagina with an adequate adaptation enable it to raise its immune defensive response.

Evaluation of Proteus vulgarisfimbriae antigen by delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH)-skin test in rabbits

Ekram Abbas Abood Al-Samarrae

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 100-106

The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of fimbriae antigens for immunization of rabbits against Proteus vulgaris bacteria results showed
a higher significant difference (P<0.05) in erythema diameters in the immunized groups in compared with the control. There was no significant difference between both immunized groups 200 µg/ml and 100 µg/ml after 24 hours. Also, a higher significant differences (P<0.05) in the diameter
of induration is recorded in both immunized groups compared to control site,
a higher significant differences (P<0.05) in the immunized group
(100 µg/ml) at the concentration 200 µg/ml compared with 100 and 50 µg/ml after 24 hours, as follow as after 48 hours except significant differences between 200 and 100 µg/ml concentration (P<0.01) and increase induration after 72 hours between both immunized groups; within groups and control site. Conclusion that the fimbrial antigen have the ability to elicit cellular immune response by delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH).

The Effect of Pulsed Magnetic Field on The Healing of Infected Cutaneous Wounds at Thigh Region in Rabbits

Hana K Ibrahim; Ashwaq R Nazal; Ibrahim MH Alrashid

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 107-118

Magnetic therapy was applied in the present study, which play two roles; as antimicrobial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus auras, Streptococcus spp, Klebsialla ,and Pseudomona ) and as stimulator to tissue repair.24 rabbits were used in this study, they divided into two groups; 1st group(treated group) contains 20 rabbits, 2nd group (control group) contains 4 rabbits, the last subdivided into two subgroup (standard control subgroup and sham-control subgroup, the left side of all animals in control group is standard control subgroup, while the left side is sham-control subgroup). After surgery to all, the wounds were exposed to pulsed magnetic field except standard control subgroup, they healed with conventional treatment, 1st group(treated group) and sham-control subgroup were treated with(600 Gauss,50 Hz) twice daily for 30 minutes during 7 days.
Microbiologically, the bacterial Petri dish were exposed to pulsed magnetic field in present study (600 Gauss, 50Hz) 30 minutes/day for one only, after re-culture of these bacteria at new media, there weren’t bacteria growth appeared which were used in present study.
Clinically, the clinical signs of wounds were recorded at 1, 3, 5,7, and 9 days post induce wound ; the sham-control subgroup was healed after 5.5 days after induce wound, 1st treated group was healed after 7-10 day post induce wound, while standard control subgroup was healed after 9 day post induce wound. Biopsies were toke after 3,5,7,and 9 days post induce wound, the histopathological study of sham-control subgroup revealed that show more develop compare with other.

Toxicopathological study on the effect of different toxic doses of Euphorbia granulata F. crude extract in albino mice.

Rajiha .A.AL-Naimi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 119-128

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different toxic doses with regard to toxicopathological changes in mice injected with ethanolic crude extract of Euphorbia granulata F. The experiment was done on (24) mice of (6-8weeks age and 20-25g weight ) divided equally into (4) groups as follows:- First group injected distilled water subcutaneously for 45 days and considered as control ,second group injected subcutaneously (600 mg/kg B.W/day) ethanolic extract of E. granulata for 45 days, Third group injected subcutaneously (800 mg/kg B.W/day) ethanolic extract of E. granulata for 45 days. Fourth group injected subcutaneously (1000 mg/kg B.W/day) ethanolic extract of E. granulata for 45 days.The microscopic findings of internal target organs revealed that the severity of the lesion increased with the dose of the plant extract. Animals injected with (1000 mg/kg B.W) showed fibrosis in liver, kidney, myocardium with encephalomalacia and aggregation of astrocytes and microglial cells.Furthermore the study showed mononuclear infiltrations in some internal organs, with multiple granulomatous reaction and perivascular lymphocytic cuffings. Amyloid deposition in spleen with nodular hyperplasia of liver and hyperplasia of epithelial lining of endometrium.In conclusion, toxic doses of ethanolic crude extract of Euphorbia granulata F cause severe toxicopathological changes in important organs and tissues in addition the active compound of plant may act as immune stimulant, with formation of precancerous lesions in liver and uterus.

