Print ISSN: 1609-5693

Online ISSN: 2410-7409

Volume 37, Issue 1

Volume 37, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2013, Page 1-133

Enumeration of Coliform Bacteria in the locally produced cheese in Dyiala and the effect of Emulsifying salts on such bacteria

Ahmed M. Saleh; Shukr M. Yasin; Rafid S. Abdul-Karime

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 1-5

This study was conducted to indicate the comparative measurements of microbial load of Fecal Coliform Bacteria and Escherichia coli. in 60 samples of locally produced soft cheese those were collected randomly from five different local areas in Diyala (30 samples for each summer and winter seasons) to investigate their microbial load. All summer and winter samples had significantly (P<0.01) higher microbial count of Coliform Bacteria and Escherichia coli. The Bacteriostatic & Bacteriocidal effect of emulsifying salts on microbial activity was confirmed when the Total Coliform Count (TCC) were high significance (P<0.01) reduce in processed cheese with 2.5% emulsifying salts added Where no growth of Escherichia coli in nutrient broth with 2% emulsifying salts added . Data revealed that the best mix of emulsifying salts was that which composed of 90% Sodium tripolyphosphate + 10% Trisodium citrate.

Fish Community Structural in Dukan Dam Lake, Northern Iraq

Saffen O. Sediq; Luay. M. Abbas

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 6-12

The nature of fish community architecture was studied in Dukan Dam Lake, during the period from December 2007 to November 2008. The lowest water temperature value was 6.5 оC at January while the highest value was 30 °C during July 2008. Dukan Dam was freshwater lake and the salinity values ranges between 0.15 gm/l at February to 0.33 gm/l during August 2008. Dissolve oxygen was high which range between 12 mg/l and 6.5 mg/l during January and July 2008 respectively. A total of 3006 of fishes with a total weight of 678.50 kg were collected. These fishes were represented by 27 fish species belong to 5 families. The dominance commercial fishes (15 species) were recorded with a total weight of 652.5 kg formed 96.23% of a total fish catches. While, the rest was non – commercial fishes (12 species) were recorded with a total weight 25.55 kg represent 3.77% of total fishes catches. Fish species of Shaboot Barbus grypus were occurred to be dominating of fish number and represented by 13.4% followed by Gold fish Carassius auratus (11.6% ) then come Baloot Chondrostoma regium (9.9%) and Toueni Barbus belayewi (9.5%) of total fish caches. Also, fish species of Shaboot come at the first of total weight of fish catches and formed 31%, and then followed by Bizz B. esocinus (16% ) and Common carp Cyprinus carpio (15.4%), whereas the third was Guttan B. xanthopterus (11.4%). Finally, fishes of Sakankoor Glyptothorax kurdistanicus formed the lowest in fish number within 0.1% and in fish total weight within 0.02% of total fish catches. In conclusion of this study included that Dukan Dam Lake within freshwater, good airing and a favorable habitat for different fish species, more of that, there was considerable stock of commercial Iraqi fishes.

Detection of Brucella Antibodies of Sheep in Al-Anbar Province by Using Some Serological Tests

Ahmed H. Al-Tae; Ekram A. Al-Samarrae

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 7-12

An investigation was carried out to detect anti-Brucella antibodies of sheep in Al-Anbar province by using few serological tests; rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and tube agglutination test (TAT). A total of 754 sheep blood samples (94 Ram and 660 Ewe) were collected randomly distributed in Al-Anbar province from unvaccinated sheep flocks with different ages. A total percentage of infected sheep depending on RBPT was 10.21% with significant differences at (P< 0.01), it was 9.69% in ewes, whereas in rams it elevated to reach 13.82%, in addition to the disease was higher seroprevalence at > 3 years (12.78%) in both gender with significant differences at (P<0.05) than lower ages. Out of 77 RBPT positive sera, 38(49.35%) were positive using TAT, there was 14 seropositive with significant differences at (P< 0.01). The study reported that brucellosis was distributed in Al-Anbar province with variable percent (3.26% to 21.27%), as well as emphasized on different epidemiological aspects.

