Print ISSN: 1609-5693

Online ISSN: 2410-7409

Volume 37, Issue 2

Volume 37, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2013, Page 39-297


Pathological Effects of Anabolic Steroid (Sustanon®) on the prostate gland of adult Male Rats

E. K. Al-hamdany; Kennany; E. R. Al

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 39-44

This study is designed to investigate the pathological effects of sustanon which is a type of anabolic androgens in different concentration on prostate gland of male rats. The experiment include 100 male rats randomly divided into five groups 20 rats each group. The first group is considered as a negative control treated with diet and water only. The second group is considered a positive control treated weekly for 60 days with sesame oil intramuscularly. While groups III, IV and V treated with diluted sustanon in 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly weekly for 60 days respectively. Fifth biopsies were taken each group at 15,30 and 60 days after treatment . Also 5 rats from each group has given water and diet after stopping of treatment ,then 30 days later biopsy was taken for macroscopical and pathological examination. Pathologically all treated groups showed gross and histopathological changes. The prostate grossly revealed enlargement of gland associated with histopathological changes represented by hyperplasia of glandular epithelium in all treated groups. After stopping treatment for thirty days there was grossly atrophy of gland, histopathologicaly there was odema and depletion of colloidal substance, congestion of blood vessels and atrophy in some acini was also, recorded .In conclusion from the present study that sustanon at the doses 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of body weight in a period 15, 30 and 60 days had side effects on prostate and these effects were progressive notice after30 days of stopping the drug administration.

The Use of Nauplii and Decapsulated Cysts of Artemia parthenogentica in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio in Comparable with Liqure Artificial Diet

Taghreed S.M. Alubaydi; Abd Alkaliq A.A; T Ahmed Abass Salman

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 45-50

The aim of this study was used nauplii and decapsulated cysts of Artemia parthenogentica in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio in Comparison with Liqure Artificial Diet for feeding of common carp. Four various feeds (Treatments) with 2 replicates were supplied to common carp larvae for 30 days at a daily rate of 3 times. Treatments were: T1- Laboratorial artemia nauplii, T2-Decapsulated unhitching Iraqi artemia cysts by using diluted commercial bleach, T3- mixture of liquor artificial diet and decapsulated artemia cysts and T4-liqure artificial diet only. Fish larvae randomly, were distributed into 8 glass aquaria at a 50 larvae (Biomass 0.1 gm) per aquarium. Survival rate, larvae weight (Biomass) and growth rate were determined biweekly and after 30 days. Fish larvae of T2 showed the highest survival rate (96%) after 15 days of experiment, comparably with larvae of T3 (91%), whereas T1 and T4 larvae showed 82% and 80% respectively but no significant differences, were cysted the highest growth rate was 4.050 gm in T2 and the lowest was 1.0 gm in T4 . Simultaneously ,after 30 days of feeding treial ,T1 fish larvae showed the highest survival rate (84%) ,which the highest growth rate occurred in T3 larvae(7.14gm). whereas occurred highest food conversion efficiency showed in T2 (11.953%) and the lowest was 2.84% in T4.These results declare that the mixture of liquor artificial diet and live food can enhance the growth and acceptability of artificial diet by fish larvae because of the presence of digestible enzymes in decapsulated cysts of artemia.

Study the Prevalence of Lice and Hard Ticks of Sheep in Baquba City

Haidar M. A. AL-Rubaie; Amer M. AL-Amery; Emad M. AL-Karkhy

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 51-57

The aims of this study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of lice and hard ticks of sheep by examined 516 sheep of different age and sexes randomly in Baquba City – Diyala governorate, during a period 1-11-2011 to 31-5-2012.The total infection rate of sucking lice (Linognatus africanus) and biting lice (Bovicola ovis) 18.21% and 0.19% respectively; A significant difference (P<0.05) of months in the infection rate was recorded , a higher rate (32.86%) for sucking lice in December month while a lower rate (5.71%) in October month ; while , biting lice was recorded in December month only (1.40%). Also, A significantly affect (P<0.05) of age in the infection rate was recorded, the higher rate (26.6%) in the age group between 4-5< and the lower rate (12.5%) in the age group between 2-3 years. Sex had no significant difference (P>0.05) in the infection rate of females (19.40%) and males (15.30%). A significant difference (P<0.05) of lice sites was recorded, the higher rate (62.76%) in the tail and back areas, while no lice were found in face area. The results recorded that sheep were infected by four species of hard tick with a total rate 27.70%, which divided into three species of the genus Hyalomma, H. anatolicum, H. excavatum and H. turanicum 67.83%, 51.74% and 25.17% respectively, while the one species of the genus Rhipicephalus ( R. turanicus) in an infection rate 48.25% . A significant affect (P<0.05) in the infection rate was recorded during study months, the higher rate (58.57%) in April and the least rate (15.71%) in December. Age had no significant affect (P>0.05) in the infection rate, the higher rate (31.80%) was recorded in the age group between 2-3 years and the lower rate (25.50) in the age group between 3 months to one year. Also, sex had no significant affect (P>0.05) in the infection rate between males and females 29.30% and 29.70% respectively. A significant difference (P<0.05) of ticks sites was recorded of the body areas; A high rate (80.41%) on the tail, while no ticks were recorded on the legs and udder. A mixed infection of lice and hard ticks was recorded in a total rate 8.13%.

