Print ISSN: 1609-5693

Online ISSN: 2410-7409

Volume 36, Issue 0

Volume 36, Issue 0, Winter and Spring 2012, Page 1-361

Growth and pathogenesis of Enteropathogenic E.coli as affected by bacteriocin produced and purified from Lactobacillus isolates with or without Quercus infectoria ( Manjakani ) extract.

Hassan A. Abdul-Ratha; Essam F. Al-Jumaily; Rana H. Raheema

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 1-7

The antimicrobial activity of Lactobacilli has been widely exploited for prevention of food –borne pathogens e.g.: Escherichia coli being the major cause of diarrhea especially in children, because of bacteriocin activity and the importance of herbal drugs, hence this study was designed to evaluate the synergistic effect of plant extract and bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus on the growth and pathogenesis of Enteropathogenic Ecoli.
1. The Plantaricin production was induced by adding the mutagenic agent Mitomycin C.
2. Purification of Plantaricin was made by heating crude plantaricin at 80ºC for 10min and then purified by two steps method including extraction with n-butanol followed by gel filtration chromatography on Sepharose 6B column. The results showed that the specific activity was 1600 AU/mg protein with 8 purification folds and 12% recovery yield.
3. The antibacterial activity of Quercus infectoria with concentration 300 mg/ml was showed highly antibacterial activity in vitro and in vivo.
4. The result showed synergistic effect of Plantaricin with Quercus infectoria extract after experimental infection that induced by orally dosing with Escherichia coli in vivo. A result of histopathological study was recorded recovery of tissue.

Study the therapeutic role of Alcoholic Extract of Plantago lanceolata aganist infection with Staphylococcus saprophyticus

Ratha; Hassan A. Abdul; Aseel J. Mohammad

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 8-15

The present study was carried out to investigate the antibacterial activity of alcoholic extracts of Plantago lanceolata leafes in vitro and in vivo by inducing urinary tract infection in rats which caused by urethra administration of S.saprophyticus isolated from human and animals(cow and sheep)
These extracts showed significant effect (P<0.05) on the inhibition of the growth of S.saprophyticus in vitro with the superiority of the concentration 200mg / ml of alcoholic extract with the mean of inhibition zone diameter 30 mm against S.saprophyticus ,while zone diameter was ( 26.5 ,21 ) mm due to the concentration 150, 100mg/ml respectively.
This study included the therapeutic role of doses 150 mg/kg . B.W. of 1.5ml daily orally of alcoholic extract dissolved in DMSO of plantago lanceolata leaves in the pathogenesis of S.saprophyticus in rats by the urethral infection in compared with the control group (rats injected with S.saprophyticus without treatments).The results of histopathological changes showed the role of Plantago lanceolata extract on the decreasing of pathological sings in bladder and kidney tissue after 14 and 21 days and gave negative results by decrease congestion in the blood vessels of kidney hemorrhage and few infiltration of inflammatory cells in bladder , in compared with the positive control which showed acute histopathological change.

Detection of bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus in Iraq

Aida Bara Allawe; Anton Sabri Al-bana

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 16-24

This study is considered the first study in our country to isolate bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (BPIV-3) from naturally infected calves. BPIV-3 virus was isolated from nasal swabs collected from calves with respiratory disease. The virus was isolated and titrated in secondary embryonic bovine kidney (SEBK) cell culture; other cell cultures (secondary sheep testis and chicken embryos fibroblast cell cultures) were used for propagation of isolated virus. Examination of infected cell culture revealed giant cell formation and intracytoplasmic inclusions. The isolated virus agglutinated guinea pig’s erythrocytes and produces clear heamadsorption of guinea pig’s erythrocyte in infected SEBK cell culture. Virus titer was 2×102TCID50/0.1ml in the sixth passage and became 2×104.5TCID 50/0.1ml in the ninth passage. The new isolated virus was identified as BPIV-3 by heamagglutination inhibition test, serum neutralization test and indirect immunoflurescent technique, by using specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibody. The virus was sensitive to ether. High titer of BPIV-3 antibodies was detected in sera of infected animals during convalescent period by ELISA test.

Treatment of Bovine Papilloma

Nahi Y. Yaseen; Anton S. Al-Banna; Mohammed A. Hamad

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 25-32

In this study (35) cows suffering from bovine papilloma were subjected for three different types of treatments; The First group involved 15 animals treated with autogenous vaccine. The Second group involved 10 animals treated with prepared cell culture vaccine .While the third group involved 10 cows treated with virulent local Newcastle disease virus. In the First two groups the warts were surgically removed from cows showing lump lesions on skin of abdomen, neck and udder, and transferred aseptically to laboratory by using transport media.
Treatment of cows in the first group involved preparation of autogenous formalin (0.5%) in activated vaccine. Vaccination of these animals result in regression of the warts started after 2 or 3 weeks and complete disappearance of the warts after 30-60 days with a mean duration of 44.9 days.
Treatment of the second group involved preparation of papilloma cell culture inactivated vaccine 0.5% formalin from 3 papilloma cases. The response of these vaccinated cows result in regression of the warts lesions started after 2 or 3 weeks post the first vaccinal dose and complete disappearance of the warts after 30-60 days, with mean 43.8 days.
Treatment of the third group involved using of virulent NDV by subcutaneous injection and infiltration around the warts. Results showed successful regression of warts within a shorter period with mean of 30.1 days compared to treatment with autogenous and cell culture vaccine, with complete regression of the warts within 15-28 days.

Radiation Pollution in Cancer and other Diseases Using some Immunological and Clinical Parameters

Weam Saad Al-Hamadany; Dhuha S. Saleh; Muthana A. Shanshal

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 33-40

There was a noticeable increase in cancers, congenital malformations, spontaneous abortion and other cases among Iraqi population after both Gulf Wars I and II, the present study aimed to the detection and determination of internal radiation pollution with Depleted Uranium (DU), and investigate the effects of this type of radiation exposure on some immunological parameters for the first time in Iraq. A total of 88 blood samples were collected from 45 patients and 43 healthy persons during 2009-2010; from the outpatients of the Institute and Hospital of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine and Al-Kadhymia Teaching Hospital in Baghdad. Results: 1. Contaminated persons with DU were 48 persons (54.5%) from total 88 persons. 2. The places (Al-Taji, Abu-Graib, Al-Hurriyah, New Baghdad and Al-Sader town) recorded 44.7% of contaminated persons. 3. Effects of internal contamination with DU; chronic radiation exposure; influenced by the dose and personal susceptibility, thus it caused significant decrease in Eosinophils% and Lymphocytes %, Hb%, NBT+ % and most of IFN-γ levels, while there was some elevation in Basophiles%. 4. IL-2 levels did not affected by chronic exposure by DU. But it was affected by acute exposure to radiation since its levels elevated significantly in radiation occupationals blood.Conclusions: Radiation pollution as internal contamination with U and DU is a public health problem. It might be the predisposing factor for the cases under focus since it caused immunosuppression by affecting immune cells in number or function comparing with the non-contaminated.

Comparison of microbial isolates isolated from external ear canal of sheep and their susceptibility to antibiotics

Sahar Mahdi Hayyawi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 41-48

One hundred sheep with bilateral otitis externa were studied one year and a half .The exudates of both external ears obtained using sterile swabs, and microorganisms were isolated according to standard microbiological techniques. There was bacterial and fungal growth in many of the samples. The total numbers of isolates from right ear was 104 , and the most common pathogens isolated in right ear were Staphylococcus aureus 30.76 % , then Staphylococcus epidermidis 9.61% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 9.61 % while E.coli , Proteus mirabilis and Streptococcus pyogenes were 7.69% for each of them , Candida albicans 5.76% , Klebsiella pneumonia 3.84% ,Nocardia spp 3.84% , Pasteurella multucida 3.84% ,Mannheimia haemolytica 3.84% , Aspergillus spp. 3.84 % and Streptomyces spp. 1.23% . The total number of isolates from left ear was 96 ,the most pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus 27.08% while Pseudomonas aeruginosa 12.5% and Streptococcus pyogenes were 12.5% , Klebsiella pneumonia 8.33 % and Proteus mirabilis 8.33 % , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Nocardia spp 6.25 % , then Streptomyces spp , Pasteurella multucida and Mannheimia haemolytica were 4.16% , the last E.coli , Aspergillus spp and Candida albicans were 2.08 % for each of them . The result were showed significant differences at level P ˂0.05 between bacteria and fungi isolates, and have no significant differences at level P˃ 0.05 between right and left ear . High susceptible rates of gram positive Staphylococcus aureus to (Amoxicillin + Clavulaunic acid) and Chloramphenicol were 100 % , while high susceptible rates of gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 90.90 % to Ciprofloxacin, (Amoxicillin+ Clavulaunic acid) and Chloramphenicol .

