Print ISSN: 1609-5693

Online ISSN: 2410-7409

Volume 36, Issue 1

Volume 36, Issue 1, Summer and Autumn 2012, Page 1-156


Immunological Response of Bovine Mammary Cell Lines in Mastitis and Milk Hygiene

Abdul-Hadi Abbass Abd

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 1-13

Mammary adherent cells (MAC-T) were infected with six isolates of Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis). Three isolates were cases of mastitis in dairy cows and belonged to clonal complex 5, 143, which is associated with virulence and three were from cows with no clinical or laboratory evidence of mastitis. All these isolates belonged to clonal complex 86 which contains strains of low virulence. After incubation at 37oC for 24 h, there were no significant differences in the number of adherent or internalized S. uberis between mastitis (M) and non- mastitis (NM) isolates (p> 0.05).
The levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α), measured in treated MAC-T cells supernatant with S. uberis by ELISA, were significantly elevated in cultures infected with NM isolates compared with M isolates, after 10h (p>0.05) and 24h (p>0.001) respectively. Expression of TNF-α, TLR2, TLR4 and NFkB genes were examined by Real-Time PCR. There are highly significant differences in the timing of expression. The levels of TNF-α mRNA increased 36 fold after 6 hour of infecting cells with M strains, but not in NM strains of S. uberis. These results suggest a vital role for TNF-α, in the defence against S. uberis in the bovine mammary glands.

The effect of Foot and Mouth disease on reproductive performance of Holstein bulls in Artificial Insemination Center of Iraq

Rajab BA; Ibrahim F F; AL-Badry K I

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 1-7

This study was carried out in Artificial Insemination Center of Iraq to revealed FMD disease effect on some seminal attributer parameters of 14 imported Holstein bulls divided to three groups according to different reproductive efficiency (four High, five medium and five weak). Results showed that FMD disease had significant (P < 0.05) adverse effect on most seminal attributer parameters, mass, individual motility and sperm concentration / ml during post disease in first of two, four, all months of high, medium and weak semen quality bulls respectively .but semen volume didn’t influenced significantly with this disease. So semen collection should be suspended until resume normal fertility of sperm, after two, four month of high and medium bulls respectively, and must be revealed weak bulls when disease happen to avoid the failure of conception from artificial insemination and there is no economic benefit to use or keep weak bulls.

Conformation of the clinical diagnoses of some malnutrition diseases in local and Shammi goats in Baghdad province

M.H; Al-Judi Abdul; S.A.G; Al-Sammarraie; Al-Shawi A.F.S

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 8-14

The relationship between the clinical singes and some of the hematological and biochemical values in 126 cases of local breed and Shammi breed goats (from both sexes) diagnosed as cases of malnutrition from 230 goats examined .The clinical examination include (beside the general inspection and case history) body temperature, respiratory and pulse rates, mucus membranes skin and coat. Examination of the blood samples included RBCs count, Hb concentration, PCV % and values of cupper, magnesium, phosphorus, and potassium. The results showed that the mean body temperature of these goats was lower than in normal goats, while the respiratory and pulse rates were higher .Examination of blood revealed decrease in the means of RBCs counts ,Hb concentration and PCV % in the clinically diagnosed cases , and the decrease was more sever in local goats . However the results indicated lower values of cupper, magnesium, phosphorus, and potassium in comparison with normal values in goats. The ratio of cupper deficiency was the highest followed by phosphorus, magnesium and potassium and the ratio of malnutrition was high in Baghdad province. It was in Shammi breed higher than in local breed.

Catalyzed Gas Phase Ammoxidation of 2, 3 and 4-picolines

Rajiha I. AL-Nuaimy

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 14-21

Catalyst gas phase ammoxidation of 2,3, and 4- picolines in a fixed bed reactor is described the catalyst applied composed of Vanadium (V) and tin (Sn) Oxides supported on Al2O3 as described in recent papers (1), (2). The effect of NH3, O2, contact time and temperature of the picoline mole ratios on the yield and conversion of the products was studied. The conversation and yield are in the rate of 2-picoline> 4-picoline > 3-picoline.
The applied catalyst was active even after 150 hours of reaction. The highest yield obtained of nicotinic acid was 90%, 88%, 87% 2-picoline, 4-picoline and 3-picoline respectively.