Appreciation quantitative chemical compounds phenolic extract of the seeds of Syzgium aromaticum and study its inhibitory effect in some food-born pathogenic bacteria

M. A. Hassan; I. Sh. Hamza; S.T. Hashim

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 58-64

Qualitative and quantitative detection of the active compounds in the phenolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum seeds was conducted by using HPLC. Results showed it contains all of the following compound )Eugenol ، Caffeic acid، Kaempferol ،Vallinic acid، Ferulic acid ، Ellagic acid، Chlorogenic acid،Borneal(.Inhibitory effectiveness was evaluated for different concentration of phenolic extract of seeds inlclude (0.039, 0.0781, o.156,0.312, 0.625,1.25,2.5,5,10 and 20) mg/ml separately against gram positive bacteria Bacillus subltilis and Staphylococcus aureus and three isolates of gram negative bacteria E.coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium by Agar well diffusion method. The results showed high inhibition effect aganist all bacterial isolates with the effect of concentration and genus of bacteria.

Effects of Ration Zinc Supplementation on Some Productive Characters on Heat Stressed Broiler

Aqeel Abdallh Razooqi; Mohammad Jabar Ahmed; Hayder Razooqi Kadhem Shkeer; Raad Hatem; Mohammad Katih Manhoob

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 65-70

The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of using different dietary levels of zink on the performance of broiler reared during summer months, under heat stress by using 120 Ross broiler chicks one day of age were used. The birds were randomly distributed to five treatment with three replicates per treatment (8 chicks /replicated). Zinc was supplemented into ration from the second week until the end of experiment (42 days) at levels 0(T1), 30(T2), 45(T3), 60(T4) and 75(T5) mg/1kg of ration. The result of statistical analysis showed that birds in T2 and T3 had significantly (P˂0.01) high body weight gained, food conversion ratio when compared with all treatments. In conclusion of this study indicated that ration zinc supplementation increased the resistance of broiler into heat stress.

Effect of ozonated water on the blood picture of the common carp Cyprinus carpio infected with Aeromonas hydrophila

Abdulhussien K. Salman; Abdulmotalib J. Al-Rudainy

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 71-78

A total of 80 specimens of common carp Cyprinus carpio were used ranged in weight between 100-120g and in length between 20-27 cm. Effect of ozonated water were investigated on the fish as well as Aeromonas hydrophila pathogenic bacteria. Fish were distributed randomly between eight aquariums (70x40x40 cm) with two replicates for each treatment. Three concentrations of ozonated water were used (0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 mg / L), the last two aquarium were the control with no ozonated water through the period of three weeks. All four groups were injected intramuscularly by Aeromonas hydrophila at 107 CUF/ 100 gm body weight .Results of blood picture test showed a significant differences (p<0.01) between the three treatments containing ozonated water compared with control treatment .It can be concluded that the possibility improvement the blood picture of fish affected with Aeromonas hydrophila .

Evaluation of Midazolam and Ketamine Preceding by Xylazine as General Anesthesia in Rabbits

Abed F. Ali

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 144-148

The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of use xylazine hydrochloride 5mg/kg BW as premedication and a mixture of midazolam and ketamine 3mg/kg BW, 40 mg/kg BW respectively. The effects of combination was estimated before injection drug as control and each15 min until 90 min, on the induction of anesthesia, degree of analgesia, respiratory rate, body temperature and type of recovery. Ten local breed rabbits were used in this study; all animals were done surgical operation (splitting Achilles tenotomy) to evaluated surgical anaesthesia. The result of this combination is reflected good induction of anaesthesia and good analgesia to animals and smooth recovery with miner complications.

Ecto and Endo Parasites Prevalence in Domestic Chickens in Sulaimani Region

Shadan Hassan Abdullah; Aram Ahmad Mohammed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 149-155

The study was conducted on 65 local adult chickens (Gallus domesticus) to investigate macro - and microscopically presence of external and internal parasites and their prevalence in Sulaimani region-Kurdistan/Iraq from May to July 2012. Results showed that 90.77 % out of total examined chickens were infested with ecto-parasites, out of that 81.36 % (48/59) were infested with lice such as (Menacanthus stramineus, Goniocotes gallinae, Menopon gallinae, Goniodes gigas, Cuclotogaster heterographus ) and 62.72 (37/59) of it with larval stage of soft tick such as (Argas persicus). Mixed infestations with more than two ecto-parasite species were detected. On the other hand 89.23% out of 65 examined chickens were infected by internal parasites including nematodes and cestodes (Heterakis gallinarum which formed 81% and the remains were Ascaridia galli, Cheilospirura hamulosa, Capillaria spp., Raillietina spp., Choanotaenia infundibulum, Amoebotaenia sphenoides, Hymenolepis carioca and Davaniea proglottina).