Diagnostic study of FMD virus in different area in Iraq

Ameen Ahmad Sabar; Anton S. Al-Banna; Laith MS. Abdul-Rasoul; Barraq K.Abood

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 49-55

Seventy four (74) samples from cattle, buffalo, goat and sheep were tested to isolate the FMD virus, 23 isolates of the virus showed Cytopathic Effect (CPE) on the different types of cell culture.
The CPE appears after 24 hours on fetal lamb kidney (FLK) cells, 48 hours on the fetal bovine kidney (FBK), 30 hours on primary Fetal Bovine Thyroid cell (BTY) and 20 hours on the primary fetal ovine thyroid cells (OTY). Solid phase ELISA test showed three serotypes of FMD virus O, A and Asia1. One step real time RT-PCR for the diagnosis of FMDV by using 5UTR FMDV primers and taqman probe (SA-IR-219-246F, SA-IR-315-293R and SAmulti2-P-IR-292-269R). Samples were tested, showed 23 positive machines by using the Applied Biosystem Fast 7500 real time PCR.

Isolation and characterization of lytic bacteriophages against Escherichia coli serogroups O1, O2, and O78

Nidham Jamalludeen

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 56-63

The goal of this study was to isolate and characterize a complete set of phages that are active against Escherichia coliserogroups O1, O2, and O78, the main causative agents of avian colibacillosis. A mixture of E.coli (O1:K1), (O2:K1), and (O78:K80) used as host to isolate phages from wastewater and fecal samples from poultry processing plants. Eleven phages were isolated, only two of them EC-NJ4 and EC-NJ7 were selected for further characterization. EC-NJ4 and EC-NJ7 had icosaheadral heads, necks and contractile tails, with tail fibers and therefore belonged to Myoviridae, with genome sizes of 67.06 – 68.04 kb and they lysed 100% of serotype O1, O2, and O78. The two phages were resistant to pH 5-9, and phage EC-NJ7 was slightly more resistant to acid and alkali environments. It was concluded that Phage EC-NJ4 and EC-NJ7 are highly active against O1, O2, and O78 colibacillosis strains and it might be suitable candidate for phage therapy.

Study the Immunomodulatory effects of Beta - Glucan in broiler chickens

Nidhal Raoof Mahdi; Haider Abed AL-Abass

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 64-71

This study was carried out to investigate the immunomodulating activity of β-glucan which extracted from the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.β-glucan of 225µg/ml was supplemented in drinking water of broiler chicken vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. The parameters of the immunomodulating activity employed were the body weight, Phagocytic activity and determination of antibody titer to NDV vaccine. Chicks one day old (120), were divided into four equal groups, G1 treated with β-glucan for six weeks and vaccinated with NDV vaccine; G2 treated with β-glucan for three weeks and vaccinated with NDV vaccine; G3 not given β-glucan but vaccinated with NDV vaccine (control group); while G4 was not treated with β-glucan and not vaccinated with NDV vaccine (second control). The results of the body weight indicated that; there were significant differences (P< 0.05) between treated groups (G1 and G2) compared to the control groups (G3 and G4) at 21,28 and 35 day of age. The results of phagocytic activity showed that treated group had significantly (P< 0.05) higher clearance of carbon particles from blood circulation than did the control groups; and the antibody titer to NDV showed significant differences (P<0.05) between treated and non treated groups at 14d and 28d. The data presented in this study contribute for the first time in Iraq; that β –glucan given via drinking water to chicks from day one for 35 days improves the immune responses and body weight.

Determination of clinical state of hepatitis B virus infection of patients in Basra governorate

Saad S. Hamadi; Hayder A. Al-Hmoudi; Awatif H. Issa

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 72-75

Hepatitis B virus is a hepatotropic virus that causes acute and chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma; it is responsible for more than one million deaths annually worldwide despite hepatitis B vaccination. So, the aim of the present study was to detect the total markers of HBV (HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb, Total anti-HBc and IgM anti-HBc) .A total of 126 cases with hepatitis B were recruited from different medical centers in Basra. Serological tests were preformed for all cases using ELISA tests. 126 patients were divided into 8 studied groups including: Incubation, Active acute, Acute, Active chronic, chronic, Inactive HBsAg Carrier, HBsAg-negative patients and liver cancer. We conclude that the vast majority of patients were Inactive HBsAg Carrier (54.76 %) fallowed by acute hepatitis (16.67 %) and HBsAg-negative patients (7.14 %).

The Differences in Bioactivity between Crude and Purified Cholera Toxin from Local Isolate of Vibrio cholera

Amina; N. Al- Thwani; Khlood; A. Al-Khafaji

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 76-83

In this investigate Cholera toxin was purified from the local clinical isolate designated as V. cholerae S . Few steps were employed for purification of CT including concentration of the protein, back extraction, and gel filtration. The bioactivity of CT reflected that crude and purified toxin had lethal activity on Balb/c mice in which a dose of 2.5µg/ ml of purified toxin caused mice death with symptoms such as muscle cramps and tachycardia while erythematous and induration was seen at intradermal I. d injection of skin of Guinea pig. Histopathological examination for liver, intestine, adrenal gland and spleen of white mice showed that liver tissue was more affected compared with spleen, intestine and adrenal gland tissues.

Humoral immune response of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis sonicated antigens in rabbits.

AL-Samarrae. E.A.A; AL-Shawi; A.M.A; AL-Taiy; H.S.R

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 84-88

Salmonella typhimurium and salmonella enteritidis were isolated from infected goat and prepared an antigens of whole cell sonicated antigen of S.typhimurium (WCS.Ag.S.typhimurium ),whole cell sonicated antigen of S.enteritidis (WCS.Ag.S. entertidis) and combination of whole cell sonicated antigen (Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis) (CWS.Ag) . Their efficacy was evaluated by using tube agglutination test and enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty rabbits were randomly divided into four groups; the 1st group was immunized by WCS. Ag - Salmonella enteritidis, 2nd group immunized by (WCS Ags .typhimurium), 3rd group immunized by CWCS.Ag compound and 4th left as control group which injected by physiological buffer saline (pH 7.2). The antibody titer was increased in after the day 12, first, second and third months of immunization by agglutination test. IgG concentration was done by ELISA at the same time ;which were recorded a higher significant differences (p˂ 0.01) at the first month in the group immunized by CWS Ag (449.65 ±38.6 1ng/ml IgG and 952± 20.85 antibodies titer ) compared with other immunized groups ( WCS – Ag – S. enteritidis and WCS.Ag.S.typhimurium ). Also, the IgG concentration and antibodies titer are still higher in the second and the third months in the immunized group by CWCS.Ag. 218.90± 6.69ng/ml, 528± 68.58 and 89.55± 2.63ng/ml, 280± 49.98 respectively with significant differences (p ˂0.01) compared with the immunized groups (WCS.Ag.S. entertidis and WCS. Ag. S.typhimurium) and also, they are significant (p˂ 0.01) when compared with the control group Research

A serologicalsurveillance of bluetongue disease in sheep and goats in Iraq by using acompetitive ELISA Technique

Khalid H. Shlash; Laith MS. Abdul-Rasoul; Mazin M. Naji; Mahir H. Hussain

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 89-94

In this study, a sero-survillance on ovine and caprine serum samples from all over Iraq except the governorates of Iraqi Kurdistan region was conducted. It aimed for the detection of specific antibodies directed against VP7 protein - the sero-group specific antigen of blue tongue virus – by using a competitive ELISA technique.The results showed that among a total of 3277 serum samples, 1436 samples were found to be positive forming 43.82% of total samples, while 1687 samples were negative with 51.48 % and 154 sample were suspicious forming 4.69 %. The highest positive serum samples were found in Al Basrah Province (southern of Iraq) with 60.41% and in Al Anbar Province (Western of Iraq) with 61%, while the lowest of positive samples were found in Nineva (Northern of Iraq) with 22.35%.
The results also showed a closely ratio between positive percentage of goats and sheep samples with the positive goats serum samples ( in five provinces ) were 45 of 114 samples representing 39.47 %,while the positive sheep serum samples ( in fifteen provinces) were 1391 of 3163 samples representing43.97%. Our study is complementary to the previous works held in this field and it represents the first field serological survey for bluetonguein sheep and goats in Iraq.