Biological activity of local honey bees in growth of some gram positive and negative bacteria

Al-MohanaA.M.G

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 15-24

The local study was targeting to investigate the biological antibacterial activity for gradiate concentrations of a local honey bees (125,250, 375 and 500 mg/ml) were tested for five type of bacteria, two of which are gram positive (staphylococcusaureus , streptococcus spp.) and three of them were negative bacteria ( Esherichia coli , salmonella spp. , pseudomonas aeruginosa) by using agar well diffusion method and tube dilution method.
The results of agar well diffusion method showed that the bacteria of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus Spp. were the most sensitive to honey dilutions, while E.coli ,Salmonella Spp. showed moderate sensitivity . Pseudomonas aeruginosadid not show any sensitivity. The result also showed that the temperature of incubation temperature of culture media (25and 37 C) had a marked effect on the result of local study, outperformed of diameters of growth inhibition in the cultures that were incubated at 25 C in most of the result recorded.The result of the tube dilution method, Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) was ( 8 , 8 , 125 and 64) mg/ml for the growth of S.aureus , Streptococcus , E.coli and salmonella respectively , while the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) for bacteria mentioned were (32 , 64 , 250 and 250) mg/ml respectively for tubes that incubated at 25 C while tubes which incubated at 37 C MIC recorded (8 , 8 , 125 and 250) mg/ml while MBC were ( 32 , 64 , 125 and 250) mg/ml respectively.

The analgesic effects of L-arginine and its antagonist L-NAME in mice

Farid J. Al-Tahan; Muhannad A. A. Al-Bayati; Salma J. Askar

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 22-31

L-arginine-Nitric oxide pathway plays an important role in a series of neurobiological functions underlying behaviors including analgesic effect and has shown a role in pain feeling which is a mediator with modulation effect in dorsal root of ganglionic neurons of spinal cord. The goal of the present study is to clarify the influence of L-arginine-mediated nitric oxide (NO) on pain arbitration in both sexes of mice. The reactive time to thermal stimulus, latency period, tail withdrawal and the number of foot licking and flinching in hot plate test, tail flick and formalin tests were recorded. The results showed that L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) has had an antinociceptive activity demonstrated as prolonged reactive time to thermal stimulus, latency period for tail withdrawal and decreasing the number of foot licking and flinching in hot plate, tail flick and formalin tests. These findings might be attributed to that intensity of pain feeling is intercede due to interference of sex hormones in both sexes of mice. In addition, from the results of L-NAME on pain sensation, it may be concluded that L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway is extravital in male in comparison with female in pain sensation.

Evaluation of Toxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of Watery and Alcoholic extracts of some plant on growth of pathogenicBacteria isolatedfrom diarrhea.

Hanan Adnan Shaker Al- Naemi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 25-32

In This study, the bacteria Escherichia Coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella dysentarea were isolated from diarrhea in infants. Microbiological and biochemical tests were conducted to identify these bacteria. In the Identification of bacterial Species the API-System was used. Sensitivity test of bacterial isolates revealed high resistance to many Antibiolics like Ampicillin, Tetracycline, Ceftazidine, Cephalothin ,Vancomycin and Rifamipicin.
The effects of extracts of (Citrus aurantifolia ,Zingiber offienals, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Pimpinellaanisum, Camellia ,sinessis Coffeiaarabica, Elattariacar domomum, Cumminum cumminum, Thymus vulgaris and Trigonella foenum geoecum in inhibiting bacteria isolated from diarrhea were studied , also indication of presence of chemical active components in extracts was observed . The Preliminary chemical tests revealed acidic PH of all extracts, and the best antibacterial was effect that of Citrus aurantifolie an lcoholic extract on growth of E.coli with inhibition zone diameter 47mm

Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia in Children in Kadhmiyah Hospital

Amjed Qays Ibrahim

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 32-36

In this study we collect 1520 stool samples during the period from September to December 2010 from children whom their ages between 1 month - 12 years. The results showed that the total infection of Entamoeba histolytica was 9.80% , and Giardia lamblia was 1.77%. And the male ratio that infected with Entamoeba histolytica was 9.83% , while the female ratio was 9.74%; and the male infected with Giardia lamblia was 1.51% , while the female ratio was 2.18%. The result showed that the high average of infection with Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia in age group from 1 month to 2 years. And there is no significance difference between gender and infectivity rate of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia under P≤0.05. Also it showed that there were significant relation between Age group and infectivity rate of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia.

Histopathological Study of Some Tigris River Fish Which Infected by Parasites

N.T; Mansor; Falah; A.B; J.M; Al- Jawda; Asmar; K.R

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 33-42

A total of 69 fish samples were collected from three stations Tigris River namely (Al-Zaafaraniya, Al-Tagei and Al-Shawaka) at Baghdad city, during the period from January to December 2010). These fishes were belonging to five species which were Barbus luteus, Carassius carassius, Chondrostoma regium, Liza abu and Silurus triostegus. The microscopial examination revealed infection with 39 species of ectoparasites and endoparasites including twenty one from protozoans (five ciliate (E.cyprini, E.dogieli, E.spherica, T.domerguei, T.nigra) and sixteen sporozoa (C.bychowski, Myxidium monstrasum, M.pfeifferi, M.rhodei, Myxobolus bramae, M.cyprini, M.cyprinicola, M.drgajini, M.koi, M.macrocapsulari, M.mulleri, M.oviformis, M.paljanski, M.parvus, M.pfeifferi and M.spherica)),twelve trematodes (nine of them from Monogenea (A.siluri , D.achmerovi , D.anchoratus, D.dulkiti, D.formosus, D.skarjabini, D.varicohrini,D.vasator and Diplozoon pavloviski) three digenea(A.coleostoma,D.commutatum, D.spathacum)), one nematode Rabdicona sp., two acanthocephala (N.cristatus, N.iraqensis), two crustaceans (D.varicoleus, E.sieboldi) and one from fungus I.hoferi. The present study included the histopathological changes which caused by Myxobolus on the site of infection (muscles, kidneys and gills) included muscular disorganization, necrosis, bleeding, hemorrhage and mononuclear cells infiltration, hyperplasia and telengiectasis on the gills secondary lamella. Also, the present study included the histopathological changes on the intestine which infected with Neochinorhynchus iraqinesis included closed of intestinal lumen with parasites section, debris necrosis, severe reduce of intestinal filament and mononuclear cells infiltration.

Influence of crude extract of Hawthorn crataegus oxyacantha on some physiological aspects in mature male Rats exposed to hydrogen peroxide over load.

Anwar I. Obeed Al-Abdaly

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 37-44

This study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of 70% ethanolic alcohol extract of hawthorn (crataegus oxycantha) on some physiological functions of male rats exposed to 1% H2O2. Fifteen mature male Newzeland rats were randomly divided into three groups:- control group (C) ,two groups treated with 1% H2O2 alone (G1) or 1%H2O2 with crude extract of hawthorn(G2) orally daily for 30 days .Blood samples were taken at zero time and 30 days of the experiment .The present study declared an alteration in the lipid profile of the treated group (G2) at the end of treatment (30 days) manifested by asignificant reduction (p<0.05) in serumTC,TAG,LDL-C, VLDL-C concentrations. And elevation (p<0.05) in serum, HDL-C, as compared to the treated group (G1). Antioxidant status also exhibited significant (p<0.05) changes characterized by an elevation of serum GSH in group (G2). Histological study revealed that oral treatment with 1% H2O2 caused congestion of blood vessels of the heart with infiltration of inflammatory cells and odema between muscle fibers. It is concluded that treatment with hawthorn showed no clear pathological lesions.

