Print ISSN: 1609-5693

Online ISSN: 2410-7409

Volume 38, Issue 2

Volume 38, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2014, Page 1-137


Molecular Identification of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi in Horses

S. H. Mahmood; Judi; Abd M.H. Al; Haidar Khalid Mosstafa

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 1-8

The objective of this study is to evaluate the existence of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi as probable agents of naturally occurring infection of the equine upper respiratory disease from the Equestrian club in Baghdad city. Nasal swabs and pus samples from 141 horses with upper respiratory tract infections were collected. Results indicated that different microorganisms were isolated and identified S. equi subsp equi (30 isolates), S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (14 isolates), S. equisimilus (9 isolates), Enterococcus. fecalis (17 isolates), Pasteurella spp. (29 isolates), Staphylococcus spp. (25 isolates), Bacillus spp. (24 isolates), Pseudomonas spp.(16 isolates), and E. coli (21 isolates). All 30 isolates of S. equi were characterized by biochemical tests. For molecular identification of the subspecies S. equi one genomic region SeM was amplified.

Some epidemiological study of Trichomonas gallinae in domestic pigeon in Baghdad province

Nasser Sadaq Jafar; May Hameed Kawan; Eman Hussain Jafar

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 1-4

أجريت هذه الدراسة لتوضيح حالة الإصابة بطفيلي المشعرات في الحمام. إذ فحصت 168 حمامة داجنة Columba livia domestica من المناطق المختلفة لمحافظة بغداد ابتداء من تشرين الثاني 2012 وحتى أيلول 2013 . درست الاعراض السريرية
والآفات المرضية العيانية لذكور، أناث وزغاليل الحمام المصابة طبيعياً بطفيلي T.gallinae . وسجلت النتائج وجود مادة صفراء
متجبنة في تجويف الفم، المريء، الحوصلة والمعدة الحقيقية كذلك وجود بقع نخرية صفراء على سطح الكبد والرئتين، أما الفحص
المباشر لعينات الحوصلة تحت المجهر الضوئي وجد ان النسبة الكلية للاصابة %58.33 وقد أظهرت النتائج أصابة الأناث،
الذكور والزغاليل بنسبة % 65.4 ، % 62.29 و % 46.15 على التوالي. وجد ان نسبة الإصابة فصل الربيع هي %64.1 يليه
الشتاء % 62.4 ثم الصيف 61.2 % و الخريف % 43.2

Effect of inactive ovary and uterine infections on reproductive performance of dairy cows

Mohammad Yousif Mahmood

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 5-8

This study was conducted in Al-Wahda Dairy cow's Station South-West of Baghdad. Using 503 Holstein - Friesian breed cows. Cows were divided into four groups depend on the last parturition, control group (41) normal cows, inactive ovary group (36) cows, endomitritis (65) cows and septic metritis (41) cows. Also dystocia rate was recorded, Retained fetal membrane, inactive ovary and uterine infections were recorded. Four parameters of reproductive performance were studied, first estrus, first service, open days and no. of services per conception.
The results showed a significant (P<0.01) difference between the studied groups for control cows compared with inactive ovary, endometritis and septic metritis cows. The control group recorded (73.3) days for first estrus, (86.6) days for first service, (124.3) open days and (2.5) no. of services per conception .compare with inactive ovary which showed (110.1) days for first estrus, (126) days for first service, (177.6) days open days and (3) no. of services per conception, endometritise group recorded (79.3) days for first estrus, (109.7) days for first service, (145.1) open days and (2.93) no. of services per conception, Finally septic metritis group recoded (91.8) days for first estrus, (110.4) days for first service, (243.3) open days and (3.6) no. of services per conception. It can conclude from this study is the reproductive problems include inactive ovary, endometritis and septic metritis are effect on reproductive performance.

The Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk, soft cheese and yoghurt in Baghdad Province by Using ELISA Test

Huda Nsaif Jasim; Najim Hadi Najim

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 9-16

Milk and dairy products are fundamental components in the human diet and may be the principle way for the entrance of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) into the human body. All milk and dairy products samples were tested for the occurrence of AFM1 by the competitive ELISA technique. Out of 32 bovine raw milk samples that were collected from eight villages around Baghdad province, 32 samples (100 %) were contaminated with AFM1 ranging from 0.15 to 86.96ng/kg with mean value of 42.37±26.07 ng/kg, of which 17 samples were contaminated with concentrations < 50 ng/kg and 15 samples exceeded the maximum acceptable level of AFM1 in milk (50 ng/kg) imposed by the European legislation. The raw milk samples belonged to animals fed with composite and stored fodder as in Althahab Alabiadh, Radhwaniya and Fadhaliya villages had higher significantly AFM1 concentrations over all the other five villages (Grazing feed). All 32 (100%) locally produced soft white cheese samples analyzed were contaminated with AFM1 ranging from 31.84 to 89.44 ng/kg with the mean value of 59.92±17.03 ng/kg. Out of 32 locally produced yoghurt samples analyzed, 32 samples (100%) were contaminated with AFM1 ranging from 0.16 to 42.74 ng/kg with the mean value of 16.92±11.55 ng/kg. Thirty samples (100%) of the examined 30 imported UHT milk samples collected from different commercial companies in the province of Baghdad presented significantly high contamination level with AFM1 that were found to range from 0.18 to 85.66 ng/kg.

Prevalence study of Hard Tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus in stray dogs form many areas from Baghdad Province

Ali Issa Fadhil

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 9-11

The present study included examination of 102 stray dogs from different regions of Baghdad province and the rate of total infection was 21.56 % by Rhipicephalus sanguineus for the period from the beginning of July 2011 until the end of January 2012, this study showed significant (P˂0.05) differences between regions Al-Sadrea region recorded the highest rate of infection was 41.66 %, while the lowest rate was registered in AL-shaek omar 18.18 %. the highest infestation rate was at Autumn 37.14 % and the lowest rate was in winter 7.69%, and the results showed significant (P˂0.05) differences in the incidence among males in Al-sadrea region recorded the highest rate 50 %, while the lowest ratio recorded in Al-Nahdtha region 11.11%, there were no differences in the infestation rate between males and females, as were 20.75 %, 22.44 %, respectively.

Effect of different resources of water in some blood parameter of local female rabbits

Hayder Abdulhameed Abd Ali Al-husseini; Drgham .H.Y. Al-Zwean

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 12-18

This study was conducted to find out the effect of different resources of water in some blood parameters of local female rabbits. This experiment was carried out at the Animal Farm / Veterinary College - Baghdad University from 1-12-2012 up to 15-3- 2013. Twenty eight local female rabbits at age of 2.5-3 month were bought and divided randomly into four equal groups "body weight was considered". As following: First group (boiling water group) control, second (Tap water group), third (well water group), fourth (well water + chlorine group). All groups were daily fed on concentrate diet (75gm/head). All groups were offered alfalfa and specific water freely. Blood sample were taken and blood serum were obtained to find out the hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, also blood smears was done to measured leukocytes differential counts. The result of this experiment revealed the followings: Animals of first and second groups recorded significantly (P<0.05) higher in hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, packed cell volume (PCV) than another group at the first and second periods of the experiment. All groups alternate in recording significant (P<0.05) higher in the lymphocyte numbers from the first to third period, while any groups doesn't recorded any significant from fourth period until the end of experiment. All groups alternate in recording significant (P<0.05) higher in neutrophils number of the last three groups than first group at first to fifth period. All groups significantly, (P<0.05) recorded higher in eseonophils numbers, also all groups doesn't recorded any significant in basophiles count, while they don't recording significant (P<0.05) in monocyte number during experiment periods. Therefore it could be concluded from this study that the quality and resources of water play an important role in some blood parameters of local female rabbits, subsequent impact in animal hygienic performance.