Detection of Canine Parvovirus in Baghdad city by PCR technique

Ahmed F. Ahmed; Shony M. Odeisho; Zhala A. Karim

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 95-98

Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV2) is a highly contagious and fatal disease of dogs, causing acute hemorrhagic enteritis and myocarditis. In this study different mutant strains of the virus were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).The fecal samples from infected dogs suspected for CPV2 infection were collected in a suitable medium. The viral DNA from fecal samples was extracted using specific kits, PCR were carried out with five different primer, pCPV-2ab and pCPV-2b, to distinguish the strain prevalent in field condition. The primer pCPV-2ab recognized both variant CPV-2a and CPV-2b, whereas the primer pCPV-2b recognized only the variant CPV-2b, using the third primer pCPV to recognize the residual base pair, enabling the differentiation of CPV-2a variant from CPV-2b in field isolates. The different PCR products were further analyzed by using gel electrophoresis.

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Iraq During 2010

Emad S. Abul-Eis; Nabeel A.Mohammad; Suhad M.Wasein

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 99-103

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonotic disease with a high mortality rate in humans. CCHF is caused by genus Nairovirus, in family of Bunyaviridae, and is transmitted to humans through the bite of ticks Hyalomma spp or contact with blood or tissues of CCHF patients or infected livestock.
The total numbers of positive patients to CCHF virus was 11 out of 44 suspected samples were examined from eight provinces during the period from January to December 2010 . The way of transmission is due to contact with blood and tissues of infected animals, and one patient slaughtered sheep in his house. ELISA was used to detect Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) in human serum samples.

Molecular Diagnosis of Explosive Outbreak of Infectious Laryngotracheitis(ILT) by Polymerase Chain Reaction in Palestine

Salameh sh. Barhoom; Abd Elhafeed Dalab

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 104-109

This study was conducted during an explosive outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) in layers flocks of Hyline breed with a total number 120.000 housed in cages system in Bal'a, East of Tulkarem and North Palestine. The clinical findings of the disease were gasping, coughing, gurgling, marked dyspnea and expectoration of vigorously in an blood stained mucous obstructing the trachea or larynx . Some layers showed existence of dried blood around the nostrils and lower beaks, closed eye or eyes, lacrimation and the egg production was decreased 30%. The morbidity rate was high, mortality rate reached 12%. The necropsy findings of dead birds showed mucoied tracheitis, laryngitis, severe hemorrhages in the trachea and the lumens were filled with mucus mixed with blood, exudates, caseous materials and existence of blood casts along the entire length of the larynx and trachea. The disease was diagnosed by isolation of the causative agent from the dead and sick birds trachea suspension onto the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 10-12 day- old embryonated chicken eggs and identified by neutralization test using reference antiserum ,This study reports the application of PCR in detection of ILTV Thymidine kinase gene( TK gene) using Larynx and tracheal specimen from infected birds.

Extraction and Titration of Leukotoxins from Fusobacterium necrophorum Isolates Recovered from Bovine Liver Abscesses in Sulaimaniyah Region

Suha Ali Hussein; Essam F. Al-Jumaily

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 110-114

This study was conducted to extract and titrate the leukotoxin of Fusobacterium necrophorum isolates recovered from57 abscesses found in 42 livers of slaughtered cattle in Sulaimaniyah region. The culture supernatants of these isolates were subjected to the tetrazolium dye reduction test which revealed that the leukotoxin titer values of 34 F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum isolates ranged from 128 to 1024 (with a leukotoxin titer mean of 516±46), whereas the leukotoxin titer values of the 11 F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme isolates ranged from 0 to 128 (with a leukotoxin titer mean of 73±12).

Isolation and identification of Candida species from urogenital tract infections of women in Baghdad city

Alwan M.J; Aziz M.M

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 115-119

In order to determine Candida Species isolates that associated with urogenital infection in women,174 vaginal swabs and 66 urine samples were collected from pregnant and non-pregnant women suffering from urogenital tract infection whom visted teaching Al-way hospital during the peroid from January to October 2011. The results showed that 32 out of 174 vaginal swabs were Candida Spp positive (18.3%), high percentage was reported in June and July (25%) for each one and no fungal isolates were recorded in March .The results also explained that high percentage of fungal isolates was recorded in pregnant women (68.7%) as comparing with non-pregnant women (31.2%) .Thirty –two fungal isolates were recorded which included : C.albicans(43.7%); C.tropicals(21.8%), C.prarapsilosis(12.5%) ;C.glabrata (9.3%);C. guilliermondii(6.2%); C. capitatum and C. krusei (3.1%) for each one . Also the study revealed that 9 out 66,(13.6%) of the urine samples were Candida spp positive which included : C.albicans was form high percentage (7.5%) followed by C.tropicals(4.5%) and C.glabrala (1.5%), these results indicated that albicans and non-albicans Candida may be associated with urogenital infection in women.

Effect of Magnetic Water on Some Physiological Aspects of Adult Male Rabbits

Khalisa Kadim Khudiar; Aous Muhammad Ali

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 120-126

The present study was undertaken to search out thebeneficial effect of magnetized water on serumantioxidant, lipid profile and total protein of adult male rabbits. Twenty adult male rabbits were randomly divided into two equal groups and were treated daily for 60 days as follows:Group C:Rabbits of this group were allowed to ad libitumsupplyofdrinking water (control group),Group MG:Rabbits of this group were allowed to ad libitum supply of magnetic water.Fasting blood (for 8-12 hrs) samples were drawn by cardiac puncture technique at different times 0, 30 and 60 days of experiment for measuring the following parameters. Serum glutathione concentration (GSH), lipid profile including serum triacylglycerol (TAG), total cholesterol - (TC), high density lipoprotein - cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein - cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol - (VLDL-C), total serum protein concentrations (TSP). The result revealed that drinking of magnetic water had beneficial effect on some physiological aspects manifested by a significant elevation in serum GSH, HDL-C and total serum proteins concentration. In addition to significant suppression in serums TC, TAG, LDL-C, and VLDL-C concentrations .In conclusion the results of this study pointed to the prevalence of magnetic water upon normal drinking water in all measures issued.

Some Hematological and Histological Impact of sub-acute exposure to Mono Sodium Glutamate in Mice

Orooba M.S. Ibrahim; Nibras Naaib Abdulhamza; Hana Khudair Abbass

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 127-131

Mono Sodium Glutamate (MSG) is a food additive commonly consumed as a flavor enhancer. However, both animal models and human clinical reports have established its harmful effects. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of MSG consumption on some hematological parameters and histological sections of brain, small intestine, liver and testis tissues of Swiss Albino mice. Albino mice (n=15) of average weight 27.4gm were randomly assigned into three groups A, B and C in each group (n=5). Treatment groups (A & B) were given 3g and 6g per Kg of body weight of MSG (amount of MSG in a single sachet consumed by human is 3g) respectively. The mice were sacrificed on day fifteenth of the experiment. Brain, small intestine, liver and testis were carefully dissected out and immediately fixed in 10% formalin for routine histological procedure. Blood samples were analyzed for hematological parameters. Histological findings of small intestine in the treated groups showed evidence of cellular hypertrophy and increased number of goblet cells. Large nuclei with multi nucleoli were seen in liver sections, while prevascular and preneuronal edema were seen in brain sections and thickening of basement membrane of semineferons tubules. Vacuolation of spermatogonia were seen in testicular tissue sections. Blood analysis showed a significant increase at P>0.01 in lymphocytes count compared to the control which can be considered indication of a compromised immune status and poisoning in the treated animals. Packed Cell Volume (PCV) hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cells count (RBCs) were all indicative of an anemic condition in the treated animals. Significant increase in body weight at P>0.01 was seen in both treatment groups (A & B). All above findings indicate that MSG has some deleterious effects on some hematological parameters and caused histological changes of examined organs as well as on body weight. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings to be carried out.

