Print ISSN: 1609-5693

Online ISSN: 2410-7409

Volume 38, Issue 1

Volume 38, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2014, Page 1-136

The influence of whole sonicated Pseudomonas aeruginosa antigens on experimental p. aeruginosa arthritis in rabbits

Mohammed J. Alwan; Ahmed Q. Al-Awadi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 1-10

To study the influence of whole sonicated Pseudomonas aeruginosa antigens (WSPAgs) on experimental arthritis induced by this bacteria, 15 rabbits were divided into 3 equal groups. The 1st group was inoculated intraarticular with 0.2 ml of p. aeruginosa suspension (2×108 cfu/ml), the 2nd group was immunized with WSP Ags, and inoculated intraarticular as in the 1st group. The 3rd group was served as negative control group. At 30 day post inoculation the immunized (2nd) group showed increase in the cellular (DTH and IFN-γ) and humeral (IgG) immunity and moderate bacterial isolation from joints, blood and internal organs comparing with other groups. The 1st group showed sever symptoms and inflammatory reaction as well as very obvious gross and microscopical lesions in their joints including supportive reaction, pyogranulomatous lesions, necrosis, pannus reaction and destruction of the articular cartilage and the lesion extended to the subchondral bone leading to osteomyelitis, the 2nd group (immunized group) expressed mild to moderate inflammatory reaction and the microscopic examination indicate that the lesion was confined in the articular capsule. In conclusion the whole Pseudononas aeruginosa sonicated Ags (WSPAgs) protect the joint from the experimental infection by P. aeruginosa in a rabbit model.

Comparative immunizing status between repeated experimental infestation and injection of salivary glands extract of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum in sheep

A.F.M.AL-Taee; L.Y.K.AL-Hyali

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 1-8

This study have been clarified the role of the repeated infestation with hard tick Hyalomma anatolican anatolicun and the use of native tick salivary glands extract in triggering the immunization of sheep. The study of native salivary glands using sodium dodocide sulphate polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis revealed that it consist of three bands (a, b and c) with molecular weight 67000, 65604, and 55531 Dalton respectively. For evaluation of immunization responses in sheep against hard tick including the nonspecific immunity which showed superiority in the absolute number phagositic cells in immunized group over that of the fifth group when determined from the first week till the end of the experiment 1294.03  30.91 ; 461.07± 10,88 and 1585.50 
41.93 ; 1523,39  55,04 respectively. In the same order were the results of immunity which represented as hypersensitivity skin reactions, using skin there was higher intensive immediate type of it in the immunized group than that of the fifth infestation one after 30 minutes of injection with native salivary glands extract and were (77.2%,75.3%) respectively. Modified ELISA test was used for evaluation for measuring of humeral immunity that showed a significant elevation of absorbance intensity of the antibodies against salivary glands extract in the immunized group than the fifth infestation one 0.188, 0.139 respectively

Isolation of staphylococcus aureus from different affections in cows and study its virulence and sensitivity to antibiotics. A comparative study

Majid Mohammed Mahmood

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 9-14

The study was conducted to detect the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in different affections like abscesses, acute mastitis, diarrhea, urinary tract infection, and cough in cows, with evaluation their virulence and antibiotic sensitivity test ; therefore, 162 different samples were collected then cultured on brain heart infusion (BHI) broth , subcultured on blood agar and mannitol salt agar. Moreover, gram stain was done and a set of biochemical tests as well as sugar fermentation tests. Furthermore, mice were injected 0.5 ml of 1.2 × 109 cfu/ml intraperitoneally (I/P) with bacterial suspension and antibiotic sensitivity test was applied. Results showed isolation of 79 (48.77%) S. aureus isolates out of 162 as a total which included 7 isolates (31.82%) out of 22 abscesses' samples, 31 isolates (55.36%) out of 56 milk samples from acute mastitis, 17 isolates (41.46%) out of 41 fecal samples, 9 isolates (36.00%) out of 25 vaginal swabs, and 15 isolates (83.33%) out of 18 sputum samples. The colonies presented as rounded, smooth, convex, shiny, β-hemolytic, and shown gram +ve diplococci, quadrates or grape like under light microscope, whereas colonies seen on mannitol salt agar as small, spherical, smooth, convex, yellowish in color which cover all background of plate. Results of biochemical tests revealed that all isolates were +ve to the following : catalase, slide and tube coagulase (except 2 isolates from milk) nitrate reduction test, (O-F glucose), gelatin hydrolysis test (except 3 isolates) Methyl Red – Voges Proskauer (MR-VP), urease, acid phosphatase, and variable to DNase production test, however all isolates were negative to oxidase and indol. The isolates fermented glucose, sucrose, maltose, fructose, trehalose, lactose, mannitol, mannose, galactose, ribose, while they were negative to xylose and arabinose. The results of virulence test revealed death of majority number of mice within first 24 hours after I/P injection which was demonstrated strongly in the isolates of diarrhea. Finally, the results of antibiotic sensitivity show high resistance against different types of broad spectrum antibiotics except Azithromycin and Doxycycline which were sensitive. It can be concluded that S. aureus could be found in different affections of cows and they do not respond to the treatment with classical antibiotics because of their virulence. Therefore, random uses of antibiotics must be avoided.