Evaluation of some Limiting Factors affecting Water chlorination at Baghdad / Al-Kurch District

Najim Hadi Najim; Rebwar Tahir Aziz

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 43-49

This study was designed to high light about the effect of some factors individually or in combination that shared in the reduction of the chlorine activity and efficiency for meeting the bacterial standards as a disinfection agent for drinking water at Baghdad city/ Al- kurch. To achieve the objectives (137) drinking water samples were collected from July up to the end of November 2007 from the houses of Baghdad's citizens/ Al- kurch. Also studying the scientific nature of some municipal water supply at Baghdad/ Al- kurch, drinking water samples were collected from faucets after allowing the water to run for 0, 5 and 10 minutes. Statistical data showed that there was non significant difference in both the chlorine concentration and coliform counts in all samples that were taken after allowing the water to run for 0, 5 and 10 minutes and for that reason drinking water samples after allowing the water to run for 5 minutes were chosen as the best time for sampling in this research.
Data revealed that the free chlorine in drinking water was below the standards set by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the period from July up to the end of August 2007, whereas the highest Coliform counts in drinking water were established during the above mentioned months, while the coliform counts decreased in the period from September up to the end of November 2007 due to the utilization of higher concentrations of total chlorine in drinking water in municipal water supply, in addition to that, the effect of some variables such as quantity of free chlorine, temperature, pH and oxidation- reduction potential of water on the sanitizing efficiency of the chlorine were studied.
The statistical data revealed that there was a significant negative correlation (P < 0.01, r = -0.072) between the chlorine sanitizing efficiency with both the concentration of the free chlorine and its contact time with microorganisms while the effect of temperature, pH and oxidation- reduction potential of water showed non significant effect on the chlorine sanitizing efficiency.
In order to evaluate the sanitation program of the municipal water supply at Baghdad/ Al- kurch to ensure that the water treatment was being done properly by the employees and meeting the bacterial standards set by (WHO). All the official documents about the chlorine concentration, pH, temperature of water that were reported by the employees in the period from July up to the end of November 2007 were studied and compared to this results, for that reason 16 drinking water samples from the municipal water supply were collected and tested for the above mentioned parameters during November using the most sensitive advanced digital instrument (Chlorimeter). Data reported by the municipal water supply at Baghdad/ Al- kurch revealed that chlorine, pH and temperature of water were 3.6 PPM, 7.50 and 21.7Co, respectively in November only. While the measurements were reported here 5.05 PPM, 6.94 and 17.6oC respectively, during the same month by using the Chlorimeter and the only reason for such differences with our results was due to the use of a highly sensitive digital instrument by our research in comparison to the old methods and instruments that were used in the municipal water supply.

Detection of bovine viral diarrhea –mucosal disease (BVD-MD) in buffaloes and cows using ELISA

Khawlah M. Imran Al-Rubaye; Saleem A. Hasso

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 45-50

Out of 210 tissue samples (lung and lymph nodes ) collected from buffaloes examined by ELISA specific to(BVDV) Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus antigen ten (10) samples were positive out of 160 lung tissue collected with (4.7%)and (3)positive sample were detected out of 50 lymph node tissue samples collected with (1.4%). Totally 13 positive samples with (6.1%) in buffaloes examined. The total positive tissue samples were divided to three age group. Group age one from (birth -6 month), group age two from (6-18 month) and group age three (18 month up). The positive samples were (1),(10) and (2) with (0.47%),(4.7%)and (0.95%)respectively that indicate the presence of BVD antigen in buffaloes (Bubals bubalis) .Out of (210) sera samples collected from buffaloes examined by ELISA specific to (BVDV) antibody (83) positive sera samples with (39.5%) in buffaloes. The positive serum samples were divided into three age groups, group age one from (birth -6 month ), group age two from (6-18 month) and group age three (18 month up ). The positive samples were (3), (60) and (20) with (1.4 %), (28.5%) and (9.5%) respectively in buffaloes. Out of (60) sera samples collected from cows examined by ELISA specific to (BVDV) antibody 21/60 positive samples with (35%) in cows.The positive serum samples divided to three age group ,group age one from (birth-6 month),group age two from(6-18 month) and group age three (18 month up ). The positive samples (1), (14), and (6) with (1.6%), (23.3%) and (10%) respectively. The result above indicated the presence of the disease as persistent infection (PI) in group one, (MD) in group two and (BVD) in group age three.