The Protective Role of Date Palm Pollen (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on Liver Function in Adult Male Rats Treated with Carbon Tetrachloride

Jawad Kadhim Araak; a Ala; Maisa; a Abdulhussein

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 132-141

The present study was carried out to investigate the protective role of date palm pollen aqueous suspension against the toxic effects of carbon tetrachlorideon liver function in adult male rats by studying the following parameters,estimation of ALP, AST, ALT enzymes activity, totalserum bilirubin, and histological study of liver.Forty adult male rats aged 12-14 weeks and weighed 275-325 gm were randomly divided into four equal groups(10 rats/group) and were treated for 42 days as follows : rats of the first group were received 1 ml tap water orally once a day and olive oil 0.5 ml /kg B.W. intraperitonelly twice a week which considered as group C, rats of the second group were received date palm pollen suspension orally (150 mg/kg B.W) once a day and olive oil 0.5 ml /kg B.W. intraperitonelly twice a week( group T1),rats of the third group were treated intraperitonelly with 500mg / kg B.W. of CCL4 mixed with equal volume of olive oil twice a week (group T2) ,while rats of the fourth group were received date palm pollen suspension (150 mg/kgB.W) once a day orally and treated intraperitonelly with 500 mg / kg B.W. of CCL4 mixing with equal volume of olive oil twice a week (group T3). The blood samples were collected at (zero, 14, 28, 42) days for biochemical parameters. After that, six rats from each group were sacrificed, and then samples of liver were taken for histological study. The results revealed no significant differences (P > 0.05)in Liver Enzymes activity (ALT , AST , ALP ) as well asserum Bilirubin (TSB) inT1 group treated with date palm pollen comporting with control group while a significant elevation(P ≤ 0.05) in liver Enzymes (ALT , AST , ALP ) activity and total serum bilirubin (TSB) in group T2 which exposed to carbon tetrachloride.the protective role of date palm pollen against carbon tetrachloride was recorded in group T3 which manifested by significant differences (P>0.05) in liver enzymes activity (ALT , AST , ALP ) and serum bilirubin (TSB) as compared to the control.The histological study of liverof date palm pollen treated rats (group T1) indicated proliferation of kupffer cells and no nuclear lesion, while group T2 showed severe vacuolation in the hepatocytes, while group T3 showed moderate vacuolation in hepatocytes.From the result obtained ,it was concluded that it seems likely that dosage of rats with (150 mg/kg B.W) of date palm pollen for 42 days of treatment caused improvement and enhancement of liver function against carbon tetrachloride harmful effects.

Studying the effective dose of polyphenols extracted from green tea in ameliorating the deleterious effect of iron overload in female rats

Khalisa Kadim Khudiar; Nabeel M. Naji

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 142-152

experiment aimed at studying the effective dose of total polyphenol extracted from green tea in ameliorating the deleterious effect of iron overload in rats, where forty eight adult female rats were randomly divided into eight equal groups (each of six) and injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with iron dextran (100mg/kg B.W each 72 hour and treated orally for one month successive increasing dose of GTPs daily (75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, and 225 mg/kg B.W.). Measurement of serum iron, albumin, reduced glutathione, peroxynitrate concentration and catalase activity was used as a guide for the detection of the effective dose of total polyphenol that ameliorating the deleterious effect of iron overload. According to this study, the maximum effective dose of total poly phenol extracted from green tea that ameliorating the deleterious effect of iron overload in female rats were found to be equal to 200mg/kg B.W.due to results showed that maximal reduction in serum Iron concentration in groups (T5, T6 and T7) which received total polyphenol orally (175, 200 and 225) mg/kg respectively with mean value equal to (345.87±12.48, 331.73±4.09and 327.27±4.99) respectively as compared with control group (308.68±12.03) after 30 days of treatment, also the best and successive increments in antioxidant enzyme and reduction in free radical status shown in doses of (200 and 225) mg/kg polyphenol, and no significant statistic differences between this groups in all above parameter.

Identification of inorganic elements in egg shell of some wild birds in Baghdad

Faris A. Al-Obaidi; Basim I. Mehdi; Shahrazad M. Al- Shadeedi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 153-157

The objective of this study is the identification of inorganic elements in egg shell of some wild birds including House Sparrow, White- eared Bulbul, Collared Dove and Rock Dove. Samples of eggs from these birds were collected from Baghdad city during 2011. Egg shell were analysed for ash, macro-elements and micro- elements including Ca, P, Mg, Fe, K, Mn, B, Zn, Co, Cr and Pb. The findings revealed that the ash percentage was high in egg shell of all birds under study which were consecutively 1.73, 1.72, 1.79 and 1.78 % for House Sparrow, White- eared Bulbul, Collared Dove and Rock Dove, Ca percentage was the highest percentage among the other elements which were 97.3, 97.4, 97.8 and 97.8 % respectively, where as P and Mg were ranging between 0.85 and 0.89 %. Shells of House Sparrow eggs were high in Cr, at the same time, the shells of White- eared Bulbul eggs were high in K, and those of Collared dove and Rock dove were high in Fe, Mn, and B. Percentage of Pb in egg shell of all studied birds were low.

Biopharmacological studies of the aqueous extract of Lepidium sativum seeds in alloxan - induced diabetes in rats

Shahbaa M. Al-khazraji

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 158-163

Garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds are considered extensively in the folk medicine as anantidiabetic agent in many countries. The current investigations focuses attention on theglucose and lipid lowering effect of the aqueous extract of L. sativum seeds on experimentally induced diabetes in rats. The biochemical parameters studied were plasma glucose, insulin, totalcholesterol,triglycerides,phospholipids,hemoglobin, and glycosylated hemoglobin.
In addition body weight and renal glucose reabsorption were notified. Aqueous extract of L. sativum were orally administered daily for 30 days in a dose of 20 mg / kg body weight to alloxan – diabetic rats , and a significant reduction in the parameters measured was investigated compared to diabetic rats. Meanwhile, Glibinclamide was used as standard reference drug. In cznclusion , L. sativum seeds possess a hypoglycaemic with concurrent hypolipidemic effect in diabetic states , and may further suggests thatL. Sativum may be useful in the therapy andmanagements of diabetic hyperlipidemia through reducing lipids levels .

The Protective Role of crude Polyphenolic Compounds Extracted from black Olive fruit (Oleaeuropae ) on Liver Functions in Males Rats Treated with Hydrogen Peroxide

Layla Hashim Alol

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 164-171

This study was conducted to investigate the protective role of polyphenolic compounds extracted from olive (Oleaeuropae) to contrast the damaging effects of 1% hydrogen peroxide on liver functions in male rats. Crude polyphenolic compounds were extracted from fruits of black olive by 95% methanolic extraction method. Twenty adult male rats (200-220gm.) were randomly divided into four equals groups and treated daily for 30 days. Rats in the first group received tap water (orally)and considered as control group, animals of second group received 1% H2O2 in drinking water . The rats in the third group received 1% H2O2 in drinking water plus 200mg/kgB.W. of crude polyphenolic compounds while animals in the fourth group received 200mg/kg B.W. of crude polyphenoliccompounds. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were taken to investigate the activity of liver enzymes (Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), concentration of total serum bilirubin, as well as protein picture of blood serum by using agarose gel electrophoresis. Ultimately, animals of all groups were sacrified to examine the histopathological changes in liver. The results illustrated significant increase (P<0.05) in liver enzymes activity (AST,ALT) and total serum bilirubin in H2O2 treated group as compared with control. Although rats treated polyphenolic compounds of olive plus H2O2 showed significant decrement (P<0.05) in ALT activity and total serum bilirubin, while no significant alteration in (AST) activity was recorded in H2O2 treated group. The result also demonstrated significant decrease (P<0.05) in authority of ALT, total serum bilirubin in animals treated with polyphenolic compounds. Serum proteins showed a significant (P<0.05) decreament of albumin percentage and increment of globulins in H2O2 treated group as well as polyphenolic compounds treated group as compared with control group (G1) . However, no significant different in group treated with polyphenolic compounds as compared with control. Histological sections of liver illustrated clear impact of group treated with H2O2, manifested by necrosis of hepatic cells with infiltration of inflammatory cells while animals treated with polyphenolic compounds plus H2O2 revealed slight infiltration of inflammatory cells with proliferation of kupffer cells in liver. In infereance, the autcomes of this study documented the advantageous effect of crude polyphenolic compounds of olive apposite the noxious effect of H2o2 on liver function of adult males rats.