Use of PCR technique for direct detection of Brucella spp. from milk of sheep and cattle

Basima Jassim Al-Gurabi; Haifaa Jimaa Al-Hasnawi; Hassan Hachim Naser

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 11-14

Brucella spp are important food pathogen those can be infected the human-being during consumption of contaminated milk and milk products from sheep, goats, and cattle with Brucella spp. In this study the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for direct detection of Brucella spp. from milk of sheep and cattle were employed to amplify 233bp product of highly conserved regions of BCSP31 gene encoding a 31-KDa cell surface protein in B. melitensis and B. abortus. The results showed that the sheep were more frequent for shedding of Brucella spp in their milk, where appeared (6/50 samples) at (12%). Whereas the cattle appeared less frequency for shedding of Brucella in their milk, which showed (2/50 samples) at (4%). It can be concluded that PCR technique is highly sensitive and specific technique for direct detection of Brucella from milk and the sheep and cattle can be shedding the Brucella in their milk. Therefore, the contaminated milk with Brucella spp may have dangerous effect on public health, when consumed by human.

The synergistic bactericidal effects of bacteriocin and pressurization against E.coli O157:H7 in raw milk

Namariq Ahmed Daher; Najim Hadi Najim

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 15-23

Colonies of E.coli O157:H7 were isolated from 35 raw milk sample and their identification were confirmed based on biochemical reactions and both cultural and serological characteristics. Presumptive E.coli O157:H7 isolates obtained by selective plating on both CT-SMAC and Chromogenic agars were further tested serologically for the presence of both O157 and H7 antigenes using the commercial available latex agglutination test kit. The unhygienic practices in the production of milk in Al-Thahab Al- Abiedh , Abu-Graib, Al-Zedan and Khan Dharie were reflected on the highest significant (p<0.01)prevalence level of contamination with E.coli O157:H7 that appeared to be 80%, 80%, 60% and60% respectively. Homogenization pressure of 1000 psi and 2000 psi for five passes had significantly (p<0.05) influenced the inactivation degree of E.coli O157:H7 in both whole milk and nutrient broth. Milk homogenized at a pressure level of 3000 psi for three passes and 4000 psi for two passes resulted in a further increase of the antimicrobial effectiveness and produced an additional significant (p<0.05) reduction of E.coli O157:H7. Complete elimination (inactivation) of viable E.coli O157:H7 was achieved when cultured whole milk was homogenized at pressure level of 5000 psi for a single pass. Agar well diffusion bioassay was used for the evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the crude bacteriocin produced by L.acidophilus LA-K against E.coli O157:H7. Enterohaemorrhagic E.coli O157:H7 expressed its resistance to the crude bacteriocin since it did not show any inhibition zone around each well treated with bacteriocin. The average diameters of the inhibition zones of crude bacteriocin against stressed E.coli O157:H7 by pressurization at 4000 psi, 3000 psi, 2000 psi and 1000 psi were 14 mm, 12mm, 10mm and 8mm respectively. The homogenization pressure level (moderate or high) had significantly (p<0.05) influenced the inactivation degree of the crude bacteriocin against the stressed E.coli O157:H7 by pressurization. Quantitative measurement of crude bacteriocin antimicrobial activity was determined by using photometric or turbidometric method. The results revealed that no growth of stressed E.coli O157:H7 with no visible turbidity in the nutrient broth with bacteriocin that diluted to 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 were observed. Bacteriocin that diluted to 1/8 which resulted in no visible turbidity after overnight of incubation at 37C° and gave an optical density reading of 1.448.

Comparative Study Of Hair Density Means And Correction Factor Mean Of Hair Density Of Shami Goat And Black Goat In Mosul Province

M. H. Abdulraheem; A. N. Abduljawaad

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 15-19

The research aimed to study the hair density means and the correction factor mean for the skin of Shami goat and to compare it with those of Black goat, as well as make a comparison of hair density for the another type. To achieve this goal, the hair density and the correction factor were measured in ten different areas from the skin of each two species of animals. Specimens of skin were taken from ten animals (five Shami goat) and (five Black goat) aged about(1-2) year and all animals were healthy clinically in November. Real hair density for asymmetrical areas were significantly varied between the 2 types of animals. Hair density in all studied areas in Black goat ranged about (8.89 25.51) mm2 and it was higher than that of Shami goat (8.53 24.81) mm2 with the exception in the area of ventral surface of the tail which emerged hair density in goat largest of them in black goat and was (5.83, 3.92) mm2 for goats Shami goats and black, respectively, and generally the hair density in areas dorsal surfaces and lateral of the limbs and the front is higher than in abdominal area and medial surfaces of the limbs for both species .