Bovine tuberculosis: Diagnosis by PCR technique in bovine milk samples

Al-Rubiaii E.M; Alwan M.J; Al- Thwani A. N

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 156-159

The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of borne tuberculin infection in milk sample by using PCR. (102) milk samples were collected from cows , AL-Dejella (39) samples, AL-Suara (20) samples cow station, AL-Fthalia (20) samples, AL-Azezia (11) samples and AL-Twarege (12) samples during the period July 10th 2010 to Nov.30th 2010. The samples were examined by direct smear stained by Ziehle-Neelson stain, culture methods and confirmed the isolates by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay. The results showed that 5 out 102 (4.9%) milk samples were M. bovis positive that were detected by direct milk smear method and 10 out 102(9.8%) M.bovis +ve were detected by culture method and PCR assay. The results also showed that high percentage of bacterial isolates from milk samples AL-Dejella city show (12.8%) by culturing and PCR method followed by AL-Suara (10%), AL-Fthelia (10%), Al-Twarege (8.3%) but no bacterial isolation was recorded in AL-Azezia milk samples. This study concluded that M.bovis infection was spreading in dairy cow within the mentioned areas and PCR was more sensitive, rapid, and accurate technique for M.bovis infection diagnosis.

Effect of Triclabendazole and Dexamethasone on Ovine Fascioliasis

Farouk J. Khalil; Huda F. Hasan; Oday K. Luaibi; Khaled. J. Khalil

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 160-163

Thirty sheep in a flock suffering from fascioliasis were selected for the trial. Clinical findings, hematological, biochemical and fecal investigations were conducted. These animals were equally divided into two groups, the 1st group was given the flukecide triclabendazole alone, at a dose of 12mg/kg body weight orally and the 2nd group was given the same dose orally together with dexamethasone at a rate 0.5 mg / kg body weight I/M. Results showed that the 2nd group gave the quickest and the best response in the treatment. This could be explained that the use of corticosteroid assisted the triclabendazole in preventing immune damage and fibroplasias inflicted by the liver flukes beside to improvement metabolic actions of the animal.

Histopathological Study for the Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Sonchus oleraceus on Escherichia coli Bacteria in Mice

Zainab R. Zghair; Aseel M. Hamzah; Mohmmed J. Alwan

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 164-171

This study was designed to explore the effect of the ethanolic extract of Sonchus oleraceus on Escherichia coli infection in mice. The LD50 of the orally dosage ethanolic extract of Sonchus oleraceus was found to be 800gm/kg B.W for two weeks. Twenty five mice were randomly divided into five groups. The first group was given orally the ethanolic extract with dose 800 mg/kg B.W for two weeks, then infected with Escherichia coli bacteria with dose 1×108 cfu for ten days. Second group was infected with Escherichia coli bacteria with dose 1×108 cfu for ten days then treated with ethanolic extract of Sonchus oleraceus for two weeks. The third group was infected only with Escherichia coli bacteria with a dose 1×108 cfu for ten days. Fourth group was given orally the ethanolic extract with a dose 800 mg/kg B.W orally for two weeks. Fifth group was given normal saline solution and serived as control The histopathological study showed pathological lesions in most of internal organs of the third group that infected with Escherichia coli bacteria specially liver, kidney and intestine. First group revealed lesions less than the third group, while the second group showed just aggregation of inflammatory cells in some internal organs and this refers that the ethanolic extract of Sonchus oleraceus have obvious inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli bacteria when compared with the infected group.

Effect of Sperm Selection by ''Swim-Up" Technique on the Sex Ratio of In Vitro Produced Ovine Embryos

Saja Hadi; Ihsan H. AL-Timimi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 172-177

The objective of this study was to investigate the percentage of male and female ovine embryos produced after oocytes fertilization by sperm selected with self-migration (swim-up) technique. The sex of in vitro produced embryos was determined by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results indicate that the fertilization by sperm selected using Swim-up technique was 81.8% (9/11) male and 18.1% (2/11) female in vitro produced embryos when centrifuged at 200×g. While centrifugation at 300×g was 72.7% (8/11) male and 27.2% (3/11) female embryos. It was concluded that the use of “swim-up” technique refer to significant (P<0.05) occurred for increasing male embryos ratio compared with normal ratio (50%) which represent the sex, and it is for the first time, preselected sperms used for In Vitro fertilization (gender selection) in farm animals in Iraq.