Effect of Flavonoids Extracted from Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) and Vitamin E in Ameliorating Hepatic Damage Induced by Sodium Nitrate in adult male rats

Baraa N. AL-Okaily; Rawya Shaker Mohammed; Kahtan A. Al-Mzain; Khalisa Khadim Khudair

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 172-181

This study was designed to investigate the effect of sodium nitrate as oxidant agent on hepatic function of adult male rats, as well as the possible protective role of vitamin E and flavonoid extracted from Nigella Sativa seeds against the deleterious effects of sodium nitrate. Forty adult male rats were randomly divided in to 4 equal groups and treated daily for 84 days as follows: Animals in the first group were received normal saline, serving as control (group C), rats of the second group (T1) were intubated orally sodium nitrate 30mg/kg. B.W.; animals in T2 group were intubated orally vit. E 40mg/Kg B.W. in addition to sodium nitrate, while rats in the fourth group (T3) were intubated orally 50mg/kg B.W of flavonoids was extracted from Nigella Sativa seeds with sodium nitrate. Blood samples were collected at 0, 21, 42, 63 and 84 days of experiment to study the following parameters: Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphtase activity (ALP), serum billirubin, as well as hemoglobin concentration. The result revealed that oral intubation of 30mg/kg. B.W of sodium nitrate (T1 group) for 84 days caused hepatic damage manifested by significant increase (p<0.05) in serum ALT and ALP activities, bilirubin concentration and depression in hemoglobin concentration. On other hand, the protective role of vitamin E and flavonoids extracted from Nigella Sativa was clarified in groupsT2 and T3, including correction of hepatic damage manifested by significant (p<0.05) depression in ALT and ALP activities and bilirubin concentration as well as significant (p<0.05) elevation in hemoglobin concentration. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm the protective role of vitamin E and flavonoids of Nigella sativa seed against hepatic dysfunction caused by sodium nitrate manifested by structural and functional changes.

Some biolochemical and histopathological effects of different oral doses Ochratoxin A in male rats

Duraid A.Abbas; Mohammed K.Faraj; Abbas Razzaq Abed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 182-189

The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of Ochratoxin A (OTA) on the serum activity of AST, ALT and ALP, Glutathione (GSH) and liver, kidney and spleen histopathology .Twenty male rats divided equally into three treated groups dosed orally and daily with OTA doses (70, 140 and 210 µg/kg) for 20 day representing T1, T2 and T3 groups and the fourth group dosed daily with distilled water considered as control one. Biochemical result showed elevation in AST and ALT activity and decrease in ALP enzyme activity and GSH serum concentration of treated serum groups at 10 and 20 days of exposure to ochratoxin A these changes positively were proportional with increase OTA doses (dose dependent). Histopathological changes were noticed in liver, kidney and spleen of all treated groups including (necrosis, congestion, and infiltration of inflammatory cells and vacuolation of cytoplasm). The severities of these lesions are in dose dependent manner.

Some blood values in cows diagnosed clinically as ephemeral fever

Jameel G.H; Hasan A. SH; Jawad S.J

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 190-193

Sixty cows were included in this study which was conducted in Baquba for the period from April 2011 to October 2011. They were clinically diagnosed as having bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) infection. Blood samples were collected from infected cows before, after treatment, and after recovery. Additionally, 30 healthy cows were included as control group. Sera were separated and submitted for the determination of phosphorus, glucose, cholesterol and pH levels. Statistical analysis of biochemical values revealed significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels in infected cows as compared to control group (P<0.05). Furthermore, the diseased cows showed low levels of pH (acidosis), thus when they treated by intravenous injection of 5% sodium bicarbonate, the signs were rapidly subsided and the cows were completely recovered.

Behavioral Problems in Domestic Cats of Tehran

N. Tamimi; A. Talebi; A. Malmasi; F. Tamimi; A.Amini

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 194-199

Behavioral problems are very important because they are one of the most common reasons for the relinquishment of cats. In this study, the frequency of behavioral problems in 167 cats attending Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, was evaluated with the use of a questionnaire. Interaction with other animals and people, outdoor access, breed, and sex of the cats were evaluated for association with the occurrence of the behavioral problems. Aggression towards people and other cats, Elimination problems, Scratching objects, Fearfulness, Attention seeking, Excessive grooming, Chasing small animals, Hiding, Vocalization in owner's absence, Obsessive behaviors and Eating fiber material were the behavioral problems evaluated in this study. Results showed that 94.6% of the cats were reported to have at least one behavioral problem with the mean number of behavioral problems for one cat being 2.71. Fearfulness, attention seeking, Aggression towards other cats/people, scratching, and Elimination problems were the most prevalent behavioral complaints reported by cats owners respectively whereas; obsessive behaviors were the least common behavioral complaints.
Data analysis revealed that inappropriate elimination is significantly more common in cats with outdoor access while interaction with other cats and people showed an association with scratching in cats. Intact female cats tended to seek less attention from their owners than their other counterparts. Breed assessment, on the other hand, showed that Persian cats are reported to have more elimination problems and less aggression problems towards people than DSH cats.

Detection of Brucella antibodies in sera of dogs using Rose Bengal test

Saleem Amin Hasso; Eman Saleh Serian

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 200-202

Using the rose Bengal test 114 blood samples collected from dogs , and tested for Brucella antibodies , (30.7 % ) were found positive for Brucella antibodies while (64.3 % ) were found negative for Brucella antibodies .
Key words : Brucella antibodies , dogs .

Clinical evaluation of TIVA by romifidine as a premedication, midazolam and ketamine in donkeys

atelaf A .Al-Mutheffer; Abed F. Ali; Ayad A. Amin

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 203-208

The objective of this study was to determine the clinical effects of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) by romifidine 0.1mg/kg as a premedication and anesthesia by intravenous injection of a mixture of midazolam 0.1 mg/kg and ketamine hydrochloride 2.2 mg/kg in the ten health She donkeys. The maintenance of anesthesia was performed by intravenous infusion of a mixture of the midazolam 0.065mg/kg/hrs and ketamine 6.6mg/kg /hrs prepared in 500ml normal saline. Data were collected just before intravenous administration of premedication (control data) and after the administration of anesthetics drugs at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60 and 90 minutes. The clinical parameters measured included: Anesthetic Parameter (induction, anesthetic time and recovery), rectal body temperature, arterial oxyheamglobin saturation in blood (SPO2), analgesia, muscles relaxation, at the above times until the donkey responds to external stimuli. The results of the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia by this regime was found to be superior and stable. Recovery from anaesthesia was smooth and similar quality in all animals. The body temperature showed significant differences between control and 5min 37.35 ± 0.054 ;37.19 ± 0.08 ◦C with 15 min and above to the 60 min, while in SPO2 (%) the result showed significant difference (P<0.05) in time 90 min 97.4 ± 0.541 with 10min ; 15min 94.6 ± 1.229 ;93.7 ± 1.075 %and 20 min 93.9 ± 1.075%. There were no adverse effects noted following this anesthetic regime.

Comparative study of pyloromyotomy by laparoscopic and conventional surgery in dogs

MJ Eesa; A A Ajeel; A K Mahdi; H H Nahi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 209-213

Pyloromyotomy is a procedure to increase the diameter of pyloric region, routinely performed during pyloric stenosis to prevent delayed emptying of stomach content. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pyloromyotomy by conventional and laparoscopic techniques. Ten adult healthy dogs were used. Five animals underwent the pyloromyotomy by conventional and the same number laparoscopic technique. The clinical radiological and laparoscopic results of two techniques revealed that both were successive for achieved this purpose, but the laparoscopic pyloromoytomy characterized by small abdominal incision minimal adhesion and rapid healing.

Effect of Intraperitoneal Application of 1% Methylene Blue Solution on Prevention and/or Reduction of Adhesion Following Laparotomy in Rabbits

Bahjat Taifor Abbas; Sozan Ali Mohammed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 214-224

The effect of 1% methylene blue solution was investigated in this experimental trial for prevention and/or reduction of intra-abdominal adhesion formation, following induction of conventional laparotomy, by postmortem and histopathological confirmations, in a rabbit model. Twenty adult, male, local breed rabbits were used in the study. They were allocated randomly and equally into 2 groups; Control group (CG) and Treatment group (TG). All were subjected to mid-ventral conventional laparotomy under the effect of general anesthesia, and the ascending colon was exteriorized and its serosal and subserosal layers were mechanically abraded by a dry sterile soft toothbrush. In TG, 2ml of sterile 1% methylene blue was applied intrapretonially prior to the routine closure of the abdominal cavities. While in CG, 2ml of physiological saline solution was applied intraperitonially. Post-operatively, the rabbits were monitored clinically for; gain in body weight, food intake and postoperative complications. Also, 5 rabbits from each group at the 14th and 21st post-operative days were scarified for intra-peritoneal adhesion formation and scoring, and biopsy collection for histopathological changes. The results revealed a significant reduction and/or prevention in the development of intra-abdominal adhesions in TG compared to CG rabbits. Whereby, the lowered adhesions grade scores rate at both P.M. schedules, and histopathologically by the normally appearing serosal and muscular layers of the caecum, compared to the abnormally higher losses in the integrity of the serosal surface, blood vessel congestion, fibrosis, and heavy infiltrated of mononuclear inflammatory cells in CG rabbits. This study concluded that, the application of 1% methylene blue solution intraperitoneally following laparotomy is useful in prevention and/or reduction of post-operative adhesions formation.