Study of pathological changes of experimentally Subacute selenium toxicity in Awasiy lambs

W.A.Gh; Al- Dulaimy; Al- Judi; A.H; AL-Samarrae; S. A.G

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 20-25

10 Awasiy male lambs (4-6) month of age and body weight ranged between (16-26) Kg. ,were divided equally randomly to two groups ,1st group were subacute selenium toxicity and the 2nd group were control.
Subacute selenium toxicity was induced by using sodium selenite as solution in daily oral dose for 8 weeks ,results of macroscopic examination to the 1st group revealed :ascitis ,hydropericardium ,flappy heart ,congestion of brain ,kidney and lung .As well as ,results of microscopic examination to the 1st group revealed in liver :acute cellular swelling ,degeneration and focal infiltration of neutrophils and inflammatory cells in the central vein .While the lung revealed :congestion ,dilation of alveolar capillaries and filled with blood and hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue and emphysema .While kidney revealed :degenerative changes ,congestion of blood vessels and medullary calcification .Brain revealed :demylenation .And spleen revealed :hyperplasia of white pulp and red pulp ,infiltration of neutrophils and congestion of blood sinuses .While the heart revealed :infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages between muscle fibers .And the muscles revealed hyaline degeneration and infiltration of inflammatory cells .And the tongue revealed vacuolation of epithelium with multiple cellular aggregations surrounded by fibrous connective tissue capsule .While testis revealed complete suppression of spermatogenesis ,hydropic degeneration and vacuolation of spermatogonia if it is found.
While the results of macroscopic examination to the 2nd group revealed no pathological singes noted ,and results of microscopic examination were normal .From all above this study concluded that toxicity of selenium effect negatively on meat health and so it will be not suitable for human consumption.

Effect of age and season on the Epididymal Sperm and testosterone level in camel (camelus dromedarius

Najlaa S. Ibrahim; Ali A. Abd

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 24-29

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of age and season on the epididymal sperm and level of testosterone in camel. A total 103 camel testes samples were collected from Al-Najaf slaughter house during a cold season (December 2012, January and February 2013) and moderate-hot season (March, April and May, 2013). Testes were divided into 3 Gs according to camel age, G1 included the testes of 2-3years, G 2 (3 – 4years) and over 4 years (G 3). Blood samples were collected for determination of serum testosterone level. The sperms were obtained from the tail of epididymis from all animals groups and the results of the sperms individual motility percentage was increased at the level of (P< 0.05) significantly with age progress in both seasons. Also, sperm motility of G3 recorded a significantly higher than those of G1 and G2 in cold and moderate-hot seasons .The live percentage of G 3 animals was 90.01% in cold season with a significantly higher than those of other Gs and in both seasons. However, the live sperm percentage of G 3 during moderate-hot season was 87.82% and G 2 during moderate-hot and cold seasons were 88.58 and 88.72% respectively, showed significantly higher than those of G1 during cold and moderate-hot seasons .The concentration of sperm obtained from epididymis tail of bulls camel significantly increase with age progress in both seasons. However, the mean of the sperm concentration in cold season showed significance higher than those in moderate-hot season in animals of G 1 and 3, respectively. The abnormal morphologically sperm percentage of animals G 1 in both cold and moderate-hot seasons were significantly higher than those of G3.The testosterone levels of the young animals (under 4 years) increased gradually and reached its peak in February 2.28 ng/ml and March 2.27ng/ml. In the same trend older animal (more than 4 years) was showed 8.14 and 7.35 ng/ml, respectively. The older animals showed a significantly monthly, higher values than those of the younger animals in their testosterone level started from January up to May. In conclusions during cold months the camel over 4 years shows higher percentage of epididymal sperms parameters (live and individual motility) and sperms concentration as well as serum testosterone level.
Keywords: Camel,

Pathological Effects of Endosulfan Pesticide on Common Carp Cyprinus carpio

Abdulmotalib J.Al-Rudainy; Enaam B. Faleh; and Mohammed H.Kadhim

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 26-31

The present study done at the college of Veterinary Medicine University of Baghdad. The chronic toxic effects of endosulfan was investigated with conferments on histopathological effect of infected organ in Cyprinus carpio. Different concentrations of endosulfan 0.0001 µg/L, 0.0002µg/L, 0.0003µg/L, 0.0004µg/L and 0.0005µg/L were used to study the chronic effects of endosulfan exposure to 60 fingerlings for 90 days in fish organs mainly gills, liver, kidney, muscles and brain.Histopathological changes in gills characterized by lamellar fusion, extensive odema of primary lamellar epithelium, telengiectasis of secondary lamellar as well as severe destructive changes of epithelial lamellae while or diffuse necrosis, congestion with marked mononuclear cells infiltrate mainly surrounding bile duct. Kidneys results varying degrees of tubular necrosis with severe congestion and hemosiderosis together with melanomacrophage infiltration.
Muscular tissues showed fragmentation and separation of muscle bundles with intramuscular odema with necrotic changes accompanied with distortion of surviving structure. Severe vascular changes were seen in all organs including brain with severe vacuolar changes (spongiosis) of neurons