Pathological changes of immunized mice with Trichophyton mentagrophyte lyophilized antigen

S. A; Radam; E. B; Faleh

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 178-187

The study was carried to investigate the pathological effect of lyophilized antigen of Trichophyton mentagrophytes in mice. Fifty mice were divided into three groups. The first group 20 mice were immunized subcutaneous (s/c) with 0.5 ml of T.mentagrophyte antigen 20 µgm/ml, by two doses, 14 day intervals, between them. The second group 20 mice and third group 10 mice considered as positive and negative control groups respectively. After 30 days post immunization first and second groups were challenged intradermal I/d. with 0.1 ml of fungal suspension contain (1×107 ml) of viable virulence T.mentagrophyte while the third group injected intraperitoneally I/P. with 0.5 ml of sterile phosphate buffer saline. All mice of the first and second groups were sacrificed at (5, 14, 30 and 60) days post challenge for gross and histopathological examination. Histopathologically the second group showed epidermal hyperkeratosis with appearance of crust lesions seen with abscess formation especially in early stage of lesion, while the main feature of advance cases were characterized by folliculitis with fungal hyphae invasion in all epidermal and dermal layers together with eosinophilic infiltration. Mild pathological changes were seen in the 1st immunized group characterized by infiltration of mononuclear cells mainly macrophages in dermal connective tissue with dense proliferation of collagenous fibers , appearance of young fibroblasts together with cellular hypodermal infiltration of eosinophil no evidence of clear follicular lesions were seen. Lyophilized antigen of T.mentagrophyte can be considered as an effective immunogen for protecting mice against T.mentagrophyte infection and it is synchronized with its dose.

The Effect of Experimentally Induced Vitamin E and Selenium Deficiency on Erythrocytes Osmotic Fragility and Phagocytosis in Pregnant Awassi Ewes and Their Newborn Lambs

H.K .Abood; A.M.H. Judi; A.A. AL-Ani

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 188-191

Experimental induction of vitamin E and selenium deficiency using deficient diet was carried out on fourteen pregnant Awassi ewes and their newborn lambs to study the effect of the deficiency on erythrocytes osmotic fragility and phagocytosis. From the fourteen deficient ewes, seven were vaccinated with Rev I vaccine and seven ewes as control group, and their newborn lambs were used in the study. Results were showed increased in the concentration of saline solution in start and complete erythrocyte hemolysis in deficient lambs (0.52 ± 0.01 and 0.54 ± 0.01) and (0.42 ± 0.01 and 0.44 ± 0.00) respectively and in deficient ewes (0.53 ± 0.01 and 0.54 ± 0.01) and (0.43 ± 0.01 and 0.44 ± 0.00) respectively. Results showed a low phagocytic index in deficient lambs (9.40 ± 0.87 and 10.60 ± 1.16) and in deficient ewes (12.14 ± 0.85 and 12.42 ± 0.75) compared to phagocytic index in control lambs (43.85±0.91) and in control ewes (43.14 ±0.91).

Concurrent Infection of Cestodes with Trichomoniasis in Domestic and Wild Columbides Birds in Babylon Province

Hayder M. Al-Rammahi; Mohammad H. AL-Hasnawy; Athmar K. Abbas

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 192-198

The research was carried out in Babylon province on 138 domestic and wild columbide birds were collected during the period from April to June 2012. Fresh saline smears samples (wet mount) were taken from mucosa of buccal cavity, pharynx ,esophagus and crop of each bird, then examined by wet mount looking for Trichomoniasis, then the intestine opened longitudinally examined looking for helminthes which examined grossly and after fixative staining with carmine stain for identification. The results of wet mount for Trichomonus technique revealed that the total rate of infection was 43(31.5%). Asignificant differences were recorded in the rates of infection regarding the species of birds. The highest rate of infection was recorded with Trichomonus gallinae, in wood pigeon 16 (53.33%) followed by Rock pigeon, Domestic pigeon, Collared dove and palm dove 12(40%), 9 (30%), 4(13.34%) and 2(11.12 %) respectively. The results revealed that the total rate of infection was 80 (57.97%), with cestodes parasite. Asignificant differences regarding the type of the birds, the highest prevalence was recorded in wood pigeons 27 (90%) followed by rock pigeon, collared dove and domestic pigeons in prevalence rate 25 (83.34%), 12 (40%) and16 (26.67%) respectively, while no cestods recorded in palm dove. Asignificant differences regarding the type of cestodes parasite. Out of 123 collected cestodes, 79 (64.23%) were geuns Raillietina (18.69%) were geuns Aporina, and (17.07%) were geuns Cotugnia.

Effect of injection the broiler hatching eggs with vitamin E and cod liver oil on some their productive traits and immune response to Newcastle disease vaccine

Mashaan A. Al-Zuhairy; Mushtaq T. Abdulwahid

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 199-205

Four hundred fertile eggs of broiler breeder Ross strain were incubated in commercial Hatchery. Eggs were injected into amniotic fluid on 18th day of incubation after divided into four treatment groups (100 eggs per treatment) with two replicates. First treatment was injected 100 μl of PBS, second treatment was injected with100 μl of inactivated ND vaccine, the third treatment was injected with 100 μl of inactivated ND vaccine and 50 μl vitamin E (oily form) and finally the fourth treatment was injected with 100 μl of inactivated ND vaccine and 50 μl Cod liver oil. All injected eggs were carried back into hatchery for complete hatching process. Hatched chicks were transported to the farm of the Veterinary Medicine College/University of Baghdad for 42 days from 6/10/2011 to 16/11/2011. The hatched chicks from the previously treated groups were distributed into four treatments with two replicates for up to the experimental end. Results of treated groups showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in body weight, weight gain, as well as significant reduce in feed intake and improvement in feed conversion ratio, also, antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus of treated groups showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase progressively with age until the end of the experiment compared with broiler chicks of control.