Contamination of Local Laying Hen’s Egg Shell with Salmonella Serotypes

Maysoon R. Jaffer; Khulood K. Nazal

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 13-16

Fifty locally laying hen’s eggs random samples were collected from different markets of Baghdad city in order to investigate the presence of Salmonellae Spp. in shell of those eggs. The samples were collected during the period from March 2012 to May 2012.The samples were directly transferred to the Food hygiene laboratory and analyzed immediately without further storage.The isolation and identification methods include: (pre-enrichment) culture stage by peptone water then, (Selective enrichment) culture stage by selenite broth after that culturing on sold (Selective media) which was Bismuth Sulphate agar. The biotyping by using API strip according to the API 20E miniaturized identification system for Salmonella SPP.. The isolated Salmonella strains were transferred on TSI agar to undergone sereotyping at the Institute of Public Health,Baghdad,Iraq. Data revealed that 15 out of the total 50 (30%) of the eggs samples were contaminated with Salmonella spp. Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis were the two serotypes that have been found in this study. Nine from 15 (60%) of the isolates was belong to Salmonella enteritidis serotypes while 6 from 15 (40%) of the isolates was belong to Salmonella typhimuriumserotype.

The effect of alkaloids and glycosides extracted from Shangina aegyptiaca on growth of Lashmania major promastigote

Hanan Hasan Flaih

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 13-17

The effect of alkaloids, glycosides extracted from schanginia aegyptiaca plant was studied against the activity and growth of Lashmania major promastigote. The Concentration of 0.1, 1, 5, 10 and 25 mg / ml for each alkaloids and glycosides were used. The results showed that 5 mg / ml of alkaloids had stronger effect with growth index (GI) = 0% after 4 days cultivation , while the concentration of 10 mg / ml and 25 mg / ml of glycosides gave growth index (GI) = 0% after 5 days cultivation.

Prevalence of Blood Parasites in Local Chickens in Qaradagh District, Sulaimani – Iraq

Shadan Hassan Abdullah

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 17-21

Hemosporidians are intracellular protozoan parasites found in blood cells and tissues of their avian hosts. They are worldwide distributed and occur in a variety of avian species, including domestic chicken. Blood parasites among village chickens in Qaradagh district, Sulaimani Province in Kurdistan region Iraq, were surveyed during the period of March-June for the year 2012. Haemoparasites investigation was done by microscopic examination of stained blood films which prepared from 170 local chickens (Gallus domesticus).The overall prevalence of all species of haemosporidian parasites over the studied period in tested individuals was 133 (78.2%) with 114 (85.7%) single and 19 (14.3%) mixed genera infections. Plasmodiumspp. was the most prevalent haemoparasite (52.6%) followed by Haemoproteus spp., (19.5 %) and Leucocytozoon spp. (13.5%).The study has reported high prevalence rate of haemoparasites. There isn't enough information about prevalence of avian blood parasites in the studied area, the present study detect for the first time existent of haemoparasites.

Study the Experimentally Mix Infection with (Fasciola gigantica and Haemonchus contortus ) Effect on Production Traits of Awassi Sheep

Hadi S. Mahdi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 18-22

This experiment was conducted on to study how some production traits selection which carried on as (weight gain and staple length) be affected and to detect the innate or acquired resistance and susceptibility of Awassi local breed of sheep against Fascioliasis of F.gigantica and the mix infection with Haemonchosis of H.contortus. A nine sheep of Awassi local sheep breed, was divided in to two treatment groups as the followings: Control group contain 4 heads and treated group 5 sheep to be experimentally infected with 3metacercaria/kg B.W. of F.gigantica and 500 L3 /kg B.W. of H.contortus. The experiment lasted 20 week, the eggs of H.contortus were observed in the feces of the infected Awassi sheep group at the four weeks after experimentally infection. While the eggs of F.gigantica was observed in feces at the fourteen weeks (after experimentally infection. The results revealed that body weight gain be significantly decreased specially between 10-15 weeks after injection at the level of (P<0.05) affected, while wool staple length was highly significant decrease at the level of (P<0.01) affected by infection with F.gigantica and H.contortus as compare with control group.

Study the Immune Response of Conjunctival and Subcutaneous Vaccination of Goats with RB51 Vaccine for Controlling Brucellosis