Effects of soluble ß-glucan on the immune responses of broiler chickens vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine and reared under heat stress

Ihab Ahmed Naser; Nidhal Raoof Mahdi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 30-39

The main objectives of this study was to determine the influence of soluble β-glucan extracted from the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on immune response of broiler chickens reared under heat stress .β-glucan 225μg/ml was supplemented in drinking water to broiler chicken vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. The parameters of the assessment of the immune response was the Heterophil / Lymphocyte ratio as a measure of stress, determination of the serum antibody titer post vaccination with the NDV vaccine by ELISA test and Immunohistochemical detection of macrophages by using monoclonal antibodies (mouse anti-chicken macrophage KUL01). A hundred and twenty (120) Chickens one day old were divided into two equal groups; group under heat stress and group control; each group was divided into two subgroups (G1, G2, G3 and G4) containing thirty chicks. The experiment was conducted for six weeks. The stressed group exposed to heat stress (≃35ºC) starting from the third week of age upto the end of the experiment. While (Group 1) and (G3) chicks were supplemented with 225μg/ml of soluble β-glucan in drinking water from day 1 to the end of the experiment, while (G2 and G4) chicks were not supplemented. The result of Heterophil /Lymphocyte ratio indicates that there was a significant (P < 0.05) difference within heat stressed treated which showed an elevated H/L ratio at 21,28 and 35 days old. Also there was a significant (P < 0.05) difference between groups that were treated with β-glucan (G1, G3) at 21, 28 and 32 days of age compared with a control non treated non stressed group (G4) at same periods. The results of antibody titer to NDV showed that there were significant (P < 0.05) differences among all groups at 7, 14 and 21 days of age, and the results of immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated positive staining for duodenal and bursal macrophages labeled with KUL-01 mouse anti-chicken monocyte- macrophages monoclonal antibodies. Tissue sections of duodenum and bursa at 14 and 24 days old stressed and non-stressed groups treated with β-glucan showed a positive result (purple-brown staining macrophages) in G1 and G3 as compared with duodenal and bursal tissues of G2 and G4groups which showed no stained cells.

A Comparative Study between Inverting and Appositional Suture Patterns for Cystotomy Closure in Dog

Natheria B. Khwaf; Rahi N. Al-Asadi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 40-47

The present study is designed to evaluate two sutures pattern techniques (inverting and
appositional) for urinary bladder closure following experimental cystotomy in dogs. Thirty two adult
local breed males’ dogs were enrolled for this study, aged 1-3 years and weighing 18-23 kg. Dogs
were randomly allocated into two equal groups. In the first group, cystotomies were closed via
double-layers of continuous inverting suture pattern (Lambert and Cushing); while, in the second
group, bladders incisions were closed by single-layer appositional suture pattern (simple interrupted)
which did not involve the mucosa (extra-mucosal). Synthetic absorbable suture material polydiaxnone
PDS 3/0 was used to close the bladder in all experimental animal groups. Surgery was done
under the effect of general anesthesia using a combination of ketamine at a dose rate of 15mg/kg and
xylazine at a dose 5mg/kg B.W. Dogs were premedicated by atropine sluphate at a dose 0.03mg/kg.
All drugs administered intramuscularly. There were highly significant (P <0.05) differences in
operative times between the two groups. In inverting group, the time was 40 ± 4.50 minutes which
was higher than that recorded for appositional group 25±2.50 minutes. The animals were followedup
clinically during the studied period to record the secondary complications. Results reflected
hematuria n=4, swelling of the operative site n=3 and urinary incontinence n=2. These complications
were transient and disappeared in a short time. Also macroscopical and microscopical examinations
were performed at 3,7,14 and 21 days post-surgery. Four dogs were used for each period. The main
macroscopical finding was slight to moderate adhesions n = 3 between omentum and the wall of
urinary bladder in both group. Microscopical examination of urinary bladder reflected earlier
urolithium formation in appositional pattern (14 days) while inverted group (21 days). In conclusion,
appositional pattern is technically easier and economic. Bladder regeneration was accomplished
within 14 days in comparison with inverting pattern which reflected bladder regeneration at 21 days

The off feeding intervals effect on some performance traits of broilers

G.Y. Butris; S. Kh. Ahmed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 48-55

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feed restricted (off-feeding intervals) on feed intake, water intake, body weight gain, growth rate, feed conversion ratio, mortality, and dressing percentage of broilers. Two hundred fourty, one day old unsexed, (Ross 308) broiler chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups. Each group included three replicates each one had 20 birds. Those assigned as; Control group (T1): birds were fed ad libtium, T2 group feed removed from 8 Am. to 4 Pm., T3 group feed removed from 4 Pm. to 8 Am., T4 group feed removed 8 Am. to 8Am. (skip-a day) all birds were allowed to access feed for above intervals for 8-21 days of age, and re-full fed for the remaining of experiment period 42 days. The results indicated that feed restriction system did significantly (P<0.05) affect live body weight, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio on starter diet period. Feed restriction significantly P<0.05 reduced feed consumption accompanied with water consumption positively correlated, decreases mortality in restriction period and at marketing, and increase dressing percentage, improved characteristics of carcasses at marketing age, the compensatory growth may be appeared after re-full free feeding for restricted groups to reach a close the market weight as control group., that was indicated by an increase in growth rate post feed restriction period especially at week (6th) as compared with the control group.