Use of turmeric (Curcuma longa) on the performance and some physiological traits on the broiler diets

Raghdad A. Abd Al-Jaleel

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 51-57

This study was conducted at the poultry farm ,Veterinary Public Health .,College of Veterinary Medicine, to study the effect of Tumeric (Curcuma longa) on broiler performance and some physiological traits .Two hundred fifty day-old (Rose308) broiler chicks were all located randomly to five treatments from 1-42 days of age, with tow replicate pens (25 birds /pen) per treatment .
Chicks were fed the following :- Diet (1)Using basal diet free from herbal plants kept as control , Diet (2) Basal diet + 0.25% of Curcuma longa (250 gm/100kg of feed) Diet (3) Basal diet + 0.50% of Curcuma longa (500 gm/100kg of feed ).Diet (4) Basal diet + 1% 0f Curcuma longa (1000 gm/100kg of feed ).Diet (5) Basal diet plus 1.5 % of Curcuma longa (1500 gm/100kg of feed ).Results revealed that the inclusion of turmeric at the levels of 0.50% in the diets improved body weight ,feed conversion ratio ,there were a significant difference in feed consumption .At the same time there was no significant difference for edible parts, were as found significant difference (P˂ 0.05) for dressing percent for all treatments treat with compare for control group . At the same time there was no significant difference in PCV, RBC, Hb, WBC while there was significant difference in H/L ratio, Albumin and globulin.

Hematological and Neurotoxic Effects of Endosulfan Pesticide on Common Carp Cyprinus carpio

Abdulmotalib J.Al-Rudainy; Mohhamed H.Kadhim

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 58-67

The present study including determined blood picture by measuring red blood cells count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and white blood cells in common carp Cyprinus carpio, as well as description behavior and growth of carp fish .In order to estimate LC50 used 240 fingerlings of common carp Cyprinus carpio were exposed to 0.0008µg/L, 0.0010µg/L, 0.0011µg/L, 0.0012µg/L, 0.0013µg/L, 0.0014µg/L and 0.0015µg/L. The LC50 of endosulfan was 0.0012µg/L for 48h of exposure Fish behavioral were recorded that showed abnormalities after exposure to the various endosulfan concentrations such as increase swimming activity, hypersensitivity, jerky movement, violent movements, loss of equilibrium, hyperactivity, increase operculum movement, frequent jumping, swimming at the water surface, erratic swimming, spiraling, convulsion, escape attempts from the aquarium with respiratory stress and decrease in respiratory rate as well as a significant decrease at (P<0.05) in body weight of all treated groups. The result of blood picture showed a significant reduction in red blood cells count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume values while the number of white blood cells was showed a significant increase in its values.

Effect of L-carnitine administration to pregnant mice on some reproductive hormones and organs