The Reproductive Effect of Terbinafine in Ewe: Effects on Estrous Cycle and Ovarian Follicles

Muhannad A. A. AlBayaty; Eman Rasol AlShaty; Alaa Karim Jassim

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 225-231

Terbinafine is a fungicide given orally with the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight per day for each ewe for 60 days. The vaginal smears of ewe, body and ovarian weight were daily administered at slaughter time; ewes were slaughtered at 60th day. Estrous cycle was affected by showing a significant reduce in the estrous cycle length of each phases of estrous cycle with associated significant increase in the diestrus phase in terbinafine treatment as compared with control group (olive oil treatment as adjuvant) of ewes. There was a significant reduce in the number of follicles and a significant raise in the number of atretic follicles in treated group as compared with control group as well as upsurge the progesterone/estrogen ratio. The body and ovarian weight were significant diminished in terbinafine treatment. These observed effects of terbinafine on the ovarian activity may be due to a direct effect as antiproliferative agent or the hypothalamus - hypophysial - ovarian axis causing hormonal inequality.

Effect of the Site of Fixation of Foley Catheter in the Cervix on the Collected Embryos in the Cow

Wafir Mahdi SALEH; Ihsan H. AL-TIMIMI

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 232-236

Thirty six trials of flushing with riched Delbeco`s phosphate buffer media applied in this study using a plastic two ways folly catheter, introduced by metal robe inside the cervix of donor cows and by air bubble fixed it in the cervical canal in 3 positions, one near the cervico-vaginal opening or at the first third of the cervical canal, the 2nd one at the middle third of the cervical canal and the 3rd one near the utero-cervical opening or at the last third of the cervical canal. The process of flushing was carried out after the fixation of the folly catheter in the three sites and the number of embryos collected by each collection site.
The results showed that the number of embryos detected in the third method where the fixation was in the last 3rd of cervix relatively more than the other two sites.The study showed that the position and the fixation of the folly catheter in the last 3rd of the cervical canal and toward the utero-cervical opening gave more number of embryos than the two other sites upon the process of flushing and collection of embryos.

Sex Selection of Mice Embryo by Ericsson Method Using Intra-Peritoneal Insemination

Ilaf Hassan Hadi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 237-243

The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of Ericsson Albumin Method to separate Y- from X-bearing sperms in mice. The sperms were obtained from caudal epididymis of male mice and prepared by Ericsson method using albumin in two concentrations (8% and 18%) fallowed by intra-peritoneal insemination of female mice. The study showed there was a significant increase (P>0.05) in pregnancy rate in female mice that inseminated by sperms were prepared by Ericsson method. Also, the results demonstrated that Ericsson method was found (75%) effective for male gender selection compared to conventional method (51.25%) without separation of Y- from X-bearing sperms.

Induction of parturition in Iraqi cows by using ergometrine, dexamethasone and estrumate

Al-Hamedawi; T.M; Ihsan H. AL-TIMIMI; E.A; Al-Yasiri

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 244-247

The study was conducted on 35 pregnant Iraqi cows at gestation period ranged from 260-265 days depending on their date of services. This study was performed in two regions from Baghdad province (Al-Thahab Al-Abiad and Al-Nahrawan villages) from 2009-2011, there ages ranged from 3-6 years and were divided randomly into three groups according to the type of treatment. 1st group (11 cows) were injected with 750 µg (3 ml) of estrumate intramuscular (IM) in single dose .The 2nd group (13 cows) injected with 40 mg of dexamethasone (IM) in one dose only. The 3rd group (11 cows) injected with 500µg of ergometrine (IM). The results revealed that the responsive cows were 7 (63.6%), 3 (100%) and 8 (72.7%) in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd groups respectively, and their result were recorded superior significant (P<0.01) for group 2 compared with group 1 and 3, also the results recorded significant (P<0.01) in group 2 compared with another groups (1, 3) related with duration from injection of treatment to induction of calving. Retention of fetal membranes was recorded 28.5% in all animals and the occurrence of dystocia (for many causes) was 28.6%, while the viability of calves was 89.6% (alive calves) and 10.4% of dead calves.
We concluded that using of dexamethasone, estrumate and ergometrine was safe and effective for induction of parturition in Iraqi cows

Spermatogenesis and spermiogenisis in the testes of local Iraqi breed cat (Felis catus)

AL-Samarrae; N.S; S.H; AL-Maliki; Eman musa; AL-Saedi; F.A

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 248-253

The seminiferous epithelium of the testes of cat consists of two groups of cells; Spermatogenic cells and Sertoli cells. The interstitial areas are filled with Leydic cells, blood and lymph vessels, and connective tissue. Germ cells in the Spermatogenic process of the testis of cat can be classified into ten steps, based on the pattern degree of nuclear chromatin condensation. Primary spermatogonia contain large spherical nuclei with mostly euchromatin. Spermatogonia proliferate to give rise to spermatogonia type –A; Intermediate or type-I spermatogonia, and spermatogonia type-B. Type–B spermatogonia yield primary spermatocyte at the end of mitosis. The primary spermatocyte is transformed into secondary spermatocyte during meiosis I. These cells are converted into spermatid during meiosis II. Metamorphosis of spermatids shows: Golgi step, Cap step, Acrosomal step, Maturation step.

Morpho- histological study of supraoccipital bone development in domestic rabbit fetuses Oryctolagus cuniculus

Fadhil Sabah Mohammed; Ahmed Mahdi Saleh

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 254-261

The developmental study of supraoccipital bone has been done in the rabbit fetuses, which including detection the timing primary appearance and pattern of ossification by using double staining method as well as, histological study which squired for each stages of present study. The double staining technique which are furthering by histological examination for each age, showed the supraoccipital bone was ossify by intramembranous method. The results showed that the primary ossification centers of supraoccipital appeared firstly at(22) day of gestation, and showed direct red staining, at(24) day of gestation, these centers become fused. The supraoccipital bone appear its completely intramembranous ossification at (30) day of gestation and form the roof of foramen magnum.

The Effects of Use Nigella Sativa and / or Trigonella Foenum Graecum Seeds as Feed Supplemtations on Some Wool Growth and Its Physical Traits of Awassi Male Lambs

M.J.AL-Saadi; M.N.AL-Saigh; D.Adulameer; S.B.AL-Araji

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 262-267

The experiment was carried out at animal farm, College of Veterinary Medicine, Baghdad University from 1/July /2009 up to 28/February2010.Twenty Awssi male Lambs were equally divided into four groups and each animal fed on concentrate diets 2% of body weight with grazing for 3-5 hours a day. The first group(C) was kept as control group , the second group (N) was daily fed with same amount of concentrate diet contain 7.5% ground Nigella sativa seeds , third group (F) also fed with same amount contain 7.5% ground fenugreek seeds ,while the fourth group(NF) group fed the 2% concentrate diet supplemented with both (7.5% of Nigella sativa and 7.5% fenugreek seeds respectively ) as group feeding .
The results revealed that using Nigella sativa or Fenugreek seeds as well as using both of them as a mixed feed supplemented with concentrated diet of Awassi ram lambs showed significantly ( P< 0.05 ) increasing and improvements in greasy wool weights , clean wool weights ,wool fiber lengths ,wool staple lengths ,wool fiber diameters compare with control group while NF group recorded significantly ( P< 0.05 ) higher than both of F and N groups in all of these parameters.

Bioassay activity of crude bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus isolate against cold stressed E.coli O157:H7

Najim Hadi Najim; Zuhair Ahmad Mohammed; Zina Saab khudhir

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 268-273

The laboratory studies of the cultural isolation revealed that two isolates of Lactobacillus acidophilus were isolated from five soft cheese samples that were manufactured locally according to the farmers production procedure .Colonies of E.coli O157:H7 were isolated from raw milk samples by a conventional direct plating on selective enrichment CT-SMAC agar and tested serologically for the presence of O157 and H7 antigens using the commercial available latex agglutination kits .The results revealed that E.coli O157:H7 was resist to the crude bacteriocin that was extracted from L .acidophilus isolate NO.1 due to the nature of their cell wall, while when the outer membrane of E.coli O157:H7 was injured by cooling at 4°C for 6 hours , the permeation of bacteriocin to the cytoplasmic membrane was facilitated and caused inactivation and death of such pathogenic organism .The results revealed that no growth of E.coli O157:H7 with no visible turbidity in the nutrient broth with bacteriocin that diluted to 12 ,14 ,18 were observed .Bacteriocin that diluted to 18 had been recognized as the minimum inhibitory concentration of the bacteriocin.
Both the dilution factor of bacteriocin and time exposure to bacteriocin at refrigeration storage temperature of milk had a significant (P˂0.05) influence on its antimicrobial potency against the viability of stressed E.coli O157:H7 from minutes 30 to 120 .The viability of E.coli O157:H7 subjected to bacteriocin that diluted 10 times(1:10) in both raw and sterile milk was efficiently eliminated after 90 minutes and 60 minutes of exposure at refrigeration temperature respectively.