Waffa Abdulelah Ahmad; Ayad Ibrahim Haiaef; Sufian Saleh Salman

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 22-28

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of RB51 vaccine in immunization of goats against brucellosis although it is a specific vaccine for cattle, fifteen pregnant and non-pregnant goats were divided into three groups, 5 goats were injected subcutaneously(S/C) with 2 mls of RB51 vaccine which contain 4 × 108 CFU , 5 goats were vaccinated through conjunctival route (C/J) with 0.2 ml of RB51 which contain 4 × 108 CFU , and the last 5 goats were injected with PBS and kept as control group. It has been ascertained that no abortion occurred in the vaccinated animals except one case of a weak kid was born in S/C vaccinated group. Humeral immune response for the vaccinated animals measured by serological test (Rose Bengal and Passive hemagglutination tests) every two weeks, while the cellular immune response measured by brucellin test at the 6th week. Passive haemaglutination test (PHA) was positive and the antibodies were increased significantly (P<0.05) at the 2nd week to reach 10.4±2.4 and 6.4±0.9 in S/C and C/J routes respectively, and increased significantly (P<0.05) at 8th week to reach 38.4±6.4 and 22.4±3.9 in S/C and C/J routes respectively, and decreased significantly at 12th week which reach 9.6±1.6 to 6.4±0.9. Brucellin from RB51 strain prepared to be used as antigen in the PHA test and also in skin test to determine delayed type hypersensitivity, serial dilutions of RB51 brucellin had been done to confer the optimal concentration in skin test that did not induce toxicity for mice 40µg was the optimal concentration that has been given to goats. In goats the results indicated that the S/C group showed a high delayed type hypersensitivity compared with C/J group and the good skin reactions was increased to reach the maximum at 48 hrs post brucellin injection (PBI), when the erythema diameter reached 7.1±0.09mm and 5.4±0.3mm in S/C and C/J groups respectively and skin thickness was2.9±0.1 mm and 2.1±0.2 mm in S/C and C/J groups respectively. These results showed that immunized animals expressed cellular and humeral immune response examined by DTH and PHA. Concluded that the RB51 vaccine gave good level of immunization in goats and it can be considered as alternative vaccine against heterogonous Brucella spp.

Effect of using Magnetized water on body weight, physiological and Biochemical traits in Albino mice Mus musculus

Wafa S.S. AL-Sabea; Ali K. AL-Hillaly; Saad M . Nada; Ahmed H. Kutar

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 23-27

This experiment was conducted in animal laboratory of AL-Nahrin center for Biotechnology, to study the effect of Magnetic water treatment on performance (body weight and weight gain), physiological and biochemical traits. Hundred twenty mice (20-25gm) male and female (albino strain) were divided into three groups. Control group, group supplied with 1000 gauss and group supplied with 2000 gauss, provided with tab water. Parameters were studied including Heamoglobulin, Packed Cell Volume and some Biochemical traits (Glucose, Total Protein, AST, ALT and Alkaline phosphatase). Results showed that highly significant increase at the level (P<0.01) in body weight and weight gain in treated groups. Results showed significant improvement in hemoglobin and Packed Cell Volume and significant decline in Glucose and total Protein were noticed in treated groups. The results have shown significant decrease in AST, ALT and Alkaline phosphatase in treated groups compared with control groups.

Study the water quality of domestic wells in some areas of Baghdad

Yaaroub Faleh Khalef AL-Fatlawy

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 28-38

The water shortages in Baghdad city and due to the sabotage justify happened in the infrastructure of town like water distribution system of supplied water as a result the residents of the concerned town use the ground water in all life activities as a second source. A16 wells have been chosen in different areas in Baghdad treated at April, May and Jule (2011). The depths of wells were between 6 – 14 meters. The following tests (Temperature, pH, TDS, BOD, Conductivity, Total Hardness, Ca2+, Mg2+ , Na+ , , , Cl- ) were performed, in addition to bacteriological examination. Results of physical, chemical and bacteriological tests showed that the water qualities of these wells were not agree with standard of WHO requirements, as well as results showed increase in concentrations of TDS, BOD the labertory analysis revealed that increased of total hardness and musured the percentage of Ca2+, Mg2+,Cl--, and polluter with bacteria which not fed human consumption . That indicated the underground waters were highly polluted with the sanitary waste waters (Coliform) the high values of the pervious testes made water unacceptable for drinking but could be used for irrigation.

The Effect of Banana Leaf as Poultice on Wound Healing In Rabbits

atelaf A. Al-Mutheffer

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 29-34

The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of banana leafs as a wound dressing in rabbits. Ten adults local breed male rabbits weighing between 1.5 – 2 kg were used. The animals were divided into two equal groups. Animals were anesthetized by xylazine 5 mg / kg BW mixed with ketamine 40 mg / kg BW intramuscularly. Under aseptic technique (4-6) avulsion wounds 1cm in diameter were made on the back region of each rabbit. Control group didn’t receive any treatment, while the treated group the wounds were covered by the banana leaf as poultice for 14 days. Histopathological and gross evaluation revealed that there are significant differences between the two groups, because banana leaf provides a clean, waxy non adherent, water proof, and cheap dress to prevent the wound from the contaminated external environment.