The validation of transrectal palpation of genital organs versus hormonal and post slaughter gross findings in bovine

Radhi K.K; Khamas D.J

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 56-61

This study was conducted on sixty seven cows of different breeds and ages (non-descriptive cows). The female genital organs were examined carefully through the rectum before slaughter. Blood samples were also collected prior to slaughter to estimate the levels of progesterone and estrogen level. Gross examination of the same genital organs was approved post slaughter. A comparison has been done to assess the accuracy of rectal palpation for diagnosis of some normal and abnormal conditions. The incidence of findings in rectal palpation were 39 (58.2%) normal non-pregnant, 16 (23.88%) normal pregnant and 12 (17.91%) abnormal conditions. While the findings in gross examination were 32 (47.76%) , 18 (26.86%) and 17 (25.37%), respectively , giving a total error of 20.5% divided in to 10.04% for the normal non-pregnant cows , 3% for the normal pregnant cows and 7.46% for the abnormal conditions. In comparison hormonal levels of estrogen and progesterone were highly suggestive to the gross findings. In conclusion, the validity of rectal examination and diagnosis of various conditions in the genital organs was approximately 80%, which is not suggestive and accurate enough to compare with the hormonal and gross findings.

The Role of Pometone (Pomegranate seed oil) in Ameliorating the Deleterious Effect of Methionine Overload on Some Histological Aspects of heart and aorta in Female Rabbits (Part-II)

Lekaa Najim Abdulla; Baraa Najim Al-Okaily

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 62-70

This experiment was aimed to investigate the role of pomegranate seed oil (PSO) in ameliorating the deleterious effects of methionine overload on some histopathological structure of heart and aorta in adult female rabbits. Thirty-Two female rabbits divided into four groups eight animals each, and treated for 42 days daily as follows: the first groups were drenched drinking corn oil, serving as control (group C), second group (group T1) were intubated orally with methionine 100mg/kg. B.W, while the third group (groupT2) were intubated orally with methionine 100mg/kg. B.W and pomegranate seed oil (PSO) 30 mg /Kg. B.W, and the animals in group T3 were intubated orally with pomegranate seed oil 30 mg /Kg. B.W. At the end of the experiment rabbits were sacrificed. Serial sections from the heart and aorta were prepared and examined microscopically. Histological examination of heart and aorta of methionine overload treated group (T1) showed edema ,RBCs and few neutrophils infiltration ,with vacuolar degeneration of cardiac muscle cells , fragment of muscle fiber, congested blood vessels between muscle fibers. An increase in thickness of intima, erosion and mononuclear cells infiltration in sub intima of aorta were also observed. Histological sections of heart and aorta in T2 and T3 groups showed the absence of histopathological lesions in aortic tissue with moderate edema between muscle fiber of T2 group as comparing to group T1. In conclusion, the results confirm the cardioprotective role of pomegranate seed oil by ameliorating the effect of methionine overload on cardiac muscle and aorta.

Postpartum uterine prolapse and its relationto hypocalcaemia in local ewes in Basrah province

Tahir A. Fahid

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 71-73

This study was performed on a farm contain local ewes in Basra provinces, 10 of them were
selected during 24 hours after lambing. Fiveof the ewes suffering from uterine prolapse
(treated group), and other five ewes didn't show uterine prolapse (control group). The study showsa
relation between the calcium serum level and incidence of uterine prolapse after lambing.The result
of study indicated that,a low level of calcium in the serum of treated group (2.29±0.33 mg/dl) as
compared with the level of the calcium in the serum of the control group (6.52±0.30). The results
indicated that the calcium deficiency , hypocalcaemia, late in geststion and at the lambing time
might be lead to uterine prolapse in ewes.