Optimal post-breeding interval for pregnancy diagnosis in mares by using ultrasonographic technique

Omran; S. N; Rasheed Y. M

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 206-210

The present study was conducted in two different farms, including (256) foaling mares in : AL-Laith equine herd and equestrian club in AL-Ameria, 4-14 years old foaling mares which are situated in areas around Baghdad and extended one calendar from July 2011 until July 2012 . These mares were examined for pregnancy diagnosis by trans-rectal ultrasonography using a 5 MHz linear-array transducer between Days 10 and 40 after breeding (breeding day = Day 0). Criteria to assess the accuracy of trans-rectal sonography were overall accuracy (correct diagnoses/all diagnoses), sensitivity (correct diagnoses "pregnant"/all pregnant animals), and specificity (correct diagnoses "non-pregnant" /all non-pregnant animals. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of trans-rectal ultrasonography were 91.4%, 96.2% and 94.7%, respectively, around day (10-40). Accuracy, Sensitivity and Specificity of pregnancy diagnosis were superior (97.8%, 95.2% and 100%), respectively, in (31 - 35) day post breeding (P< 0.01). The results of this study showed a significant difference (P<0.01) in the parameters of sensitivity and various post-breeding intervals. The results of the present study revealed that using trans-rectal ultrasound for pregnancy diagnosis in mares could be used and are reliable under field conditions from day (31) of gestation onward.

Histopathological study of the Influence of Estradiol on Liver Regeneration in Male Rabbits

Mahdi. A.K

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 211-217

This study was investigated to recognize the generative capacity of liver that influenced by administration of estradiole benzoate. Twenty four healthy local breed male rabbits weighed 1.5-2 kg were used .They were classified into two equal groups control and treated groups. Animals anaesthetized by intramuscular injection of Ketamine (35mg /kg B.W) and Xylazine (5mgkg B.W.) In control group partial hepatectomy of liver was done, while in treated animals were subject to a same operation then received an intramuscular injection 0.1ml of estradiol benzoate 0.2% at 3rd and 5th days post operation. At 3rd days microscopic finding showed biopsy were taken at 3rd, 7th and 14 day, post operation to study the histopathological changes in liver regeneration .At 3rd day it showed early proliferation of hepatocyte character by irregular hyperchromatic multinucleated cell .While in control group it showed necrotic area of liver parenchyma surrounded by thick fibrous connective tissue infiltrated with inflammatory cells. At 7th day in treated animals still progress in proliferation of hepatocyte while, liver proliferation phase showed in control group .At 14th day in treated animals showed large cells of hepatocyte with double nuclei aggregation without central vein , while in control group showed small hyperchromatic hepatocyte with present of necrotic area. In conclusion the results of this study indicate that administration of estrogen after partial resection in male rabbits has a role in liver regeneration by early initiate or facilitate heypatocyte proliferation.

Effect of Cryopreservation on Sperms Function Parameters and In vitro Fertilization Rate in Mice

Ilaf Hassan Hadi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 218-225

The study was carried out to investigate the effect of cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen (-196ºC) on sperm quality (concentration, motility, morphology) and in vitro fertilization rate (IVF), 24 hours post insemination in mice. The sperms were obtained from caudal epididymis of 20 mature male mice and prepared by Direct Activation Technique after cryopreservation followed by insemination the oocyte of 20 female mice using in vitro fertilization procedure. Results showed that there were significant (P > 0.05) decrease in sperms concentration, motility and morphology post cryopreservation. In addition, the results demonstrated that cryopreservation significantly decreased (P > 0.05) fertilization rate in treated mice (36%) compared to control mice (56%). It is conclusion that frozen sperm can be used without compromising pregnancy chances.

Detection of methicillin or multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in locally produced raw milk and soft cheese in Baghdad markets

Ali Hassan Ahmed AL-Shammary; Manal Hadi Ghaffoori Kanaan

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 226-231

In order to investigate the presence of methicillin or multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in food-chain especially Cows raw milk and white raw soft cheese and its whey, a total of 30 samples were collected randomly from different markets in Baghdad Province during December 2012 till February 2013, in which samples were analyzed by a standard isolation protocols of food microbiology with some modification processing by new, modern and rapid technology tools such as chromogenic medium Baird-Parker agar, Electronic RapIDTM Staph Plus Code Compendium Panel System (ERIC®) Dryspot Staphytect Plus and Penicillin Binding Protein (PBP2') Plus assays; as well as, studying the susceptibility of isolates to different selected antibiotics. The results profile showed isolation, identification, confirmation and enumeration of 10 (33.4%) isolates of MRSA as 4 (13.4%) isolates from raw milk and 6 (20%) isolates from white raw soft cheese with its whey. These findings suggest presence of MRSA type in locally produced raw milk and soft cheeses in Baghdad markets thus recommended to monitoring these products periodically to inshore public health.