Flayyih; N. K; M-B. M-R; Fakhrildin

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 68-74

Carnitine is quaternary ammonium compound and required for the transport of fatty acids from the cytosol into the mitochondria for the generation of metabolic energy. The aims of the present study were to assess the effects of L-carnitine administration to pregnant mice on some parameters of reproductive performance and pregnancy outcome.
One hundred and five pregnant female mice Swiss albino strain mice age: 12-14 weeks were used in this study. Pregnant mice were divided randomly into three equal groups including control group (administered distilled water; DW), low dose group (T1) administered 0.5 mg/Kg L-carnitine and high dose group (T2) administered 1 mg/Kg L-carnitine. Daily administration of D.W. or L-carnitine was continued from day 1 (day post-sexual mating) until parturition. Hormone assay involving follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E2), litter size, percentage of female sex, weight of the reproductive system and endometrial thickness were assessed.
Assessment of levels of serum reproductive hormones appeared that the FSH and LH and E2 for both treated groups were increased significantly (P<0.05) as compared to the control group. Moreover, significant increment (P<0.05) in the weight of reproductive system, litter sizes and a significant increment (P<0.05) in the thickness of endometrium for both treated groups was observed as compared to the control group.
Conclusion: administration of 0.5 mg/Kg L-carnitine to pregnant mice had beneficial effects on pregnancy and offspring outcomes.

Neurotoxic effect in lactating mice pups received oseltamivir phosphate (tamiflu) through milk from dosed nursing mothers during lactation period

Areej B.Abass; Duraid A.Abass; Emad M. Rasheed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 75-84

The present study was aimed to evaluate neurotoxic effects of oseltamivir phosphate in lactating pups of orally dosed mice mothers during lactation. Twelve recently parturited female albino mice were divided equally into three groups, one control and two treated groups, each group consists of 4 dosed dams and 8 chosen pups .The nursing dams of T1 and T2 dosed daily orally with 1mg/kg and 5mg/kg,oseltamivir phosphate respectively representing the therapeutic dose and 5 fold dose of drug while control group dosed with distilled water. Lactating mice pups of all groups examined for the following parameters: First parameter was body weight changes and gain: In which T1group showed significant increase in mice pups body weight gain after 14 day of treatment in comparison with control group and T2. Second parameter was clinical symptoms observation /daily, all treatment groups that showed neurotoxic symptoms appeared from 1st dose and extended along the next few days of treatment to be gradually disappeared and completely lost within the last days of treatment in dose dependent manner.These neurotoxic symptoms were weakness, convulsions ,lay on back or side, extended body, incoordination ,extended limbs and limbs stiffness. Third parameter was gross and histopathological studies which demonstrate that the brain was the most affected organ beside extensive lesions in liver, kidney, stomach and small intestine of treated groups in dose dependent manner.
In conclusion of this study revealed that Oseltamivir phosphate produce neurotoxic effect in mice pups through indirect administration by nursing mothers dosing during lactation period and the level of toxicity was in dose dependent manner.

Evaluate the effect of different doses for grape seed extract in mice

Sanaa Kudair A .AL.Jeboory; Eman H.Y.Al Taae; Rajiha A. AL. Naimi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 85-98

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses for grape seeds extract in internal organs of mice. Histopathological, cytogentical and haematological studies were done to evaluate this effect. The study was done on (24) mice divided into four groups (6/group) for one month. Group one treated with PBS considered as control Negative, Group two treated with (100mg/kg B.W.) of grape seed extract, Group three treated with (200mg/kg B.W.) of grape seed extract, Group four treated with (300mg/kg B.W.) of grape seed extract. The results showed that (200, 300mg/kg B.W.) cause significant decrease in hematological, cytogentical parameters and severe histopathological changes while at dose (100mg/kg B.W.) induce immune pathological response organ with amelioration of haematological and cytogentical parameters. In conclusion the effect of grape seed extract was dose dependent that more severe toxicopathological changes appeared in haemtological, cytogentical and histopathological results at doses (200 and 300mg/kg B.W.) while at dose ( 100mg/kg B.W.) induce immunopathological response internal organs with amelioration of haematological and cytogentical parameters.