Protective Role of Pomegranate Peel Extract on Testis in Adult Male Rabbits Treated with Carbon Tetrachloride

Jawad K.Arrack; Wassan M. Hussen

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 74-82

The aim of the present study is to prepare ethanol extract of Pomegranate peel and the effects of
this extract on testicular weight to body weight ratio, Serum cholesterol, testosterone concentration
and histopathological changes of testes in rabbits treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Twenty
four adult male rabbits were used. They were divided randomly into four equal groups. Animals
were treated for 56 days as following: Rabbits of the 1st group were received 1 ml distal water orally
once a day and olive oil 0.5 ml /kg B.W. I.P twice a week as control group. The second group were
treated I.P with 500mg / kg B.W. of CCl4 mixing with equal volume of olive oil (0.5 ml/kg B.W.)
twice a week (group T1). The third group was received pomegranate peel extract orally
(100 mg/kg B.W) once a day and olive oil 0.5 ml /kg B.W. I.P twice a week (group T2). The fourth
group were received pomegranate peel extract (100 mg/kg B.W) once a day oral I.P with 500 mg /
kg B.W. of CCl4 mixing with equal volume of olive oil (o.5 ml/kg B.W.) twice a week (group T3).
Blood samples were collected at (0, 14, 28, 42 and 56) days for measuring testosterone
concentration, Serum cholesterol after treatments. Animals weighed and scarified and testis were
removed and weighed, Samples of testis were taken for histopathological study. The results of the
present study showed that treatment with pomegranate peel extract causes a significant (P>0.05)
increase in testicular weight to body weight ratio. Also a significant (P>0.05) decreased of serum
cholesterol and a significantly (P>0.05) elevation of testosterone concentration were observed.
Histopathological examination of the testis was revealed that the extract of Pomegranate peel
protect the testis against lesions caused by CCl4. In conclusion, Pomegranate peel extract could
protect the tissue of testicles from CCl4 perhaps, by its anti-oxidative effect of pomegranate peel
extract, hence eliminating the deleterious effects or toxic effect of CCl4

Hematological and Biochemical evaluation after different orally doses of Copper sulfate in rats

Eman H.Y.Al-Taae; Layth A.M. Alsoufi; Nibras H.Al-Tayar; Rajiha A. Al- Naimi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 83-91

Objectives of this study were to evaluate hematological and biochemical parameters in rats ingested toxic doses of CuSO4.5H2O. Thirty six rats divided into 3 equal groups. First group ingested orally distilled water / day for 3 months and considered as control group , second group was drenched 8 mg /kg B.W /day of CuSO4.5H2O for 3 months and considered as Treated group1 (T1). Third group was drenched 40 mg /kg B.W /day of CuSO4.5H2O for 3 months and considered as Treated group2 (T2). Blood collection was done by direct cardiac puncture every month for hematological and biochemical examinations. Hematological parameters showed that anemia caused by CuSO4.5H2O toxicity was of microcytic hypochromic type with significant increase of neutrophils and decrease of lymphocytes and blood platelets. There was significant increase in biochemical parameters , liver enzymes (GOT,GPT,ALP) and total serum protein . It concluded that CuSO4.5H2O poisoning in rats causes significant changes in blood picture and clinical enzyme.

Seropathological Diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii in Stray Cats in Baghdad Province

J. Alwan; Mohammed; R. Jalil; Dhamraa

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 92-98

The current study was performed an investigation in seropositive stray cats with Toxoplasma
gondii and to correlate the results of pathological lesions with seropositive results of the cats. To
achieve these goals, fifty blood samples and specimens from internal organs (liver, spleen, brain,
kidney, intestine and lung) of stray cats were collected from different area of Baghdad Province
during the period 1.10.2011-1.10.2012. Seropositive ELISA-IgG was demonstrated that 66 % of
stray cats while female expressed (75 %) of seropositive ELISA-IgG were higher than male (30% )
and animals with average age 2months showed high percentage of seropositive ELISA-IgG
(100%) as compared with age (adult cat) that expressed( 63.82 %) of seropositive. There was a
significant difference (P≤0.01) among positive cases to anti-Toxoplasma ELISA-IgG. Severe
pathological lesions were noticed in the lungs ,livers and intestines of animals that expressed high
(optical density) (OD) of anti-Toxoplasma IgG ,in addition ,tachyzoits intracytoplasm of alveolar
macrophages and hepatocytes as well as free zoites in alveolar space of the lung, were reported.
Local necrosis with tachyzoites was seen in the brain of the cats, in addition to mineralization. On
bases of the presence of pathological lesions in cats that expressed seropositive anti-Toxoplasma
antibodies, it can be conclude that T.gondii is responsible for the appearance of inflammatory
reaction in the internal organs of cats and there is a correlation between seropositive and
pathological lesions of T.gondii infection and this parasite is highly distributed in Baghdad stray
cats and it may be an important cause of abortion in the women.

Molecular identification by multiplex polymerase chain reaction of Pasteurella multocida in cattle and buffaloes in Baghdad

A. M. H. Al-Judi; Ihab G. M. AL-Shemmari

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 99-106

The aim of this study was to identify pasteurella multocida and their types by PCR in cattle’s and buffaloesi bagdad from March to August 2012 on 204 animals , including 102 cattle and 102 buffaloes at slaughter houses from Baghdad .Blood samples and nasal swaps were collected , before slaughtering and lung tissues of slaughtered animal , and from 54 clinically suspected cases of pasteurellosis , including 27 bovines ,and 27 buffaloes the samples taken included blood and nasal swabs . Pasteurellamultocida were isolated from 94 animals include 49 cattle 45 buffaloes. The typing of the isolates by multiplex PCR for genotyping Pasteuerllamultocida revealed 93 isolates of type B , 31 from cattle and 62 from buffaloes ,and 81 isolates of type A , 55 from cattle and 26 from buffaloes .