Study the effect of some plants extracts on growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Comparison with Ethambutol

Maysoon Sabah Abbas

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 129-134

This study was conducted to investigate the inhibition role of alcoholic extracts of plants Trigonella foenumgraecum , Piper cubeba , Piper nigrum, Camphora , Commiphora molmol, Apium graveolens , Arachis hypogaea , Linum usitatissumun , Cuminum cyminum , Pimpinella anisum , Lepidium sativum , alcoholic extracts of plants used was prepared and used of concentration 200 mg/ml and add 0.2 ml of each extracts to 10 ml of media and 0.2 ml of Ethambutol to 10 ml of media the drug for mycobacteria and media with out any adding for controls. Cultural media were inoculated with 3 drops of bacterial suspension ( 1mg /ml ) in concentration 108 cfu/ml from patient suffering from tuberculosis and after incubation on 37 °C the result read weekly up to 4 weeks . the results showed good growth on the control slopes , which was evident within 2-3 weeks and no growth on the cultural media contain (Arachis hypogea , Cuminum cyminum , Commiphora molmol, Trigonella foenumgraecum , Lepidium sativum , Ethambutol ) it while the media contain (Piper nigrum , Pimpinella anisum showed than 5 colonies the growth inhibition was recorded that means sensitivity of mycobacteria to the extracts mention above, while media contain (Piper cubeba , Camphora , Apium graveolens ). showed growth more than 5 colonies and media contain Linum usitatissumun showed good growth which means resistant of mycobacteria to the extract mentioned above .

Microbiological Impact of Dipping Minced Meat using different sodium hypochlorite concentration and contact times

Huda N.Jasim; Zuhair .A.Mohammad

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 135-140

This study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of using sodium Hypochloride by the Iraqies housewives at different concentrations (2%, 3%) and different dipping times (30, 60 and 90 minutes ) in order to reduce the initial microbial counts , without any adverse effect on the organoleptic characteristics of the treated minced meat. Bacterial counts in all samples of meat were enumerated by standard method of miles and mirza technique before and after treatment .
The result showed that the treatment of meat with chlorine at concentration 2 % for 30 and 60 minute reduce the bacterial content on bacterial load ( colony forming unit – cfu / ml) to a level which was significant from the Public health point of view ( hygienically ) although , this reduction was not statically significant, using 2 % for 90 minutes , however , reduced the ( colony forming unit cfu/ ml) about 2 Log , which was highly significant ( P<0.01) statically and hygienically Sodium Hypochlorite at 3 % for 30, 60 , 90 minutes reduced the ( Colony forming unit – cfu / ml ) significantly about 2 log (P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.05 respectively).
Results of the effects of different concentrations of sodium hypochlorute at different dipping times (30,60 and 90 minutes ) on the organoleptic characters of the minced meat showed that , sodium hypochlorite at 2 % for 30 , 60 and 90 minutes , and at 3 % minutes reduced the cfu / ml significantly without affecting the organoleptic charcteristics of treated minced meat , while using 3 % for 60 and 90 minutes although reduced the bacterial content on the bacterial loud ( colony forming unit-cfu / ml) but adversely affects the organoleptic characteristics even with different types of spices and herpes using in the traditional Iraqi cooking .