The effect of L-arginine and its antagonist L-NAME and Methylene blue on sensory and cognitive function in mice

Farid J. Al-Tahan; Muhannad A. A. Al-Bayati; Salma J. Askar

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 99-106

The present study was done to focus light on possible enhancement of the functional performance of male mice and female in neuronal behaviors by using L-arginine as a precursor of nitric oxide (NO). The results showed increase of latency period to reach the novel object in L-arginine treated groups and decrease in both L-NAME and methylene blue treated groups in both periods of treatment (15 and 30) days and were more prominent in male than in female mice as compared with control groups. Similar results were observed in passive avoidance latency period to enter the dark compartment. There was a reduction in latency period to reach the alternative arm of T-maze test in L-arginine treated groups and increase in both L-NAME and methylene blue treated groups in both periods of treatment (15 and 30) days in both genders. It could be concluded that L-arginine-NO pathway plays an important role in improving memory in male more than female mice.

The effects of dry yeast levels on some water parameters

Nasreen M. Abdulrahman; Dana A. Muhammad

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 107-119

This study was carried out at fish laboratory of Animal Production Department, college of Agriculture, university of Sulaimaniya using commercial dry yeast probiotics (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in three concentration ( 3%, 5% and 7%) to study their effects on growth performance of common carp fingerlings( Cyprinus carpio) fed diets and some of water parameters.The experiment was included nine treatments each in three replicates (plastic aquaria) in which 10 fingerlings common carp of the same size and weight (3.5 gram) were stocked in each aquarium. The actual experimental feeding trials durated for three months. Results indicated that thethird treatment(7% concentration of the yeast) giving more weight gain, growth rate and best relative growth weight.Monthly samples of water were taken from each pond for measuring water quality control, temperature and dissolved oxygen, BOD5, pH, EC (dc/m), TDS, No2 (mgl-1 No2-N), No3 (mgl-1 No3-N).

The immunomodulatory effect of Neem (Azadirachtaindica) seed aqueous, ethanolic extracts and Candida albicans cell wall mannoproteins on immune response in mice vaccinated with Brucella Rev-1

Tareq J. Faal; A. Hussein; Adhia; Mohammad K Faraj; Al-Ramahy A.K

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 120-127

In the present study, the immunomodulatory effect of Neem (Azadirachtaindica) seed aqueous, ethanolic extracts and Candida albicans cell wall mannoproteins on the immune response of mice vaccinated with Brucella Rev-1 vaccine was investigated. The study was conducted on two main groups(160 mice for each group), Each group was divided into eight subgroups 20 mice for each (I: treated with distilled water, II: treated with the Brucella Rev-1 vaccine, III: treated with mannoproteins, IV: treated with neem aqueous extract, V: treated with neemethanolic extract, VI, VII and VIII: treated with mannoproteins, neem aqueous extract and neemethanolic extract, respectively, then they were vaccinated with Brucella Rev-1). All these treatments were carried out on day 1 and then vaccinated with brucella Rev-1 vaccine on day 4 .Then the mice were tested as follows , on day 8 after vaccination(serum IFN-γ level), day 21 for (anti-Brucella antibody titer). The doses of both plant extracts and mannoproteins represented 10% of the calculated LD50 (neem extracts: 3.8096 g/Kg mannoproteins: 5.7144 mg/Kg), which were given subcutaneously. Mice of the second main group were injected with the immune suppressive drug prednisolone (5mg/Kg) 5 days prior to the treatments, which carried out on mice of the first main group. The results demonstrated clear immunomodulatory effects (improvement of non-specific, humoral immunity) of the tested immunomodulators in mice vaccinated with Brucella Rev-1 as compared with mice that were not treated with Neem extracts or mannoproteins. In this regard, The interferon-γ showed a significant increase (P≤ 0.01) serum level in immunomodulator-treated and -vaccinated mice in comparison with negative and positive groups, and again group VII showed the highest increase. The anti-Brucella antibodies assessed by indirect Immunoflourescent test also showed a significant increase titer in immunomodulator-treated and -vaccinated mice in comparison with negative and positive groups.
Conclusion: The aqueous and ethanolicNeem seed extract reported the highest enhancement in all immunological parameters employed in comparison with mannoproteins of Candida albicans cell wall.