Behavioral and analgesic effect of acepromazine maleate, lidocaine hydrochloride alone or in combination of them in lumbosacral epidural injection in sheep

Ibrahim M. Najm

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 232-236

The aim of the present study was to investigate the analgesic effect of Acepromazine 0.05 mg. /kg B. w. and Lidocaine 0.5 mg/kg each alone or in combinations on the flank region in sheep after giving the drugs by lumbosacral injection. Fifteen healthy adult local breed sheep of both sexes weighting (17.50-30 kg) were used. Sheep were divided into three equal groups. Group (A), Acepromazine, group (B) Lidocaine, and group (C) Acepromazine and Lidocaine mixture. Data were collected immediately before administration of drugs (zero time) as control data. Parameters were included clinical measures: Heart Rate, Respiratory Rate, Rectal Temperature, Scores of analgesia of the flank, low abdomen, perineum, tail, hind limbs, fore limb, at time 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 minutes after administration of drugs. The results revealed significant differences in flank, perineum, tail, low abdomen, and hind limbs analgesia, in which mild analgesia in group (B) at 10 to 50 minutes, and moderate analgesia in it group (C) combination at 10 to 50 minutes but no analgesic effect in group (A). In conclusion indicated that group (C) more effective than group (A) and group (B) alone and there was non-significant difference in rectal body temperature between animal groups, but significant differences in heart rate, respiratory rate.

Morphological changes of descending testes during postnatal developmental stages in the Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

Ammar Ismail; Mahdi Abdul kareem Atyia

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 237-243

This study was conducted to elucidate the morphological changes of the testis of the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) during the postnatal life. The animals were divided in to seven age groups, eight animals for each group. The age of these groups were (1, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 days). The mean weights, volume, length, width, and thickness of both left and right testes were recorded. The positions of testes in all ages were described. The results showed the testes were found at sub lumber region at one day postnatally, moved and start ingress the inguinal canal at 15 days of age, and mostly located moving in the inguinal canals and near to the developing scrotum between 30 and 60 days. This become completely within the scrotum at 90 days. The testes weight showed sharply increasing at 15 days. Then continued grew gradually, until 90 days of age when the greatest growth rate. After 90 days of life the testicular weight show slower rate of growing to reach adult weight at 150 days.

Anatomical and Radiographic study of the Portal and Hepatic Veins in Ovis Aris and Capras Hircus

S. Al- Sadi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 244-250

The main purpose of this study was to convey a more precise explanation of the intrahepatic pattern of the tributaries of portal and hepatic veins in sheep and goats. Also to give broad information on the portal and hepatic vein and there topographic relation that may give a useful base for the hepatic segmentation, aiming to provide a correct base for surgical procedures and liver transplantation. Twelve livers collected from adult sheep and goats of both sexes. The portal and hepatic veins were studied by using cross dissection, corrosion cast and radiographic examination. Subject of this investigation show the portal vein of the sheep is slightly narrower than that of the goat. Also the pattern of intrahepatic branches of portal vein in sheep is similar to that of goat. on reaching the portal hepatic, gave of a right dorsal interlobular branch and then terminate into a right ventral interlobular and left interlobular branches , the right dorsal interlobular branch was short and large, supplied the caudate process and right dorsal hepatic lobe .The right ventral interlobular branch is distributed only in the ventral part of the right lobe, while the left branch was long and narrow, supplied the left and quadrate lobes as well as the papillary process, However the caudate process receives the separate branch from the parotid vein in goat. Moreover, the study revealed that the hepatic veins in sheep and goats can be classified into two groups ; large and small , the work also shows that there are (3-4) large hepatic veins in sheep, while in goats usually gives off a left large branch and two smaller right and intermediate branches, and in both animals the hepatic vein, pour in the caudal vena cava independently, the veins of the left, right and intermediate lobes empty themselves close to each other, while of these of the caudate and papillary processes open separately and a way from hepatic veins.