Effect of mix probiotic and vitamin C on growth and some biochemical tests in common carp Cyprinus carpio L

Ali Majhool Kany Al- Thalimy; Jamal Khalaf Atiyah AL-Faragi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 141-152

One hundred and twelve Common carp fish fingerling Cyprinus carpio L. were collected, range between 25-28 gm in weight to study the effect of different concentrations of local probiotic and mixed with Vitamin C in concentration 1g/kg feed on growth performance, blood and biochemical picture.
This experiment included 7 groups each group contain 16 fish distributed randomly as follow: Control group (C ) fed diet free vitamin C and probiotic during the period of 60 days and all total protin in feed reach 26% . Group 2(T1) group fed diet contain Vit C (1gm /kg) food. Treated (T2andT3) groups fed diet containing probiotic 4.5&5.5 g/ kg respectively , where as groupsT4,T5 and T6 fed the diets containing Probiotic added at level 4.5,5.5 and 6.5 g/ kg respectively and each mixed with 1 gmkg Vit C .
Results of fish total growth rate were 6.86,9.82,15.00,10.87,17.51,14.60 and 13.51gm, evaluate relative growth rate ,the absolute specific growth rate, food conversion and the protein efficiency ratio . The statistically analysis showed increase significantly(P≤0.05)for T4 in all treatment. While erythrocyte counts was 1.80, 1.88, 1.95, 2.40, 2.00, 2.70, 2.20 and 2.10 ×106 cellsmm3, blood cells counts are 24.40 ,24.60 ,25.80 ,27.00 ,26.00 ,27.96 ,26.60 and 26.20×103cellsmm3, blood haemoglobin was8.40,8.70,9.80, 11.10,10.20,11.90,10.80 and 10.50 gm100dl, haematocrit value are 27.10 ,27.60 ,28.50 ,29.90 ,29.10 ,30.50 ,29.50 and29.30 % for fish before starting expermint (Z) and C,T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,groups, respectively . Evaluate the enzymatic activity for AST,ALT and ALP in blood serum of fish . The statisticaly analysis showed decrease significantly(P≤0.05) at treatment contain mix probiotic and Vit C but excel T4 inform 70.40,10.40,30.30 I U L respectively.
Conclusion ,the present studied suggested that the level of probiotic and Vit C (4.5gkg and Vi C 1gmkg) used could be improve the performance growth and fish healthy.

The Natamycin Preservation of the Laboratory produced cheese against spoilage of Yeasts & Moulds

Rafid S. A. Al-Zubaidy; Muna M. Ismaeel; Ahmed M.S. Al-Shdidi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 153-158

The study conducted an attempts to improve the Keeping quality (Shelf T.) of Laboratory processed cheeses by the Natamycin preservation against spoilage of Yeasts & Moulds . Random collected samples of processed soft cheeses collected from different areas of Baghdad to produce Laboratory processed cheeses by using the best mix of Emulsifying salts that is composed of :- 90% Na tripolyphosphate + 10% 3Na citrate .
Laboratory processed cheeses without preservative treating lasted to be fit for humane consumption for (30) day when store at room temp. & aerobic Condition & for (45) day when store at room temp. & non aerobic condition & for (40) day when store at refrigeration temp. & aerobic condition & for (60) day when store at refrigeration temp. & non aerobic condition.
While the Laboratory processed cheeses which treated with Natamycin lasted to be fit for humane consumption for (35) day when store at room temp. & aerobic condition & for (45) day when store at room temp. & non aerobic condition & for (40) day when store at refrigeration temp. & aerobic condition & for (60) day when store at refrigeration temp. & non aerobic condition .
Such finding of high concentration of Yeasts & Moulds count ides to the fact that the use of Preservative lead to Prolongation Shelf time of Dairy products depending on storing temperature at (room or refrigeration) & depending on storing condition by (aerobic or non aerobic) . Results showed that such cheese of low quality and did not meet both local and international Dairy products standards and unfit for human consumption .