71 Using PCR technique for diagnosis of bacterium Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated from urine samples of humans and sheep

M. J; Alwan; Al-wgaa; A. A

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 17-21

The aims of the current study were to determine the percentages of E.coli O157:H7 in the urinary tract infections (UTIs) of humans and in the urine of apparently healthy sheep, and to determine the genotype of the isolates by PCR assay. Two hundred and twenty eight urine samples were collected from young children and adult patients of both sexes suffering from UTIs during a period December 2012 to the end of March 2013. And randomly collected 75 urine samples from apparent healthy sheep of both sexes that were slaughtered in AL Shoela, AL Rahmanea Slaughterhouse and College of Veterinary Medicine field in Baghdad the end of February to half of April 2013. All urine samples were incubated aerobically at 37°C for 24-48 hrs on blood agar, MacConkey agar as well as special media and the isolates were identified by biochemical tests, then the isolates were confirmed and diagnosed by PCR assay. The results showed that of human urine samples ,8 samples were E. coli O157:H7 positive isolates(3.50%) ,young children expressed (4) isolates of E.coli O157:H7 as compared with those in adult (4 isolates) and the percentage of these isolates in females were (2.6%) as compared with those in males (0.87%). Also the current study demonstrated that all isolates culturing positive serotype of E.coliO 157:H7 were positive by PCR assay .The genes of eaeA ,hly and Stx2 were recorded in 7,8 and 2 serotype of E.coliO157:H7 respectively. The result revealed that 21(28%) out 75 sheep urine samples were E.coli positive isolates, 13 out of 75 samples were E.coli O157:H7 positive isolates. The percentage of isolates from ram urine samples was (14.66%) as compared to those samples of ewes (2.66%).The result also recorded that 10,13,12,4 and 3 of bacterial isolates of sheep urine samples carried eaeA, hlyA, hlyA plasmid,Stx1 and Stx2 genes respectively. In conclusion the healthy sheep in Baghdad city, harbor shiga -toxin producing E.coliO157:H7 in their urinary tracts and these organism induced UTIs associated with renal failure in the humans and carried the same virulent genes that reported in the sheep isolates.

Epidemological study for Intestinal parasites In Abu Ghraib and Amiriyah regions

Talib Abdullah Hussein; a Baha Abdul-Jabbar; Doa

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 19-26

The present study has included the comparison on prevalence rates of intestinal parasites in each of the regions of Abu Ghraib and Amiriyah during the period between the month of October 2011 until the end of the month in July 2012 as it has been collected (2449) stool samples were distributed between (1430) stool samples from Abu Ghraib Hospital auditors as well as the (1019) stool samples of Auditors health center in Amiriya and collected like blood samples. Examined stool samples direct method using brine (Normal Saline) and tincture of iodine (Lugol's Iodine) and the way floating by sulphate zinc water (ZnSo4.7H2O) to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasites and the relationship of infection by age, sex, and number of family members and the type of water used for drinking The results showed the presence of significant difference in total infection for the regions of Abu Ghraib and Ameriyah where the percentage was (36.29%) in the area of Abu Ghraib and (27.57%) for the Amiriyah area, where diagnosed five types of intestinal parasites (protozoa + Helminthes) are as follows: Intestinal protozoa in the Abu Ghraib area: Entamoeba histolytica (19.4%), Giardia lamblia (11.9%), Entamoeba coli colon (2.58%(. While Helminthes: Dwarf tapeworm Hymenolepis nana (3.2%(, pinworm Enterobius vermicularis (2.72%(.As for the Amiriyah area, Intestinal protozoa: Entamoeba histolytica (18.4%(, Giardia lamblia was (9.26%(, Entamoeba coli colon was (2.65%(. While Helminthes: dwarf tapeworm Hymenolepis nana (2.69%(, pinworm Enterobius vermicularis was (3.45%(.