The antibacterial activity of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus isolates against sensitive reference strain Lactobacillus acidophilus R0052 and its stability to different pH, heating and storage temperatures

Najim Hadi Najim; Zuhair Ahmad Mohammed; Zina Saab khudhir

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 274-279

Two isolates of Lactobacillus acidophilus were isolated from locally homemade soft cheese and identified in accordance with their main features as described by bergeys manual of determinative bacteriology .Agar well diffusion bioassay was used for the evaluation of antimicrobial activity of cell free supernatant (culture filtrates) of Lactobacillus acidophilus isolates against the sensitive strain Lactobacillus acidophilus R0052 and the diameter of the inhibition zone was proportional to the bacteriocin concentration. The antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin was proportional to the reciprocal of the highest dilution factor producing a detectable zone of inhibition . The storage temperature of the crude bacteriocin had a significant(P˂ 0.01) effect on its potency against the sensitive strain .The potential of the antimicrobial activities of the crude bacteriocin that was stored for 10 days at refrigeration temperature (4°C) was significantly (P˂ 0.01) higher than that stored at room temperature. The antimicrobial effectiveness of the crude bacteriocin was heat stable and retaining 100% of its activity after its exposure to 60 °C & 80°C for 10 minutes .Boiling of the crude bacteriocin for 30 minutes had significantly (P˂ 0.01) decreased its potency to 0% .The potency of the crude bacteriocin was stable after four hours of exposure to both neutral (pH7) and acidic (pH4) conditions but was inactivated at alkaline (pH9) condition.

Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in calves and children in Mosul, Iraq

Tawfiq I. Al-alousi; Omaima I. Mahmood

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 280-285

This study was carried out during May-October 2010 to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in calves and children in rural areas around Mosul, north of Iraq. A total of 78 faecal samples were taken from calves which were no more than one year old. Information about age, consistency of faeces (as diarrheic or normal) and contact with human were recorded. At the same time, 95 stool samples were taken from children aged one month to 12 years old suffering from diarrhea and living in the same farms where the samples of calves have been collected. All samples were stained with modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain and Auramine O techniques to detect the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Results revealed that the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in calves and children were 43.56% and 18.9%, respectively. Comparison of results obtained with the two stain techniques showed no significant difference and being sensitive.

Heat-Intolerance Syndrome subsequent Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Cattle; ThiQar –Iraq

Adil M. Abbas; Mohammed A. Y. Al-Amery; Abbas Y. J. Al-Mousawy; Jalel A. Gati

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 286-292

The investigation on Heat-Intolerance Syndrome following foot and mouth disease (FMD) infection in cattle in ThiQar–Iraq, used 3ABC FMD ELISA kit, and Radio- immunoassay (RIA) to detect the cortisol level. From 105 there were 65(62%) infected cattle with FMD, which was high at 5- less 8 years old, while the cortrisol level showed three levels; normal (13-21 nmol⁄L), high and low levels were; 6(5.6%), 44(42%) and 55(52%) subsequently. More over the combined result of ELISA and RIA had divided cattle into six groups. First group of 40(38%) cattle infected with FMD and had low level of cortisol, this group containing 21(20%) with clinical signs of heat intolerance. Second group contain 22(21%) FMD infected cattle with high level of cortisol. Third group of 3(2.8%) FMD Infected cattle but normal cortisol level. Fourth group included 3(2.8%) not infected by FMD with normal cortisol level. Fifth group contain 22(21%) not infected with FMD but had high level of cortisol may related to stress. Sixth group consisted 15 (14%) cattle not infected with FMD and had low level of cortisol due to un known cause.
Clinical signs of heat intolerance that showed in 21 head of cattle in the first group were: panting, overgrowth of hair coat, emaciation and seeking for shad. The diseased cow known locally as ”Mahrorah” meaning heat-intolerance.

Epidemiological Study of Trichomonas Vaginalis in Married females

Suha A. Kadhum

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 293-298

The aim of this study was to identify the main risk factors with Trichomonas vaginalis infection in married women that have vaginal discharge. The study include (250) female who attended Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital (Gynecological Clinics), through the period from February 2010 to July 2010.Patients female were subjected for a special questionnaire sheet. The study has found that (65) females were infected with this parasite from total (250), who were complaining from vaginal discharge with infection rate 26%.Higher infection rate was recorded between pregnant female was 17.2% while non-pregnant women 8.8% .The main age group of infected women concentrated in (20-29 years) in which rate were 12.83% and 11.76% in pregnant and non-pregnant women respectively.According to educational level and socio-economic status, the study recorded higher percentage 50.76% between illiterate women and with low socio-economic status 63.07%.The highest infection with Trichomonas vaginalis obtained from women with white to gray discharge 58.46% and with bad odor 81.53%.Depending on residency, in rural residence the high percentage of infection were recorded 63.07% while comparing with urban 36.93%.Considering to contraceptive types which used by women 47.69% for IUDs, followed by 32.31% for contraceptive pills and low percentage for condom 20%.

Sheep and goats tick's infestation in Wasit's districts

Raad Hammodi Hasson; Haleem Hamza Al-Zubaidi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 299-305

The study was conducted in 4 districts regions in Wasit province during May – August 2010 to investigate the percentage of sheep and goat infestation ; out of 366 animals , 69 (18.85 %) were infested with total general tick mean 2.15 ; infested sheep were more prevalent 79.71% than goats 20.28% ; Highest no. of infestation were found in August 49.27% and June 24.63% . Two species of ticks , Rhipicephalus turanicus 94% on both sheep and goats , while Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum only on sheep 6% were recorded. According to species of animal, sheep in azizia shows highest infestation in august (34.78%) followed by Suwara in june (14.49%) ; and for goat in azizia shows the highest infestation in may (7.24%) . There is significant difference between monthly infested sheep and goats p ≤ 0.028 .There is significant difference between districts containing infested sheep and goats p ≤ 0.000. There is no significant difference between infested sheep and goats p ≥ 0.12. Given data might be aid in epidemiology of ticks and minimize public and veterinary infections.

Pathological and molecular diagnostic study of theileriosis in cattle in Sulaimaniyah province, Iraq

Ali Hussain Hassan; Nabil A. Salmo; Jabbar; S. Ahmed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 306-314

This study was undertaken with the aims of evaluating the efficiency of the PCR assay in investigation of the epidemiological status of tropical theileriosis in comparison with the classical microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smear and detecting the gross and microscopic pathological changes in some organs of the infected animals. Blood and tissue samples were collected from 50 apparently healthy, tick-infested cattle during the period extended from the 1st of July to the 31st of August, 2008 in the modern slaughterhouse in Sulaimaniyah province. Blood smears were prepared from the blood samples and stained with Giemsa dye. The tissue samples were obtained from normal and lesion-presenting tissues of the lymph nodes, lungs and kidneys were investigated by the naked eye for the presence of any pathological changes. Following gross examination, the tissue samples, of the cattle that showed positive results for Theileria annulata parasites by PCR and Giemsa-stained blood smears, have processed for histopathological preparations.
When compared with microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained smears, the PCR assay detected a positive results in 8 (16%) of blood samples that revealed negative microscopy indicating that the PCR is more sensitive in diagnosis of tropical theileriosis. The gross pathological examination revealed lymph nodes enlargement, pulmonary congestion and edema and multiple pale areas in the kidneys. Microscopically, the principle pathological lesion was represented by a marked lymphoproliferative reaction within these organs.