Isolation and Identification of Fungi from Wounds and Burns of Human and Farm Animals

Hayder Abd Ali Neamah AL-Tameemi; Jenan Mahmood Khalaf

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 251-256

This study was conducted to isolate and identify the fungi that infect burn wounds in humans and acquired wounds or wounds resulted from surgical operation in farm animals. A total of 110 cotton swabs, 60 cotton swabs were collected from wounds to 6 kinds of farm animals, which include 10 swabs for each type of these animals (cattle, sheep, goats, cats, dogs, donkeys). As well as 50 swabs were collected from human burns. All these samples were cultured onto Sabouraud dextrose agar (oxoid, England) to detect fungi in wounds of humans and animals in Baghdad city.Identification of Yeasts were done by use RapID™ Yeast Plus System (remel, USA), While the Identification of moulds were done in the Central Public Health Laboratory, depending on the macroscopic appearance of the colony and microscopic examination. Growth was positive for 49 (81.66%) cases of the total 60 wounds swabs. Which detect etiological fungi that infect wounds of animals were as follows: Trichosporon beigelii 6 (10%), Candida parapsilosis 2 (3.33%), Yarrowia lipolytica 1 (1.66%), prototheca zopfii 1 (1.66%), Candida lambica 1 (1.66%), Aspergillus flavus 7 ( 11.66%), Penicillum 6 (10%), Rhizopus 6 (10%) , Aspergillus niger 5 ( 8.33%), Trichophyton rubrum 5 (8.33%), Mucor 5 (8.33%), Alternaria 4 (6.66%), Aspergillus fumigates 2 (3.33%), Aspergillus terrus 2 (3.33%), Epidermophyton floccosum 2 (3.33%) , Helminthosporium 1 (1.66%), Geotricum 1 (1.66%), Fusarium 1 (1.66%). As well as the growth was positive for 37 (74%) cases of 50 swabs taken from the burns in humans. They were found that the causative agent of burns wounds in humans were: Candida albicans 3 (6%), Yarrowia lipolytica 2 (4%), Trichosporon beigelii 1 (2%), Cryptococcus albidus 1 (2%), Prototheca zopfii 1 (2%), Candida guilliermondii 1 (2%), Aspergillus niger 6 (12%), Aspergillus flavus 4 (8%), Aspergillus fumigates 3 (6%), Penicillum 5 (10%), Rhizopus 3 (6%), Alternaria 2(4%), Fusarium 1 (2%), Trichophyton rubrum 1 (2%), Mucor 1 (2%), Helminthosporium 1 (2%), Geotrichum 1 (2%). Drug susceptibility test was done by using disc diffusion method onto Muller Hinton agar, in this study use 5 types of antifungal disc were used (Amphotrecin B, Nystatin, Fluconazole, Ketoconazole, Itraconazole).

Biochemical study on the effect of Toxoplasma gondii on Liver function in Women

Salwa Suber Muhsin; Eman Hussain Jafar; Nasser Sadaq Jafar

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 257-260

The aim of this study was to detect the effect of toxoplasmosis on some liver enzyme activity such as bilirubin concentration, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) in serum. Twenty hundred and fifty women were examining by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). One hundred and thirty-four were infected with toxoplasmosis with different number of abortion (1-4) times were used in this work. All Serum ALT and AST activities were increased and ALP and total bilirubin level decreased in infected women below the normal value. The analysis of the plasma enzyme distribution pattern suggests that liver cell damage occurred during virulent and low virulent infection, leads to be inflated cells as provided and expansion in Central necrosis of hepatic veins and damage in various parts of the liver.

Low oocyte quality related with the aging ewes

Abbas Musa Ali; Saad Akram Hatif

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 261-265

This study was conducted to know the effect of ewe age on oocyte quality as well as the relations between oocyte viability and normal uterine condition. Eighty three (83) reproductive systems of non-pregnant ewes were collected from Al-shulla abattoir. The Total oocytes were aspirated from right ovaries reached 61.45% and 38.55% from left ovaries. Immediately after aspiration, the oocytes were examined by light microscopic and conceded as mature if surrounded completely with cumulus oopherus. While the stained oocytes by trypan blue were conceded as dead oocytes and excluded. According to ewes age the oocytes were classified into (3) groups, the first group ranged between 1-2 years, second group 3-6 years and the third group over 6 years. The total oocyte collection from these groups was 20, 23, 40 oocyte. The results indicated that 14 oocytes (70%), 17(73.91%) and 10(25%) from groups 1, 2, and 3 with cumulus cells, respectively. While the total live oocyte reached to 60. Normal endometrium was observed in 90%, 95% and 80%for 1,2and 3 groups respectively. It was concluded from this study that aged ewes showed low quality oocyte with infertile endometrium.

Macroscopic study of Lesions Affecting Genital Tract of Iraqi Ewes

Khammas D.J; Ibrahim N.S; Buni F.E; Alwan A.F

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 266-268

A total of 660 genital tract of adult ewes slaughtered at Baghdad Abattoirs, were examined for the gross pathological conditions .One hundred thirty three (20.22%) of them showed different type of abnormalities of the total genital examined, 157 (23.87%) were pregnant and the rest 503 were non-pregnant ones. Eighteen (11.46%) of the pregnant and 115 (22.86%) of the no pregnant genitalia showed pathological conditions, Ovarobursal adhesions 51(7.72%) and paraovarian cysts 35(5.31%) were the most common abnormalities recorded. In conclusion: Such kind of abnormalities observe in genitalia slaughtered ewe could be considered as the causes of temporary infertility or permanent sterility, never the less, the percentage of slaughtered pregnant ewes was too high.