Effect of sorghum and methionine supplementation in productive performance and the quality of hatching eggs of two quail strains

D.Th.Younis

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 22-27

The aim of the present study was to identify the effect of corn replacement by sorghum and supplementation of methionine during growing and laying periods in productive performance and egg quality of two strains of quail (brown and black). Four hundred and eighty quails (240 of each strain) were used in this study. Birds were reared on floor letter in semi opened house distributed into four treatments each with three replicates (20 birds in replicate). Experimental treatments were as follows: T1: fed on yellow corn ration (Control), T2: fed on ration in which 50% of corn replaced by sorghum , T3: fed on ration in which 50% of corn replaced by sorghum and supplemented with 0.2% methionine and T4: fed on ration in which 50% of corn replaced by sorghum and supplemented with 0.4% methionine . Statistical analysis of data showed no significant differences (P≤0.05) between treatments and strains in live body weight, average weekly weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio dressing percentage and mortality rate. After sexual maturity age no differences were observed between the treatments and strains in egg production HD%, egg weight, feed conversion ratio, egg shape index, shell weight, shell thickness, albumin height, yolk dimension, yolk height, blood glucose, blood triglyceride, blood total protein, blood hemoglobin, ALT and AST enzymes concentration in serum through out of the experimental period which was lasted for 99 days. In conclusion, the results revealed the possibility of 50% sorghum replacement instead of yellow corn without any passive effects on productive performance which reduce the productive costs.

Effect of Lactobacillus on some physiological characteristics, hematological parameters and growth performance of broiler chicks exposed to heat stress

Luma; W. K; Nawal; S. J; H. A; Balqees

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 27-33

The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of lactobacillus bacteria on physiological characteristics and productivity of broiler chicks reared under both natural and heat stress conditions. One hundred and eighty broiler chicks were randomly divided into 2 rooms (90 chicks for each room were separated to 3 groups), each group contains 30 chicks. The birds inside first room were exposeddialy to 3 hours heat stress (38-40º C) for 10 days continuously on the age of 3 weeks as fellows: first group received Lactobacillus on day old; Second group received lactobacillus on three. Third group was served as control group (without any treatment). The second room also divided into 3 groups (forth, fifth and sixth group) and treated as in the first room in a row in which sixth group regarded as control group. This room was kept under natural condition. Lactobacilli were used at a dose of1×108cfu ml-1 via crop inoculation. Heamatological indices (PCV, WBC and RBC count) were determined. Measuring the level of total protein, albumin and globulin in the blood serum. Growth performances of the broiler chicks; body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency were also determined. The results indicated that the physiological characteristics and productivity of fifth group were significantly increased (P<0.05) in comparison to the other groups, followed by a group forth group. In contrast, first group and second group which exposed to stress condition were not different compared to control groups third group. In conclusion, these results suggested that Latobacillus under both natural and stressful conditions has led to improve growth performance and productivity of broiler chicks

Effect of season, number of service and station on conception rate and calf sex for dairy cow in sulaimania region

Sherawan; A. Muhammad; Burhan; S. Muhammad; Talib; G. M. Ali; Faraidoon; Amin; A. M

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 28-34

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of season and first, second and third services on reproductive efficiency of 1086 cows throughout the artificial insemination technique during 2012 as well as the effect of season of the year on the conception rates in cows in Sulaimani Region. The conception rate of first, second and third services were 69.3, 27.5, and 3%, respectively, with overall conception rate 45%. The total number of male calves born was 282 and the female calves were 211. The conception rate obtained at the Halabja station reached its highest value followed by Sharazoor station then Chamchamal station. Rania station performed the lowest value. The conception rate in the Sharazoor station at the spring months reaching its highest value follow at the winter months then at the autumn months, while at the summer months it performed lowest value. The results of the this work is concluded that a good season of fertility of the cows of Halabja is in winter to summer months, while in Sharazoor and Rania the fertility is better in winter to spring and in Chamchamal the good seasons of fertility are relatively similar.