Comparative anatomical and histological features of the kidney in Harrier (Circus aueroginosus), Chicken (Gallus domesticus) and Mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos)

A. Ahmed; Myson; S. K; Azhar; Ali; F. Reshag; Dhyaa; Ab.Abood

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 107-113

The aim of this study was to compare anatomical and histological of the kidney in three type of birds. The study revealed that, in harrier species the cranial lobe of kidney was the largest with elongated shape. In mallard the cranial lobe was small round-oval, while middle and caudal lobe were lobulated and larger .In chicken the caudal lobe was the largest. Statistically, in harrier the mean length of cranial lobe (20±0.1mm) and the width of the middle lobe (5±0.5mm) were significantly higher than those of mallard (10±0.3mm) (8.0.2mm) and chicken (15±0.2mm) (4±0.4mm) respectively. The mean weight of the kidney in harrier is (5.8±0.20g) this value significantly was higher than those of mallared (8.9±0.11g) and chicken (6.8±0.10g) in compare to the total body weight. Histologically, in harrier species the kidney had larger cortical region and the nephron types were numerous of mammalian type in medulla and few of reptilian type was presented in sub-capsular region. In mallard species the renal lobule was relatively divided into two equal cortical and medullary regions and the nephrons showed two types, numerous of mammalian and reptilian types presented in medulla and intermediate zone of kidney. In chickens the cortical region was the larger compared to medullary region which contained numerous mammalian types and few of reptilian type.

Comparative study of the tympanic cavity of the cattle and buffalo

A . N. Abduljawaad; A. A. Hasso; S. AL Sadi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 114-120

The objective of the current study was to determine the anatomical features of the tympanic cavity in cattle and buffalo and to be recognize all parts of the tympanic cavity for its clinical purposes. There are general anatomical explanation about the middle ear in anatomy text book, however there are no studies in the literature on the morphology of the tympanic cavity in the buffalo, the region is important clinically as a frequent point of attachment for prostheses. As a recent studies have focused on the reconstruction of defects occurring in these tympanic cavity to aid in the development of new surgical technique. Twelve temporal bones from six heads of adult cattle and buffalo were used, the cavity had been investigated on both sides after dissection them, the features of the cavity were assessed with a measurement done by using digital veirenear calipers and measurement tap and photograph by a stereomicroscope. The result show that the tympanic cavity can be divided into three parts, dorsal (epitympanic recess) middle (proper tympanic cavity) and ventral (tympanic bulla), size communicating freely with each other. Epitympanic recess has handle the head of the malleus ,which embedded in the medial surface of tympanic membrane , the proper tympanic cavity has three ossicles are connected to each other , in buffalo being the most developed and the ossicles of the cattle are relatively small , but the incus is more pronounced. Malleus is intimately fused with the incus, it was therefore not possible to separate the malleus and incus. The proper tympanic cavity has tympanic membrane the membrane can be divided into pars flaccids and pars tensa, in buffalo was more development, large in size and oval in shape, with a darker color and thick, but in cattle was rectangle in shape, with a lighter color and thin comparative with buffalo. The tympanic cavity has two skeletal muscles (stapedius and tensor tympanic muscles), the stapedius muscle is ill developed and the greater part of the tensor tympanic muscle was tendinous in buffalo. The proper tympanic cavity has four opening, the external acoustic meatus, the fenestra ovals, the fenestra rotundum and the Eustachian tube. The first three opening are closed by membrane partitions, the Eustachian tube or the auditory tube is short, and (4-5) cm in length and this can clearly why the tympanic cavity of the animal is easily susptable for infections. The ventral of the tympanic cavity was sieve - like present large number of formation which continues with the air cell of the tympanic bulla, the cell which lie directly ventral to the proper tympanic cavity was communicate with those around the external acoustic meatus and facial canal .

Treatment of anoestrus local Iraqi buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using different hormones - field study