Isolation and Identification of bacterial isolates from ear infection and their sensitivity to usual antibiotics in human and dogs

AL- Nassry; B. S

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 159-166

Bacterial examination was done on 50 dogs suffering from ear infection. Dogs examined include both sexes and their ages were between 5 months to 5 years, In the other hand 35 ear smears from male and female human in ages between 7-40 years were also taken . Isolation and identification of bacterial isolates were done to determine species of zoonotic bacteria in human and dogs, also study of antibiotics sensitivity to these isolates. We identified 137 bacterial isolates from dogs ear belonge to 9 bacterial spp. which are : S. aureus( 27.7%) , Klebsiella spp. ( 13.8%) , E. coli ( 13.1%) , Streptococcus spp. ( 12.4%) ,P. haemolytica ( 8.2%) , P. vulgaris ( 7.2%) , S. epidermidis ( 6.5%) , Salmonella spp. ( 5.8%) , P. mirabilis ( 5.1%) . In human ear smears 95 isolates were identified to 11 bacterial spp. as follows : S. aureus( 26.3%) , Streptococcus spp. ( 15.7%) , S. epidermidis ( 13.6%) , Citrobacter spp. ( 9.4%) , P. mirabilis ( 8.4%) , Klebsiella spp. ( 6.3%) , P. vulgaris ( 5.2%) , Salmonella spp. ( 5.2%) , P. aeruginosa ( 4.2%) , Shigella spp. ( 3.1%) , E. coli ( 2.1%) . Antibiotic sensitivity to dog isolates show high sensitivity to Imipenem (IPM) then Streptomycin ( S) then Rifampin ( RA) then Clindamycin ( DA) and lowest to Erythromycin ( E) respectively . but most isolates were resistant to Cefotaxime( CTX) then Ampicillin ( AM) then Vancomycin ( VA) and lowest to Trimethoprim ( TMP) respectively . The human isolates show high sensitivity to Imipenem ( IPM ) then Streptomycin ( S ) then Erythromycin ( E ) then Rifampin ( RA) then Clindamycin ( DA) finally Vancomycin ( VA) . but most isolates were resistant to Cefotaxime ( CTX ) then Ampicillin ( AM) finally Trimethoprim (TMP). P. aeruginosa was resistant to all antibiotics except Imipenem ( IPM) , Streptomycin ( S) and Erythromycin ( E) .

Uses the Disinfectants against fungi isolated from the homes

Rusol Muhammed Al Bahrani

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 167-173

The study included 100 samples collected from different locations of the homes were located in the area of Ali Saleh in Baghdad 6 species were isolated from fungi and the most common genus or species of fungi isolated were Aspergillus fumigatus by frequency ratio of 25.84%, and occurrence ratio of 23%, Penicilium by frequency ratio of 21.34%, and occurrence ratio of 19%, Mucor by frequency ratio 20.22%, and the occurrence ratio of 18%, Candida albicans by frequency ratio of 15.73%, the occurrence ratio of 14%, Rhizopus frequency ratio by 13.48%, the occurrence ratio of 12% and Aspergillus niger frequency ratio by 3.37% and the occurrence ratio of 3%. Then the sensitivity test of disinfectants were studied against fungi isolated by using three disinfectants Chloroxylenol known commercially by (Dettol), Chlorhexidine commercially known by (Hibitane) and Sodium hypochlorite commercially known by (Bleach), and a study for the effected of three concentrations of each disinfectant (5, 2.5, 1.25)%, and the use of statistical analysis (ANOVA) to contrast the differences and Dnken test to the variation in any disinfectant or the most efficient concentrations of other disinfectants were observed that concentrations of 5% was the most efficient of concentrations than (2.5%) and (1.25%). As the disinfectant Dettol was significantly the most efficient from Bleach and Hibitane.

The Effect Of Some Plants Extracts On The Growth Of Streptococcus Pyogenes

Ishtar Adnan Al-Athary

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 174-179

In this study were choice some medical plants ( Matricaria chamomilla , Nigella sativa and Allium sativum ) and inhibitory their effect on Streptococcus pyogenes was tested ,which cause for many diseases especially respiratory disease andBecause of their availability and low cost of obtaining them ,study aimed to study the effect of extracts of these plants in growth of these bacteria isolated from aperson infected with tonsillitis. There was variation in bio effects of extracts among the species tested. The study show the presence effects of medical plants on growth of Streptococcus pyogenes is equal to the effect of both Matricaria chamomilla and Allium sativum and reached a concentration of 100 Mcg/ Dis , and the less effect with Nigella sativa concentration of 1000 Mcg/ Dis .