The synergistic effects of Lactobacillus acidophillus ROO52 and Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB-12 bacteriocins against E.coli O157 :H7 in milk

Zina Saab khudhir

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 35-40

The aims of this study are to evaluate the antibacterial potential of standard strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus ROO52 and Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB-12) that produce bacteriocins against E.coli O157:H7 in raw milk. Thirty raw milk samples randomly were collected weekly from different markets of Baghdad city in order to investigate the prevalence of E.coli O157:H7 in milk. The prevalence of E.coli O157:H7 in raw milk samples was 6 out 30 (20%) by using the modern chromogenic media with serological latex agglutination test kit. The average diameter of the inhibition zone of crude bacteriocin against E .coli O157:H7 by using combination of 1:1 (v/v) of the Lactobacillus acidophillus ROO52 and Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB-12was (14mm) ,while that produced by bacteriocins of Lactobacillus acidophillus ROO52 and Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB-12 independently were 16 and 12mm respectively .L. delbrucekii ssp bulgaricus showed significantly (P<0.05) low antimicrobial effect against E.coli O157 :H7 .While the strongest antimicrobial effect was shown by Lactobacillus acidophilus ROO52. The bacteriocins of the reference strains used in this study did not result in an increase in inhibition when used in combination of 1:1 (v/v).

Effect of aqueous extract of Date Palm Pollen (DPP) on the sperm characteristic and Serum Testosterone, FSH and LH Values in albino male rats treated with sodium floride

Salah; M. M. AL-Chalabi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 41-47

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Date Palm Pollen DPP on the testicular function and serum testosterone, FSH and LH hormones value. Thirty five male rats were divided randomly into five equal groups. Group 1: received 0.5 ml of distilled water (control group), group 2: was treated orally 0.250 p.p.m of sodium florid (NaF) (with volume of 0.5 ml / rat), Group 3: was treated with 0.250 p.p.m of NaF and 50 mg/kg. B.W. of DPP extract (0.5ml D.W
at), Group 4: was treated with 0.250 p.p.m of NaF and 100 mg/kg. B.W. of DPP extract and Group 5: was treated with 0.250 p.p.m of NaF and 150 mg/kg. B.W. of DPP extract. The results showed significant (P< 0.05) decrease in sperm concentration, motility and significant (P< 0.05) increases in dead and abnormal sperm in the group 2 in comparison to control, while all groups of DPP extract showed significant (P< 0.05) increase in sperm concentration, motility and decrease in dead and abnormal sperm. Maximum effect was observed in animals treated with a dose of 150 mg/kg of DPP extract, also the results revealed significant (P< 0.05) increase in testosterone, FSH and LH hormones in groups treated with DDP in comparison to G1andG2. Male rats received DPP for 50 days showed significant (P< 0.05) increases in body and testes weight as compared to G1andG2. In conclusion the results revealed that the aqueous extract of DPP pollen can be used as a sex enhancer and seems to cure male infertility.

48 Effects of probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus) on liver functions in experimental colitis in rats

Delal Ebraheem Abass; Majida A.J. al-Qayim

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 48-54

The ameliorative effects of probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus) on liver functions in experimentally induced colitis in adult male rats were studied. Thirty six male rats were divided randomly into 4 groups, 9 animals per group. First group was considered as control (C-), 2nd group (T1) and 3rd group (T2) received (5 × 108 CFU) of Lactobacillus acidophilus as probiotics for 2 weeks by oral gavages needle, 4th group was considered as colitis group (T3). Experimentally acetic acid colitis was induced for rat of groups T2 and T3. After 7 days of colitis, at the end of the experiment. Blood sample, 4-5 ml, was collected via cardiac puncture for biochemical analysis and liver sections were isolated for histopathological examination. Results revealed that colitis caused significant (p<0.05) decrease in liver function enzymes AST; AST; ALP and FBS. While Lactobacillus acidophilus recipient succeeded in keeping ALP, FBS, and plasma total protein values within normal, but decreased ALT and AST in coparasim with control group. Histopathological liver section examination showed presence of focal necrosis in acetic acid colitis groups (T2 and T3). Also these changes were prevented in liver sections of rats which received Lactobacillus acidophilus and confirmed the ameliorative effects of probiotics on hepatocellular, preventing hepatocellular damage in experimentally induced colitis.