Hassan A. H. Al-Tamimy; W.S. Saied; Abbas H.N. Aal-Saied; Haddawi M.Dahham

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 121-123

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of different hormonal treatments protocols (PGF2α ,GnRH, estradiol and progesterone) hormones on reproductive performance of postpartum anoestrus native dairy River buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), endemic south of Baghdad under field conditions . Present study was conducted on 128 animals that had postpartum anoestrus (PPA) for a period between 4 to 8 months. The animals were subjected to two experiments according to the type of anoestrus. In the first experiment 94 animals (73.5%) with persistent corpus luteum on their ovaries without any signs of estrous (sub-oestrus) were classified into two sub-groups.Sub-group1 (n=47) treated with PGF2α hormone alone and sub-group 2 (n= 47) were treated by two injections. The first injection was PGF2α. while the second injection GnRH+ PGF2α was injected after 9 days.In second experiment 34 buffalo cows without any structure on their ovaries (True anestrous) were classified into two sub-groups according to design of the treatment. Sub-group 1(n=14) was treated with estradiol as single injection. Sub-Group 2(n=20) received estradiol + progesterone .The results indicated that the pregnancy rate in sub- groups1 and 2 of the first experiment were 85.1% and 89% respectively , which was not significantly differ from each other (P < 0.05). While in the second experiment, the pregnancy rate for the first and second sub- groups were 71% and 75%, respectively. This study concluded that the prevailing situation of anestrous in postpartum buffaloes endemic south of Baghdad is anestrous with corpus luteum (Sub-oestrus) , 94 out of 128 (73.5%) , and the most efficient treatment protocol of these case are PGF2α + GnRH hormones ( pregnancy rate= 89%) . While estradiol + progesterone treatment are efficient in the treatment of animals suffering from true anestrous (pregnancy rate 75%).

Bacterial contamination of table eggs in Babylon, Iraq

Hayder Hamzah Al- Taee; Muna sabbar Al-Rubiae

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 124-128

To study the bacterial contamination of table eggs in Babylon city, a total of 214 eggs collected from different sources, including 100 from farms and 114 from supermarkets, all samples were cultured for the bacteria on Salmonella Shigella Agar(SS Agar) and nutrient agar. The results of the farms samples showed that there are no growth of bacteria in all samples under study whereas the results of supermarkets samples showed that about 21.05% of supermarkets eggs were contaminated with bacterial strains, and the results showed the presence of Stahylococcus aureus in 10.52% of the samples, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 7.89%, a Proteus mirabilis in 3.50%, S. epidermidis in 0.87% and Bacillus subtilis in 0.87%. Also, the antibiotic sensitivity tests were tested for all isolates and the result showed that the sensitivity was 100% for ciprofloxacin, 85.18% for gentamicin, 85.18% for Amikacin, 59.25% for rifampin, 48.14% for cefotaxime, 44.44% for chloramphenicol, 28.5% for clarithromycin and 0 % for cephalexin. The results showed there was not Salmonella spp. strains in all eggs samples so that present work tried to check the presence of Salmonella spp in farm chickens in farms, 213 chicken stool samples were collected from four farms, the samples were cultured on SS Agar, the results showed presence of Salmonella spp. in 10.37% of stool samples and the antibiotic sensitivity tested, also,the result showed that the sensitivity was 63.6% for ciprofloxacin, 86.36% for gentamicin, 86.36% for amikacin, 36.36% for rifampin, 27.27% for cefotaxime, 4.54% for chloramphenicol and 0% for cephalexin. The results indicated that there were 90% of the isolate of Salmonella spp. isolate have Multi-drug resistance phenomenon.

Fetal adrenal cortex development with maternal serum Cortisol profiles in Relation to Estrous Induction, Laparoscopical Insemination in Iraqi goats out breeding season

Ali Fadel Alwan

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 129-136

The objectives of this research were to determine the serum cortisol profiles and their temporal interrelationship during progesterone treatment, induced estrous, laproscopical insemination and pregnancy (antepartum) period in goat, with histological fetal adrenal cortex development.Thefirst part of the experiment included studying Hundred and sixty goat fetuses of different Crown Rump Length (CRL) were collected from slaughter house. The adrenal glands in the goat fetus displayed signs of cytological differentiation around the second half of intrauterine life, 20cm/CRL about 90 days old until full term. From histological observation and physical measurements the present study recorded that the adrenal cortex grow faster from 25 cm/CRL(100 days)to term The majority of this growth take place due to hyperplasia in the adrenal cortex, zone fasciculate. This second part of the experiment condeucted on 16 female local goats aged 2-4yers,weight 30-45Kg. Estrus was inducted by application of impregnated sponges content 20 mg fluorogestone Acetate(FGA) for 13 days and an IM injection of 500 IU Pregnant Mare Serum gonadotropin (PMSG) 24hrs before sponges withdrawal Within 24-36 hrs of estrous sings onset, each doe was inseminated laparoscopically with 1ml of fresh diluted semen contain at least 100 million active fresh sperms directly into the uterine body. Maternal blood samples were collected at day 10th of progesterone treatment, 24hrs after laparoscpical insemination and monthly during pregnancy. The results revealed that all does showed signs of estrous (100%) after 24-72 hrs with a mean time of 46.9±4.90 hrs after sponges removal. Estrous length was 37.1 +1.91 hrs. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by ultrasonography examination at 30th, 60th and 90th days post insemination. Pregnancy was found in 13 does (81.22%), 3 of them had twin kids (23.01%). Serum cortisol levels shows the highest level during the 4th and 5th months of gestation periods compared to that of the others periods of this study with overall average 78.93+2.96 nmol/L, respectively.