Immunomagnatic Separation of E.coli O157:H7 from Raw Milk and Locally Produced Soft Cheese in Baghdad City

Zina Saab Khudhir

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 35-39

The main objectives of the present study were to assess the incidence of E .coli O157:H7 serotype in both raw milk and locally produced soft cheese samples and to evaluate the efficacy of new immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technique for the first time in Iraq for isolation of the same serotype from such products compared to the conventional cultural method .A total of 50 raw milk and soft cheese samples (25 samples of each) were collected randomly at weekly intervals from different retail markets in Baghdad province and its surroundings during the period of six months (from October 2011 March 2012). Each sample was divided into two equal parts where the first part was analyzed for the conventional cultural method and the second part was analyzed for the immunomagnetic separation technique. Five isolates (20%) and seven (28%) were identified as E.coli O157:H7 from the same raw milk samples by both the conventional cultural method and (IMS) technique respectively. Two (8%) and four isolates (16%) were identified as E.coli O157:H7 the same soft cheese samples using the same above methods. The detection limits by the conventional cultural method were 4x103 cfu/ml and 7x102 cfu/gm of raw milk and soft cheese samples respectively, while the detection limits by the (IMS) technique were 1x102 cfu/ml and 12x10 cfu/gm of raw milk and soft cheese sample respectively .Results obtained in this study revealed that the IMS technique has been recognized to be significantly (P<0.05) more efficient in its sensitivity for the detection of low numbers of E.coli O157:H7 than the direct plating conventional method for both raw milk and soft cheese samples.

Study of the inhibitory effect of the ethanolic extract of a number of local medicinal plants on the growth of proteus spp. in vitro

Jinan Abdul-Amir Sabeeh; Zainab Adnan Hatem

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 40-46

The present study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of six local medicinal plants ethanolic extract ( Quercusrobur, Vitisvinifera, Cinamomumzeylanicum , Ginger officinale ,Thymus vulgaris and Coriandrumsativum ) on the growth of Proteus spp. in vitro. For this purpose graduate concentrates for each extract (50, 100, 200 and 400) mg/ml were prepared and tested. The result showed that all the studied medicinal plants have antibacterial activity against Proteus spp. with exception for Coriandrumsativum which didn’t showed any inhibitory activity for the growing of the studied bacteria in Vitro. And the more active plant in inhibition the growth of the studied bacteria was Quercusrobur followed by Vitisvinifera and Cinamomum zeylanicum , Ginger officinale ,Thymus vulgaris. Also, there was no significant differences between the effect of the different concentrations of Thymus vulgaris and Coriandrum sativum, while there were a significant differences between effect of Cinamomumzeylanicum concentrations and the concentrations of (400 and 200 mgml) Ginger officinale and compared with 100 and 50 mg/ml of Quercusrobur, while, the ethanolic extract of the Vitisvinifera showed a significant differences between the effect of the concentration 400 mgml with the other studied concentration.

Analytical study of the reality of cliques ABO incompatibility in newborns at Al-Yarmouk and Al-Kadhimiya teaching hospitals in Baghdad province

Mustafa A.K. Al-Taie; Jabbar H. Yenzeel Al-Hilfy; Nusaibah Amer

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 47-51

In this study blood samples were collected from 150 newborns (NBs), In a period from 2008-2010, with blood groups A and B from mother’s blood group O positive and those who do not have any other reason for the jaundice..Of 150 NBs, 105 have blood group A and 45 with group B. And the male to female ratio was 1.7:1. The average of NBs age at the onset of jaundice was 19.02 hrs, it was earlier in blood group B and in newborns of first pregnancy. The average of serum bilirubin level at 24 hours was 5.70 mg/dl; there was no statistical value of the blood group and the sex of the NBs in the bilirubin level. Newborns had anemia at delivery in 12 cases, 6 of them were premature. Fifty one NBs were followed for late anemia and found 36 (70%) had anemia. Comparing results between NBs who had anemia and those who had not, found that the bilirubin level was higher in anemic NBs, and they had longer stay in Hospital.

Evaluation of Sweet Basil Powder Plant (Ocimum basilicum L.) as a Feed Additives, on the Performance of broilerChicks

Thair Jawad Kadhim Al-Kelabi; Galib M. Al-Kassie

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 52-58

The present study was carried out at the Poultry Farm, College of Veterinary Medicine -Baghdad University, for powder sweet basil plant evaluation as feed additives, and its effect on the performance and health of broiler. Three hundred one day old Hubbard broiler chicks were used in this study. Chicks were weighed and randomly divided into 10 treatments groups, with 2 replicates (15chicks each).These groups were fed with the following rations: The 1st group was fed the basal diet (control group).The 2nd,3rd and 4th groups were fed the basal diet+0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 % basil powder for the first 3 weeks only respectively. At the 5th, 6th and 7th groups were fed the same basal diet +0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 % basil powder for the second 3 weeks respectively. While the 8th, 9th and 10th were fed the same basal diet with 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 % basil powder along the whole six weeks. The experiment was terminated when birds were 6 weeks old. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were measured at the end of first three weeks and also at the end of the experiment. The results revealed that adding sweet basil powder significantly (P< 0.05) increased live body weight, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio as compared with the control, especially on the level 3%, 4%, 5% of Sweet basil powder addition along the whole period of the experiment and There was a significant (P< 0.05) decrease in total feed intake compared with the control group.

Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) to enhance health of common carp Cyprinus carpio L .

Sattar Gabber Ajeel; Jamal K. Al-Faragi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 59-62

The mixing of ginger Zingiber officinale and garlic Allium sativum used at different concentrations ( ginger 10g/kg; garlic 10g/kg; ginger 5g/kg with garlic 5g/kg; ginger 7.5g/kg and garlic 2.5g/kg and ginger 2. 5g/kg and garlic 7.5g/kg in treated 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively) as a dietary supplements based on their performance in enhancing the fish healthy while control diet was free from ginger and garlic. Haematological parameters of 96 fishes of common carp Cyprinus carpio L. were determined after two months, Red blood cells count (RBCs), white blood cells count (WBCs), hemoglobin concentration (Hb) , and Packed cell volume (PCV) , total plasma protein , albumin and Globulin, liver enzymes (ALT,AST and ALP) using several laboratory techniques and equations. Results showed that all the RBCs , WBCs , PCV , Hb ,parameters and total plasma protein , albumin and Globulin concentrations show increase significantly (P<0.05) in treatment 2 while (AST), (ALT) and (ALP) activities in plasma decreased significantly with increasing levels of garlic and ginger addition.

Effect of Prolactin Hormone on Reproductive activity and some physiological parameters of Rabbits

Hassan F. Kashef Al-Ghetaa; Rand T. Yaseen; Amira K. Mohammed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 63-68

The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of prolactin hormone on reproductive activity of female rabbit. Study was conducted on the laboratory animal house and it depended on fifteen mature rabbit does and one mature buck housed on a special cage separately. The females were divided randomly into two groups; the first group is Control group: Female of this group (n=7) were administrated 2 ml of normal saline orally /day. second group is treated group: Females of this group (n=8) were received orally 5 mg of Parlodil® (Bromocriptine) daily for 5 consecutive days then stopped one week and repeated in the same schedule. All animals were clinically observed for detect any drug reaction and signs of sexual behavior. Vaginal smears were taken to determine any changing. The results of the study revealed: Emerge of estrus at the third dose of treatment in five does (First course) and conceive with a male and three of them had been pregnant these pregnant does were aborted in post treatment period (after the end of the second course of treatment). The results of vaginal smears showed significant increase (P<0.05) in percentage of intermediate epithelial cells in treated group in comparison with control group simultaneously with significant decrease in superficial component. While the parabasal cells not showed differences between groups, but there was a significant decline in percentage via treating period in comparison with other study periods in treated group female. The treatment does not affect significantly on the blood parameters involved in this study except white blood cells count which decreased significantly in treated group during post treatment period while prolactin hormone concentration in treated group sera was dropped significantly immediate with starting the administration of parlodil. In conclusion, the Prolactin hormone have a role in maintenance of corpus luteum in rabbits and the treatment with dopamine agonist (Bromocriptine) leads to loses of the pregnancy. The variation of the epithelial component of the vaginal smear has no value in detection of sexual activity for the rabbits.

Evaluation of Roselle Hibiscus sabdariffa Flower as a Nutritive Additives on the Productive Performance of Broiler

Mamdooh A.M. Al-Nasrawi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 69-74

The study included 300 unsexed broiler chicks (Hubbard) were used to evaluate (Roselle Flower) as a feed additives on the productive performance of broiler. The chicks were divided into five groups with three replicates (20 birds in each) and fed on five diets. Diet 1 (control group) dried Roselle flower powder were supplemented to the diet 2, 3, 4 and 5 as 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% respectively. The result revealed that a significant (P<0.05) increase in body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption and improvement in feed conversion ratio. Although the differences between groups for edible parts percent were not significant (Heart, Liver and Gizzard). The hematological values PCV%, RBC, WBC and H/L ratio were increased significantly (P<0.05) and cholesterol values decreased significantly as compared with control group. It can conclude that Roselle as other herbal plants may be considered as a feed additive in broiler diet would improve the productive performance, hematological and biochemical values of broiler. Diet Roselle flower supplementation of (1g/kg) might be acceptable for achieving optimum broilers performance.

The Influence of Mild Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) on Acid Tolerance, Bile Tolerance, Growth and Protease Activity of the Dairy Culture Bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-K.