Toxicopathological study of aqueous extract of beetle cocoon Larinus maculatus F. on some internal organs in male albino mice

Iqbal Naji Tawfiq

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 315-321

The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral administration of hot aqueous extract of beetle cocoon Larinus maculatus Faldermann, in a two doses 50 and100mg/Kg/Bw for 25 and 45days respect- tively on some organs such as liver, lung, kidney, intestine, heart, spleen, and brain in male mice Mus musculus. The results indicated that there were toxicopathological changes in many tissues of experimental animals. Histo -pathological changes was dose and period dependent . It was found that the aqueous extract of beetle cocoon has undesirable effect at the administered doses, since the raw extract of this cocoon is currently being used in Folk medicine as treatment for cough, bronchitis in Iraq. This study revealed that the low doses of this extract have some deleterious effects on certain organs, so it should not be used for long durations in control of respiratory disease.

Histopathological and Biochemical study of the effect of Citrullus colocynthis on the heart and liver of mature male rabbits: as a model for mammals

Salam H.Ibraim; Fetiwa Manwar; Alaa Khani; Saad S. Al-Dujaily

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 322-330

The aim of the present work is to found out if there are histopathological and enzymatic effects on the heart and liver after oral administration of Citrullus colocynthis (CC) fruit (bitter apple) for mature male rabbits, as a model for mammals. Two experiments were performed for sixty mature male rabbits that equally and randomly divided into six groups each containing five animals .In the two experiments ,independently, three groups in each one were considered as treated groups and represented as T1, T2 and T3 groups .These rabbits groups were orally administrated with low dosage of CC (4.8mg/kg/day,experiment No.1 ) and double dosage of CC extract (9.6mg /kg /day , experiment No2 ) for three intervals 2, 4 and 8 weeks ,respectively. The other three groups in each experiment were considered control and represented as C1, C2 and C3 groups, respectively. All the rabbits in control groups were given orally distilled water (DW) at the same periods of treated groups. Histopathological changes of the heart and liver with related enzymes namely; serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and creatinine kinase (SCK) were studied.The histopathological study revealed no changes in rabbit’s heart tissue particularly after treatment with 4.8mg/kg/day of CC for 2 and 4 weeks. While no histopathological changes were observed in the heart of rabbit groups treated with 9.6mg/kg/day of CC extract after 2 weeks. The results of the treatment with the two dosages of the CC for 8 weeks indicated a mild degenerative changes and mild necrosis of the myocardial cells. There was swelling of the hepatocytes and perivascular cuffing of mononuclear inflammatory cells after two weeks of daily treatment with 4.8mg/kg/day of CC exposure. After four weeks with the low dosage of the CC extract, caused initiation of necrosis, more inflammation picture of liver portal tract with sinusoid All rabbit groups showed statistically a significant gradual increase (P<0.05) in the value of serum enzyme GOT, GPT and CK levels after treatment with the two dosages of CC at the end of each different period compared with before treatment and control group. Concluded from this study that the dosage 4.8mg/Kg/day of CC plant resulted in simple histopathological effects on the heart and mild histopathological changes on the liver during the entire period of the study, instead of serum enzymatic elevation of SGOT ,SGPT and SCK. Further studies are recommended to found out the possibility to use and effects of CC on animal hygiene and reproduction

Pathological effect of Daily Consumption of Indomy on Lung, Kidney and Spleen in Albino Rat

Sura Fouad AL-Saffar; Nusaibah Amer; Amjed Torki Al-rudaini

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 331-339

This study aimed to investigate the histopathological changes of Indomy pasta for 30 days on lung, kidney and spleen of albino rats. fifteen adult albino rats 200-220 gm was divided into 3 groups: The first group was considered as control group. The second group was fed with Indomy every other day for 30 days; the third group was fed with Indomy every day for 30 days. The histopathogical examination of the kidney show congestion of blood vessels and infiltration with neutrophil in lumen, The histopathological examination of lung showed hyper atrophy of masculares layer of the bronchiole with sever inflammatory cell infiltration mainly neutrophil and mononuclear cell in the wall of bronchioles, and with lumen of the alveoli with fibrous connective tissue proliferation in the parenchyma. Also, increase thickness into intra alveolar septa due to paranchymal cell proliferation and mononuclear cell infiltration which lead to narrow alveolar lumen. The histopathogical examination of spleen shows congestion of the red pulp. From the results of this study it can be conclude that the consumption of Indomy had harmful histopathological effects on kidney, lung and spleen tissues in treated rats.

Toxicopathological effects of lead acetate on the brain of male mice

Bassim M. Jwad; Al-Wan. M. J

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 340-346

The aim of the present study is to determine the influence of different doses of lead acetate on the central nerves system. 25 Swiss strain white mice were used, each weighing about 30 –32 g, divided into three groups, first group (n=10) treated with 0.5 ml. contain 150 mg/kg/body weight lead acetate via stomach tube daily for 40 days, second group (n=10) treated with 0.5 ml. contain 300 mg/kg/body weight lead acetate via stomach tube daily for 40 days. While the third group (n=5) served as control and were given mammalian physiological saline. Clinical signs were reported during the course of the study, then at day 40 post treatment , all animal were sacrificed and post mortem examination was done and any gross lesions were reported, then the pieces of brain was fixed in 10% formalin for 72 hours .
The pathological results showed congestion of cerebellum and cerebrum of both treated group but the 2nd group was more sensitive. Histopathological examination of 1st group expressed moderate pathological lesions, characterized by extracellular edema around neuron cells and Virchow Robbin space , as well as proliferation of astrocyets in the white matter , also central chromatolysis of neurons and Nissle granules with homogenous pink their cytoplasm in 1st G. while in 2nd G the main lesions characterized by severe congestion of blood vessels with inflammatory cells infiltration in the lumen of arachnoids' space and brain parenchyma as well as hemorrhage with aggregation of microglia in the wall of blood vessels which characterized by round shape and clear cytoplasm (microgliosis). Also severe neuron degeneration, with Alzheimer's type-II astrocyets are reported in other animals characterized by pairs observed surrounded by clear space. And there is no clear pathological lesion in control group.
In conclusion the present study investigated that the lead acetate affected on the brain tissue, and the degree of influence depended on the concentration of the toxic dose.

Study the influence of some Listeria monocytogenes antigens on the side effects of Mitomycin C

Ibrahim Z.I; Al-Wan . M. J; Nahi Y. Yaseen

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 347-354

For studying in vivo influence of immune responses on side effects of Mitomycin C (MMC),Sixty-five male-white mice were divided to nine groups ;1st group inoculated MMC,I.P,0.4mg/ml,2 doses weekly/4 weeks;2nd to 7th groups immunized S/C with LM Ags(25mg/ml) protein concentration 0.4 ml, 2doses/2 weeks intervals;2nd and 3rd groups immunized CFLMAgs and CFLMAgs-MMC in 3rd group; also 4th and fifth groups but immunized with WSLMAgs; 6th and 7th groups inoculated with 0.4 ml Attenuated LM (LaLMAgs), 7th group immunized-MMC treated. Post-immunization, 5 animals sacrificed from 1-7groups and negative control to study the cellular and humoral immunity as well as bone marrow taken to cytogenic examination ,other animals from 1-7 groups and 8th group challenged with 0.4 ml of (ViLM) containing(1x109 CFU/ml) of), the animals of negative group inoculated 0.4 ml of sterile PBS,S/C.Results; showed high mean values of IFN-y and IgG1 in animals immunized with LM.Ags, while MMC decreased levels of IFN-y and IgG1and MI%, increased chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus while decreased in immunized also immunized–MMC treatment , immunized animals show increased MI%.The suppurative pathological lesions and suppurative granulomatous lesions were appeared clear in tissue sections of internal organs in animals of positive control,decreased severity in immunized,immunized-MMCtreated especially with LaLM immunization.

Isolation and identification of Bacillus subtilus as) probiotic ) from intestinal microflora of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

Jamal K.H. Al-Faragi; Sundus A.A. Alsaphar

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2012, Volume 36, Issue 0, Pages 355-361

The presence of Bacillus species Were investigated in the intestine of 50 fish specimens common carp Cyprinus carpio weigh range between 1400-1500g in weigh were obtained from commercial farms in north of Baghdad through period of September to December 2010.The result revealed presence of gram positive, rod shape bacteria grow in the mesosphilic temperature range. The optimal temperature was 25-35C° facultative aerobes and produce catalase an enzyme. The bacterial antagonist activity was tested with fish culture pathogenic bacteria. The modified antagonistic method results showed that Bacillus subtilus could inhibit Aeromonas hydrophila after 24 hours. The highest level of antibacterial substances of this bacillus was produced in 48 hours. The aim of this study is to isolate and identify the Bacillus spp. and study its efficacy as probiotic against A. hydrophila in a fish culture.