Comparative study of Equine Chorionic Gonadotropine and Licorice Extract (Glycyrrhiza Glabra) on the some Reproductive Traits in Awassi Ram Lambs

Salah M. Al-Shammary; Ihsan H. AL-Timimi; Ahmad A. Al-Ani

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 269-274

This study was conducted to find out the effect of licorice extract and eCG on the some reproductive traits in Awassi ram lambs. This study was conducted on State Board for Agriculture Researches, Animal Researches station. Twenty four Awassi ram lambs at the age of 67-77 days were randomly divided into four groups according to the lambing date as follow: Group (A) was injected with eCG 300 I.U /lamb/week. Group (B) was treated with licorice 300 mg/kg B.W/week orally. Group(C) also was treated licorice 400 mg/kg B.W/week orally. Group (D) were kept as a control group. Testes measurements were taken at the 12th week of the study period. The level of testosterone hormone was measured at monthly intervals. Age of puberty, number of mounts/successful ejaculation were recorded. Testes measurements length and depth of right and left of animal in groups B and C showed significantly (P< 0.05) higher values than the control and group A. Width of the right and left testes of lambs in all groups did not record significant differences. Circumferences of the testes showed higher (P< 0.05) values in group B compared to other groups. Serum testosterone concentration increased in all animals during the experimental periods but group B and C showed significantly (P< 0.05) higher values than other groups. Age of puberty and sperm production of the lambs in the control group showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher values compared with all groups, but group A recorded significantly (P< 0.05) higher values compared with groups B and C, while groups B and C recorded significantly (P< 0.05) lower age of puberty compared with groups A and control. The number of Mounts/successful ejaculate decreased with progress of age in all groups, while the control group recorded significantly (P< 0.05) higher number than other treated groups. Group B recorded significantly (P< 0.05) lower values than A and C groups.

Experimental study of Otitis media with Pseudomonas aerugenonsa in mice and treated with alcoholic cold extract of dandelion compared with used of otucalm drops and Lactobacillus acidophilus

Narjis A. Al-khafaji

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 275-283

This study has revealed the importance of natural herbal products to control antibiotics resistant bacteria which are being a threat to human and animal health and focused on antibacterial potential of aqueous infusion of Dandelion alcoholic cold extract against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The experimental studies include (18) healthy mice were randomly divided in to 6 equal groups, all 5th group injected with P. aerugenosa 106CFU/ ml (0.05 ml) except 6th group which injected with phosphate buffer saline (control negative). 1st group killed after 48hr of injection, 2nd group treated with otucalm, 3rd treated with Dandelion cold alcoholic extract, 4th group treated with Dandelion locally and lactobacillus acidophilus orally, 5th group injected with bacteria (control positive) and killed after the end of the experiment. The result showed that the 4th group was the best group show the highly sensitive effect in vitro and no clear pathological lesion and increase the immunity and health of animal in vivo compare with other groups. Dandelion showed nontoxic effect and non-combination with other drugs and significantly increased the ability of P. aerugenosa isolated from otitis media it’s more pathogenic than bacteria isolated from others organs in the same animals.

The relationship between the site of infection and virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa experimental infection in mice

Methaq Galib Abd Al-Rubai

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 284-293

The aims of this study were to investigate the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa depending on infection site from otitis media in mice and compared with inter peritoneal infection. Suspension of bacteria was prepared in three doses(103, 106and108 ) CFU/ml live attenuated P. aeruginosa from otitis media and peritoneum infection of mice were tested in sixty healthy mice (White PALB/C), which randomly divided in two groups, first group isolated from otorrhea of otitis media , second group isolated from interperitonium infection. Both groups were subdivided in to 5 groups, each subgroup have 6 mice, were infected orally, subcutaneous , urinary tract and eye infection with 0.5 ml of bacterial suspension. While the 5th group was control negative. The present study found that the adhesion of P. aeruginosa isolated from otitis media isolates to mice epithelial cell was significantly increased compared with the isolates from peritoneal infection, the resistance to infection showed multiple resistances of otitis media isolates to antibiotics more than peritoneum isolates.

Case report: the First Diagnosis of Rabies in Iraq by using Direct Immunofluorescence Antibody Test

Majida Saeed Abdullah; Mazin Mahdi Naji

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2013, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 294-297

Rabies was diagnosed for the first time in Iraq in clinically suspected rabid ewe and dog (from Al-Basra governorate) by using the Direct Immunofluorescence Antibody Test (DFA). Fluorescent microscope inspection showed positive Rabies virus inclusions ranged between +3 to +4 scales, fluorescence, green apple in color, and dust or stars like particles scattered all over the tissue impression. Also the viral inclusions appeared round to oval in shape with different sizes which represent the typical morphology of the Rabies virus- antibody conjugates in DFA.