Najim H. Najim

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 75-82

The objective of this study was to determine the influence of mild PEF conditions on acid tolerance, growth, bile tolerance and protease activity of L. acidophilus LA-K. The treatments were positive square unipolar pulse width of 3 µs, pulse period of 0.5 second, voltage of 1 kV/cm, delay time of 20 µs and flow rate of 60 ml/min at 40.5°C PEF treatment temperature. The control was passed through the PEF system at the same flow rate (60 ml/min) without receiving any pulsed electric field condition. The acid tolerance was determined every 30 minutes for 120 minutes of incubation in acidified MRS broth at pH 2. Growth of the culture was determined hourly for 32 hours of incubation at 37°C in MRS broth. The bile tolerance was determined hourly for 16 hours of incubation in MRS-Thio broth supplemented with 0.3% (w/v) Oxgall (bovine bile) and 0.2% sodium thioglycolate. Samples were plated in duplicates using Lactobacilli MRS agar. The petriplates were incubated anaerobically at 37C for 48 hours. Protease activity was determined by o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) spectrophotometric assay at 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours of incubation of inoculated skim milk at 40°C three replications were conducted. The experimental design was repeated measurements on complete randomized block, replications were the blocks. Lactobacillus acidophilus subjected to mild PEF conditions as well as the control were acid tolerant until the end of the 120 minutes of incubation but there was a significant (P<0.0001) decrease in the viable bacterial counts after each incubation time of 30 minutes. Mild PEF conditions studied significantly improved acid tolerance of the bacterium. The mild PEF treated culture reached the logarithmic phase of the growth an hour earlier than the control. Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-K exhibited tolerance to the bile conditions and exhibited similar growth patterns in the presence or absence of bile acids but the bacterium reached the stationary phase after 12 hours of incubation in bile conditions compared to 16 hours of incubation in the absence of bile conditions. Mild Pulsed Electric Field conditions had insignificant effect on bile tolerance of L. acidophilus LA-K. Mild Pulsed Electric Field treatment significantly (P<0.0001) enhanced the protease activity of the bacterium compared to the control.

Effect of crude polyphenol extracted from black olive fruit (olea europae) on some physiological and immunological parameters in Males Rats Treated with Hydrogen Peroxide

Anwar I. Obead; Layla Hashim Alol;; Luma W. Khalil waleedluma

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 83-89

The present study was designed to demonstrate the effect of crude alcoholic extract of polyphenol in olive (200 mg/kg) on some physiological and immunological parameters in male rats treated with 1% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Twenty rats were divided randomly into four equal groups and treated for (30) days as follows: control group (c) which were given ordinary tap water, first treated group (G1) was given 1% H2O2 in drinking water, the second treated group (G2) was given alcoholic extract of polyphenol in olive (200 mg/kg) by oral intubation, third treated group(G3) was given H2O2 and polyphenol. Blood samples were collected after 30 days for measuring the following parameters: Total WBC count, the percentage of WBC differential count (%) ,platelet count ,serum protein ,albumin and globulin , Neutrophil /lymphocyte index, Albumin /Globulin and Phagocytic index. The results showed a significant increase in, total WBC count of polyphenol treated group (G2) and polyphenol compounds plus H2O2, Lymphocyte percentage in both polyphenol (G2) and polyphenol with H2O2 (G3) treated groups ,percentage of neutrophil in H2O2 (G1) group and monocyte percentage in both H2O2 (G1) and H2O2 with polyphenol (G3) groups as compared with control group. Significant depression in platelet count in H2O2 group (G1) as compared with other treated groups was also recorded. The immunological test showed a significant increase in phagocytic index in polyphenol and H2O2 group (G3) as compared with other groups. The result also pointed a significant increase in the concentration of protein and globulin in polyphenol compounds with H2O2 group (G3) and also a significant increase in albumin concentration of group G2, while there was a significant decrease in globulin concentration of H2O2 (G1) group as compared with other groups. On conclusion it seems that treatment with alcoholic extract of polyphenol in olive at concentration of 200 mg/kg B.W. has the ability to correct the adverse effect of hydrogen peroxide in male rats.

Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous Extracts of Pomegranate Peels, Green Tea Leaves and Bay Leaves against Vibrio cholera

Zainab A. Al-Dhaher

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 90-95

The antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of Pomegranate peels, Green tea leaves, Bay leaves were evaluated in this study. Agar diffusion technique was applied. The three extracts were found to have inhibitory effect against Vibrio cholera and the mean of the diameter of inhibition zones ranges from (11-23 mm) for pomegranate peels, (9-20 mm) for Green tea leaves and (7-18mm) for Bay leaves extracts and statistically analyzed. There were significant differences between pomegranate peels, tea leaves and bay leaves extracts at each concentration used in this study. The pomegranate peels were found to have greater effects against Vibrio cholera followed by tea leaves, Bay leaves. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was also determined and it was shown that 10mg/ml was the MBC for pomegranate peels, 10-15mg/ml the MBC for tea leaves and 20-25mg/ml the MBC for Bay leaves.

Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonella species isolate from slaughtered cows in Iraq

Arcan A.N. Al-Zubaid; Afaf Abdulrahman Yousif

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 96-101

This study was planned to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella spp. One hundred bovine with different age and both sexes at slaughterhouse were examined. Four hundred samples were collected from different internal organ (bile, Liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes). Diagnostic study depended upon the morphological and cultural properties of the isolates on some selective media like Brilliant green, XLD, SS agar which used in addition to different biochemical tests, API-20E )Enterobacteriaceae Identification Kit.). Isolates were serotyped at the Central Public Health Laboratories (National Center of Salmonellae in Baghdad, Iraq). Eleven isolates consisting of Salmonella anatum (9.09%), S.newport (27.27%), S.enteritidis (45.45 %) and S.ohio (18.18%). The percentage of infection were 3% in the mesenteric lymph node and liver, (4%) in bile, and (1%) in spleen. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella against 15 antimicrobial drugs revealed that all isolates were sensitive (100%) to ciprofloxacin and amicacin. And most of isolates were resistance to cloxacillin, cefixime, amoxicillin. and gave intermediate results to neomycin, gentamycin, tetracycline and streptomycin.

Induction of Fertile Estrus in Bitches using Equine Chorionic Gonadotropine (eCG) and Human Chorionic Gonadotropine (hCG)

Talib M. Al-Hamedawi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 102-105

Eighteen (18) anestrous bitches aged 3-6 years were used in this study. They were diagnosed clinically by external and vaginal examination and the bitches were divided randomly into three equal groups (6 bitches). The 1st group were treated I/M with 20 IU eCG / bitch for 6 days with single injection and 150 IU of hCG hormone /Bitch on day 7 . The 2nd group were treated I/M with 30 IU eCG / bitch for 6 days with single injection and 150 IU of hCG hormone /bitch on day 7, and the 3rd group were treated I/M with 40 IU eCG / bitch for 6 days with single injection and 150 IU of hCG hormone /bitch on day 7. Results showed that the number responded (show proestrus bleeding) were 83.3%, 100% and 83, 3% for the 1st,2nd and 3rd group respectively. The mean duration response from the beginning of treatment to onset of proestrus bleeding were 15.23 ± 2.36, 14.83± 2.43 and 14.16 ±2.58 day respectively .1st and 3rd group recorded significantly P<0.01 higher in response to treatment 1st group recorded significantly higher (P<0.01) compared with 2nd and 3rd group in duration of response. The conception rate was 80% (4/5), 83.3%(5/6) and 60%(3/5) in 1st, 2nd and 3rd group respectively were the 1st and 2nd group recorded higher significant compared with 3rd group. The dystocia parturition was appeared 8.4 % (1/12) from total animals, while the percentage of live newborn (whelps) was 29 (76.3%) and dead 9 (23.7%). In conclusion that the using gonadotrophic hormones (eCG and hCG) have an positive effect of induction the estrus on anestrous bitches.

Study the Prevalence of Pigeon Coccidiosis in Baghdad City

Haidar M. A. Al-Rubaie; Elaph F. Mahdii

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 106-108

The present study was conducted to record the prevalence of pigeon coccidiosis in Baghdad city. Out of 40 birds 14 (35%) were infected with Eimeria spp. which divided into 8 males (38.09 %) and 6 females (31.57 %). Insignificant effects on the body weight gain was recorded between the infected birds (234.78 ± 6.32g ) and non infected once ( 258.461 ± 9.2g ) ; Also in both sex males (236.87 ± 9.41g , 260.07 ± 10.88g ) and females ( 232 ± 8.63g , 256.84 ± 15.29g ) respectively.