Study the Pathological Effects of the Combination of Estrogen and Progesterone Hormones on Some Organs Experimentally Induced in Mice

Hana Kudair Abbas

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 128-136

The aim of this study was design to investigate the pathological changes for one month after therapeutic and toxic doses of subcutaneous injection of estrogen and progesterone combination hormones in mice, on the target organs testis and epidydimus in males and uterus and ovary in females. As well as the effects on non-target organ of Brain, liver spleen, intestine, stomach, kidney and lung in both sexes. The results showed sever pathological changes in male's testis and epidydimus and in females, uterus and the ovary. It is characterized by some pathological changes in toxic group less severity than in the therapeutic group.
Also, in non-target organs brain and spleen of toxic group of males and females showed some pathological changes while therapeutic group almost appear normal. The liver and kidney were affected in both groups (therapeutic and Toxic) in males and females. Other organs like intestine stomach, Lung doesn't showed any change in both groups

New Formulation of Trimethoprim Injectable Solution for Veterinary Use

Arooba M.S. Ibrahim; Duraid A. H. Abbas

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 137-144

The aim of this study was prepared new formulation of trimethoprim injectable solution in the Physiology and pharmacology department /College ofVeterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad.Trimethoprim injection formulation is antibacterial and used against a number of bacteria, protozoa and Rickettsia. Data was collected about the materials used in the preparation of the formula from the well-known pharmacopeia, including the specification, physical and chemical properties of active ingredient, the additive and preservative that must be used. Three pilot formulae were prepared from analar chemical ingredient from which one formula was chosen and tested to approve its quantitative and qualitative specification. Quantitative evaluation, stability of the formula was also tested under different storage environmental condition of low and high temperature at different periods through and one year and through the questionnaire field. Questionnaire proved the product, stability and therapeutic efficiency. The composition obtained a certificate of acceptance from the Veterinary State Company and Veterinary Drug Research and production Centre as new preparation Formula of Trimethoprim Injectable Solution for Veterinary use.

Evaluation of selected parameters of rat liver injury following repeated administration of oseltamivir for different periods

Falah Muosa Kadhim Al-Rikabi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 145-156

The effects of oseltamivir administration, an anti influenza viruses A and B, on some functional parameters of rat liver were investigated, to evaluate the possible hepatotoxic effect. Eighteen (18) wister male albino rats with body weight ranged 150-190 gm were divided into three groups, the first group(T1) was treated orally with 1mg/kg.BW as therapeutic dose of Oseltamivir for 7consuctive days. The second group (T2) was treated with the same dose for six weeks, while the control group dosed distill water. The results revealed, there was a significant increase in the onset of barbiturate sleeping time and a significant p ≤ 0.05 decrease of the duration of barbiturate sleeping time of the T2 rats . The liver enzymes activity revealed a significant decrease in ALT in T1 rats and significant increased p<0.05 in the T2 rats, while the AST activity showed only significant increased p<0.05 in the T2 treated rats. The activity of ALP was p<0.05 significantly increased in the rats of treated groups. The blood sugar was significantly decreased p<0.05 only in the T2rats. Cholesterol level was significantly p<0.05 increased in T2 treated rats, while the serum of both treated groups showed a significantly increase p<0.05 in the triacylglycerol concentration.
The HDL level was significantly decreased p<0.05 only in theT1 rats. The treated T2 rats showed a significant decrease p<0.05 in the LDL, while the VLDL level revealed a significant increase p<0.05.The total serum protein level was significantly increased p<0.05 in the rats of T2. Liver histopathological lesions of the T1rats revealed large amount of suppurative exudates, severe dilation and congestion of central veins and sinusoids with activation of kupffer cells. The liver of T2 rat showed multiple areas of focal necrosis, fibrous thickening of Glisson capsule with vacuolar degeneration of hepatic parenchyma. In:conclusion, Oseltamivir has hepatotoxic effect in rats treated with therapeutic dose 1mg/ kg.BW. orally in different periods.