Study of some biological characteristics of hydatid cysts in sheep in al-Shuula~area in Baghdad


The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 180-189

The study was implemented to identify some the biological characteristics of 2428 hydatid cysts in 353 naturally infected animals out of 2781 slaughtered sheep in al-Shuula~area in Baghdad. The results revealed that 1669 cysts in 211 infected females and 759 cysts were presence 142infected males. The diameter of hydatid cysts varies from 0.1-16.4 cm . The surrounding cysts were larger than the cysts in the center of the infected organ with multiple cysts. The cysts were unilocular rounded. and mostly found in infected livers. They were few cysts with free fertile or sterile daughter cysts. The hydatid liquid was clear for most hydatid cysts. and its volume was ranged between (0.2-930) ml. The protoscolises were found white in color and their number were ranged between 4322.8±127.8 in male`s livers and9472.5 ±432.5 in female`s livers. The bio-activity of hydatid cysts reached with an average 73.32% and 89.3% in livers . The fertility percentage of the cysts was 60.25 %. and it was higher in females than in males. The study also revealed that such percentage in infected livers was higher than that of infected lungs and that of the second aged group ( two _ less than four years ) for both animals sexes . The results of the present study indicate no relation among diameter of hydatid cysts. quantity of protoscolises inside the cysts. fertility and viability of protoscolises.

Prevalence Of Cryptosporidiosis In Calves And Child In Al Diwania City

Ghaidaa abas Jasm; Alaa mohammed abdul razak

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 190-194

The aim of study to investigate of Cryptosporidium parum Parasite 200 faecal samples were collected from cattle in different age from abattoir and hospital of veterinary and infants in children and maternity of Al–Diwania Governorate and examined by Modified acid fast staining .The prevalence and intensity of cryptosporidiosis was found more in adult calves ( 44% ) in diarrheic group and 12% in non diarrheic group and the percentage was different from the other age group. While in Infant 17.5% were positive from diarrheic group and 8.3% in nondiarrheic group in 2-4 years old and the percentage was different from the other age group according the site of live in rural and urban community . This study was conclude that the age and present or absence of diarrhea significant differences in severity of infection with Cryptosporidium parum .

Study of some hematological and biochemical parameter of Friesian crossbred cows in Sulaimanya governorate

HamaKhan KM; Juma FT

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 195-203

The present study was carried out at Bakrajo field station which belongs to the
college of Agriculture University Sulaimanya during the period from the1st
of April untill 30thof October 2009.This study include 10 crossbred Friesian cows
aged 5-7 years old to study some hematological and biochemical changes
during late pregnancy (last three months ) and lactation period (4months).The
cows were divided into two groups, the first group included 5 non-pregnant
cows used as control group while the second group included 5cows were in the
late pregnancy (last three months) and continues to four months of milk 196
production. Statistically all significant results of blood and biochemical results
at (P<0.05).
The results showed a significant decreased of the erythrocytes number during
late stage of pregnancy and lactation period as comparison with non-pregnant
cows. Hemoglobin concentration decreased significantly during 3
rd and 4th of
lactation in comparison with 7thand 8th months of pregnancy and non pregnant
animals ,while PCV showed significant increase during 9th month of pregnancy
in comparison with 2nd,3rdand4thmonths of lactation and non- pregnant cows.
There were a significant increased in MCV and MCH during pregnancy in
comparison with months of lactation, and significantly increase of MCHC at
7th month of pregnancy in comparison with 2nd, 3rd and 4th months of lactation.
There were a significant increased of Leukocyte count at the last two months of
pregnancy in comparison with non-pregnant animals. In regard to the
biochemical changes, there was a significant decreased of glucose concentration
at both pregnancy and lactation period in comparison with non-pregnant
animals. Total serum cholesterol concentration was significantly increased at
the pregnancy and lactation period in comparison with control group, while total
serum protein concentration significantly decreased at the 1st
month of lactation in comparison with 2nd, 3rd and 4th months and control group, concentration of
ionized calcium and inorganic phosphorus significantly decreased during last
period of pregnancy and lactation period in comparison with non-pregnant
cows. In regard to serum enzyme change significant increased in the activity of
AST during the second month of lactation in comparison with non- pregnant
animals. The activity of ALP enzyme was significantly decreased during the
first month of lactation in comparison with 9thof pregnancy. Milk yield was
significantly decreased with the progress of lactation stage . While percentages
of fat and total solid increased significantly (P<0.05) It was concluded that the
late stage of pregnancy and the period of lactation (milk production) can
effectively on some hematological and biochemical trait.