Isolation of Infectious Bronchitis Virus in Primary cells of the Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane

M.H. Mohammed; M. Hair-Bejo; Abdel Ameer Husain Zahid; Amer Alazawy; Emad Adwar Abdul Ahad; Mauida F. Hasoon

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 109-114

The susceptibility of the primary chick embryo chorioallontoic membrane cells to infectious bronchitis virus was evaluated after twenty consecutive passages in chick embryo chorioallontoic membrane cells. Virus replication was monitored by cytopathic observation, indirect immunoperoxidase, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). At 72 hours post-infection in third passage, the cytopathic effect was characterized by rounding up of cells, monolayer detachment, intracytoplasmic brownish colouration was readily observed by immunoperoxidase from 24hours p.i in third passage, and at all times the extracted viral RNA from IBV-infected monolayers was demonstrated by RT-PCR. Tissue culture ineffective dose50 (TCID50) was used to measure virus titration performed on primary chick embryo chorioallontoic membrane cells and the titre in twenty passage was 108.6 TCID50/ml.
The results obtained in this study suggested that the primary chick embryo chorioallontoic membrane cells can be used for adaptation infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and may be considered a step forward for the use of these cells in the future for IBV vaccine production

Estimation of Serum Liver Enzymes Activities in Awassi Sheep

H.A.H. Al-Hadithy; N.M. Badawi; M.M. Mahmood

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 115-120

The current study was conducted on 152 clinically normal Awassi sheep to evaluate serum activities of alanine aminotranferase (ALT), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) in Baghdad governorate / Iraq. Sheep were divided into males; 62 ram lambs and rams, 90 females; ewe lambs, pregnant and lactating ewes both aged 7 to 48 months. The samples were collected from October 2011 until March 2012, and the sera were used for measurement of serum liver enzymes.The results revealed that the range and mean ± SEM of these enzymes were as follows : serum ALT 3.5 – 24 U/L and 9.66 ± 0.31 U/L, serum AST 25 – 220 U/L and 71.83 ± 3.09 U/L , serum ALP 59 – 300 U/L and 139.86 ± 3.56 U/L and serum GGT 2.3 – 38.2 U/L and 15.9 ± 0.78 U/L respectively. There were significant differences (P<0.05) between males and females in serum ALT and GGT activities. The effect of age on serum liver enzymes was studied in males. However, according to physiologic status a significant difference (P<0.05) noticed in serum enzymes values of all groups. In conclusion, present data recorded range references and mean ± SE for serum liver enzymes in normal Iraqi Awassi sheep with significant differences in activities of these enzymes between males and females a well as between subgroups in both sexes.

Effect of Different Doses of Doxorubicin on Pituitary Gland and Some Testicular Function in Adult Male Rabbits

Baraa N. AL-Okaily; Ammar A. Al-Haddad; Ahmed D. Salman

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 121-128

The present study was designed to search out the effect of different doses of doxorubicin some functions of pituitary gland and testes in adult male rabbits. Twenty adult male rabbits were randomly divided into four equal groups and treated for 28 days as follows: first group (control) were injected with normal saline; second group (GI) were injected with doxorubicin 3 mg/ kg B.W., while animals in the third group (GII) and fourth group (GIII) injected with 3.5 and 4 mg/ kg body weight of doxorubicin respectively, all animals were injected twice a week via ear vein. At the end of experiment fasting blood (8-10 hrs) samples were collected. Blood was drawn by cardiac puncture technique and serum was collected for measuring the hormones, Follicular Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), and Testosterone (T). In addition, sections from pituitary gland and testes were taken for histopathological studies. The results showed significant increase (P<0.05) in serum FSH, LH and T levels in group (GIII) as compared to GI, GI and control groups. Beside significant increases in T levels was observed in GII as compared to control group. Sever histopathological changes was observed in testes including thickness of basement membrane, protienous material in lumen of somniferous tubules and pituitary gland showed fibrosis, faculation of epithelial cell in all treated groups. In conclusion different doses of doxorubicin have detrimental effect on pituitary gland and male reproductive system of rabbits.

Isolation and Identification of Gram Positive Cocci Bacterial Pathogens from Sappurative Otitis Media Infections

Weam Saad Al-Hamadany

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 129-133

Otitis Media (OM) is a common disease. It represents a serious problem mainly after winter outbreaks of respiratory tract infections (RTI); its consequences are hearing weakness; or even loss in adults and problems in speech in children. Gram-positive Cocci bacteria are among the causative pathogens. This study concerned with suppurative otitis media caused by gram-positive Cocci bacteria; either as pure culture or mixed with other pathogens. A total of 60 ear swabs were collected from Ear, Nose and Throat Department outpatients in AL-Nuaman hospital in Baghdad and cultured to isolate and identify the most common causative bacterial pathogen among gram positive Cocci. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated bacteria (81.6%) representing (53.3%) as pure culture and (28.3%) as mixed. Streptococcus pneumonia was the second isolated pathogen (18.3%) representing (8.3%) as pure culture and (10%) as mixed. The mixed culture represented other pathogens like gram-negative bacteria and fungi.