Correlation between the prevalence of E.coli O157:H7 and the physic -chemical characteristics of the soil on a dairy farm reared under field conditions in Baghdad province

Zuhair A. Mohammed; Taif N. H. Mustafa

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 55-65

This study was designed to investigate the correlation of various stress factors (PH, moisture contents, temp., and soil texture) on the ability of E.coli OI57:H7 to persist on/in soil on a dairy farm reared under field conditions at the college of Agriculture /University of Bagdad. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in soil samples was determined for the period January to June 2012. The surface kinetics of E.coli O157:H7 onto the soil (surface kinetics), were theoretically achieved by dividing the farm into 3 zones starting from the fens (Z1),5m, and 10 m (Z5, and Z10, respectively) from the farm in three direction (right, left and rear of the farm) . While the depth kinetics were achieved by taking soil samples from the surface (D0), and at depths of 5, and 10 cm (D5, and D10 respectively) from each zone in the three directions. Nine soil samples (200g) were collected in plastic bags for each distance of 1, 5, and 10m from the farm for each depth of zero (surface), 5 and 10 cm at weekly basis. Sub sample (100g) was made for physicochemical assays. The other subsample was analyzed for E. coli OI57:H7. In conclusion, the physico-chemical characteristics of the soil examined, PH, moisture %, sand%, and clay % showed either no consistent or weak correlations with the prevalence of E.coli O157:H7 at the dairy farm reared under field conditions. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 found in this study are far greater than what would likely be found on a dairy farm in other countries; this is a critically important fact considering that, under natural conditions, even a low level of contamination of E. coli O157:H7 with a low infective dose could present a human health hazard.

The Protective role of Pomegranate seed oil (Pometon) on kidney (functional and structural) damage induced by Methionine overload in adult female Rabbits

Ahmed Dawood Salman

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 66-73

This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of Pomegranate seed oil (PSO) on kidney damage induced by methionine overload in adult female rabbits. Twenty four adult female local rabbits were randomly divided into four equal groups, and they were treated daily for 42 days,as fallows: the first group (C): rabbits were received ordinary corn oil orally, serving as control; aniamls in the second group T1 were intubated with methionine (100 mg/kg BW) orally; and animals in third group (T2) were intubated with methionine (100mg/kg BW) plus pometon (30mg/kg BW) diluted in corn oil . Rabbits in fourth group (T3) were intubated with pometone (30 mg/kg BW) diluted in corn oil.Fasting blood samples were collected from all experimental groups at 0, 21, and 42 days of experiment to study the parameters: Serum creatinine (SC) concentration and Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration. Sections of kidney were assessed for histopathological studies. The result revealed that exposure of animals to methionine in group (T1) for 42 days caused a significant increase (P<0.05) in SC and BUN concentrations as compared to pomegranate treated groups and control. While oral intubation of PSO caused significant decrease (P<0.05) in the previous and correct the values near that of the control. Exposure to methionine overload showed severe acute cellular degeneration with mononuclear cells infiltration between renal tubules while there was no clear pathlogical lesions in kidney section after PSO intubation. In conclusion, it seems that Pomegranate seed oil intubation possessed renoprotactive (functional and structural) effect against deleterious damage induced by Methionine overload in rabbits.