Prevalence of Parasitic Infection in Sheep From different Regions in Baghdad

soadad Mashaan Abbas; Dalia Ahmed Kalef; Shehella Rsul Fadl

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 204-209

This research concerns (306)faecal samples from different regions in Baghdad from sheep were examined,the results showed that 230 samples were infected with gastrointestinal parasites with total rate 75.1% which included : 49.0% of coccidiosis ( 9 species of Eimeria were recorded E.parva, E.ovina, E.crandalli s, E. weybridgensi, E. pallida, E. granulosa E .faurei, E. ovinadalis E.marsica) , 21.2% Nematodes 7.84% ,6.5% ,4.5%, 2.2% for Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus ,Nematodiru,and Trichuris in respectively , while the percentage of trematodes & cestodes infections were 4.9% for fasciola 2.28% , Paramphistomum 1.6% , Moniezia 0.9% .Age factor influenced on infection percentage it is higher in younger with coccidiosis infection 25.4% while it is higher in aged animals with nematodes% 10.13 & 1.96% for trematodes & cestodes. Prevalence of coccidiosis infection showed seasonal diversity it is higher in winter, while the rate of infection with nematodes & trematodes is higher in summer & lowers in winter.

Mycological Study of Contaminated of the Burn Wounds in Baghdad City

Rusol Muhammed Al Bahrani; Jasim Mohamed Al-Hadithi; Muna Hamudi Al Jubori

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2011, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 210-215

This study included 150 swabs were taken from patients was suffering from different burns. The most common fungi isolated from burn wound were Aspergillus spp. (44.0%) at 37o and (38.17%) at 25o which include Aspergillus niger (9.31%) at 37o and (12.42%) at 25o , Aspergillus fumigatus (4.34%) at 37o and (10.55%) at 25o and Aspergillus flavus (0%) at 37o and (9.93%) at 25o , followed by Candida spp. (7.45%) at 37o and (7.45%) at 25o, Which includes Blastomyces dermatitidis (0.62%) at 37o and (0.62%) at 25o, Helminthosporum (0%) at 37o and (0.62%) at 25o, Trichophyton terrestre (0%) at 37o and (0.62%) at 25o and Microsporum ajelloi (0%) at 37o and (0.62%) at 25o.The results of minimal inhibitory concentration of anti fungal agents against Candida albicans , Candida glabrata , Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis, Penicillium (1.66%) at 37o and (9.31%) at 25o, Alternaria (1.24%) at 37o and (3.72%) at 25o, Rhizopus (1.24%) at 37o and (2.48%) at 25o, Fusarium (1.24%) at 37o and (1.24%) at 25o, Mucor (0.62%) at 37o and (1.86%) at 25o, Cladosporium Carnoni (0%) at 37o and (1.86%) at 25o, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (0.92%) at 37o and (1.24%) at 25o, Trichophyton rubrum (0%) at 37o and (1.24%) at 25o, Trichophyton verrucosum (0.62%) at 37o and (0.62%) at 25o, Candida albicans increasing in order as 50 /ml to Nystatin, 150 /ml to Gention violet, 250 /ml to Amphotericin–B, 300 /ml to Clotrimazol, 950 /ml to Benzoic acid and the later 1000 /ml to copper Sulfate and Malachite green.