Evaluation of Some Biochemical parameters in Clinically Normal lactating and Ovine Mastitis

AL-Hadithy H. AH; Jassim M. S. AL-Jubory

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 74-78

The aim of the present work was to determine the serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), unbound iron binding capacity (UIBC), transferrin saturation percentage (TS%) and Serum Copper in normal lactating and Ovine mastitis. The study was conducted on 50 clinically normal lactating and 50 ewes affected with staphylococcal mastitis (19 clinical and 31 subclinical), both groups aged 2-5 years in Salah Al-Din governorate. The blood samples were collected from jugular vein during the period October 2012 until April 2013. The separated sera were directly used for measurement of investigated biochemical tests. The results showed that the ranges and means ± SE of normal lactating and Ovine mastitis were as follows; serum iron 29.81-39. 63μmol /L and 33.38 ± 0.4 μmol /L, 8.76 - 34.11 μmol /L and 20.42 ± 0.98 μmol /L respectively, TIBC 44.7-79.89 μmol /L and 62.03 ±1.65μmol /L, 43.24 - 125.72 μmol /L and 91.24 ± 2.49 μmol /L respectively, UIBC 14.71 - 40.27 μmol /L and 28.57 ± 1.31 μmol /L, 13.41- 113.25 μmol /L and 66.54 ± 3.23μmol /L respectively, TS% 47.92 -71.79 and 55.08 ± 1.01, 14.1 - 65.76 and 26.73 ± 2.71 respectively, and serum copper 13.97 - 23.61 μmol /L and 17.99 ± 0.39μmol /L, 7.1 - 16.09 μmol/L and 11.8 ± 0.32 μmol /L respectively. However, significant (P<0.05) differences between clinically normal and ewes affected with mastitis were recorded in all the measured parameters. The present data records reference ranges and means ± SE of some biochemical parameters in normal lactating and Ovine mastitis with a significant differences between them.

Effect of Vasectomy and / or Adding Cuminum cyminum Seeds in the diet of Awassi Ram Lambs on their Carcasses Traits

Mudhaffar N.R. AL-Saigh; Tamara N. Dawood

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 79-86

This experiment was carried out at Animal Farm, College of Veterinary Medicine, Baghdad University, from Mar. up to Sept. 2010. Twenty eight Awassi ram lambs of 4-5 months old were equally divided into four groups of similar body weight and fed 2% of concentrate diet of body weight with grazing for 3-4 hours a day. The first group (C) and the third group (V) were fed concentrate diet free of cumin seeds; while the second group (CU) and the fourth group (CV) were fed the same amount of concentrate diet contain 3% of cumin seeds. All animals were grazed daily for 3-4 hours as one group. The third and the fourth groups were vasectomized by close vasectomy operation at the beginning of the experiment. The results revealed that cumin seeds used as feed additives for Awassi ram lambs caused significant (P<0.05) increase in live animal body weight, fasting and empty body weight, hot and cold carcass weights also it had an effect on carcass measurements, empty digestive and stomach weight, most carcass joints weight, rib eye muscle area, Longismus dorsi weight, lean and fat weight in the rack joint as compared with the control group. However vasectomy had significant (P<0.05) increase in the body weight, fasting, empty and hot and cold carcass weight, the weight of pelt, full and empty digestive system, most of joint weights, fat tail, fat weight of the rack joint, while the 4th group showed higher values than the most carcass traits compared with the 2nd and 3rd groups and significantly (P<0.05) higher than the control group (1st group). It is concluded that vasectomy and cumin seeds have positive effect on lamb performance and carcass traits. Cumin seeds can be used as effective and cheep feed additives. Further studies are required to prove the suitable ratio of cumin seeds addition alongside with castration in other farm animals.

Toxic effects of mercuric chloride on DNA damage, hematological parameters and histopathological changes in common (carp Cyprinuscarpio)

Maher A. Abdulaziz; Sanaa A .Mustafa; Abdulmotalib J. Alrudainy

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 87-94

The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) at different levels of biological organization in common carp Cyprinuscarpio following exposure for 30 days to a range of environmentally levels of mercuric chloride (0.01 and 0.02 mg L-1) and recovery for 3 weeks. Prior to evaluation of genetic damage (determined in erythrocytes using comet assay), enzymatic activity (ALT and AST), hematological parameters and histopathological examination of gill. The maximum tolerated concentration was also determined which was found to be 1.63 µg l-1 above which complete mortality over the exposure period was observed. The results indicated that there was a strong induction for DNA damage at high level of Hg. Hematological indices indicated a significant (P≤0.05) increase in Hb, RBCs and Hct value in Hg treatment groups compared to control group after 15 and 30 days of exposure. Histopathological examination showed distinct abnormalities in secondary lamellae of gill including epithelial lifting, fusion of the secondary lamellae and necrosis. The present findings suggest that exposure to a low concentration (0.01mg L1) of inorganic mercury can cause significant changes in DNA, hematological parameters and also could cause histopathological changes. Therefore, estimation of these indices could provide a useful indicator for monitoring water bodies pollution.

Determination the serum oestrogen Concentrationand Alkaline phosphatase activity during pregnancy and parturition in oestrus synchronized goat

Ahmed A.Taha; Souhayla O. Hussain; Qayssar Jawad Kadhim

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 95-99

This study was designed to investigate the oestrus activity, oestrogen profile and enzymatic change Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) at different stage of gestation and parturition in shami and Iraqi goat. A total of 30 mature female goats of two different breed (fifteen animals / each) were used, their reproduction was followed from January upto July -2013. The investigation included studying oestrus synchronization and allowing the animal to be mated naturally by proven buck. Blood sample were collected before gestation then every fifteen days until parturition. Results showed 100 % of female express estruse after synchronization and (73% and 67%) in shami and Iraqi goats respectively, became pregnant. Regarding the activity of oestrogen, the concentration increase gradually after day (60) of pregnancy and highest value was detected at parturition.Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) rose significantly (p<0.05) at 2nd and 3rd month of pregnancy. Conclusion of the changes, determination of estrogen level and ALP activity will serve as a base line data for monitoring the change during pregnancy and parturition.

Evaluation of general anesthesia induced by propofol, ketamine protocol in rabbits premedicated with diazepam

Areej Ali Atiyah; Ayad A. Amin

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 100-107

The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of diazepam-propofol-Ketamine protocol for induction of general anaesthesia in rabbits. The experiment was conducted on seventeen healthy male adult local rabbits weighting 0.9-1.5 kg. Rabbits were given protocol, Diazepam 1mg/kg B.W. by intramuscular injection then 15 minutes later propofol 10 mg/kg B.W. as bolus slow intravenous injection and ketamine 25 mg/kg BW by intramuscular injection. Several parameters included respiratory rate, body temperature and heart rate were recorded before injection of drugs and after giving the anesthetic protocol at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes. The results showed that the anaesthesia with diazepam, propofol and Ketamine protocol in rabbits was suitable as it produced reliable surgical anaesthesia, good analgesia and muscle relaxation with minimal changes on the wave morphology of the cardiac muscle.

The effect of Ocimum basilicum and Cuminum cyminum seeds on the weight gain and rumen activity and fermentation in Awassi rams

Tamara N. Dawood

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 108-113

This study was carried out at Animal Farm, College of Veterinary Medicine, Baghdad University from April up to July 2013. The animals were fed on concentrate diet and freely grazed for 3-6 hours/ day at College Field. Rams were used in a Latin square design (4*4) and trans located biweekly intervals, respectively to different concentrate diets.The first diet 2% of the body weight was free from any addition and considered as a control, the second diet contained 3% Cuminum cyminum seeds (CU); and the third diet contained 3% of Ocimum basilicom seeds (B) and the fourth concentrated diet contained 1.5% of Cuminum cyminum and 1.5% Ocimum basilicom seeds (CU+B). Results revealed that there was significant (P<0.05) difference during the first two periods in the body gain compared with other periods. pH of rumen liquor of the control group 6.00±0.24 showed significantly (P<0.05) higher than all other animals during all periods 5.42±0.095, 5.40±0.14 and 5.65±0.11, while the volatile fatty acids were significantly lower in the control animal 8.25±0.75 compared with other animals. Ammonia concentration in the rumen liquor showed higher significant (P<0.05) difference 9.33±0.13 and 9.60±0.43 respectively in the third and fourth period than first period 7.52±0.28. On the other hand bacterial count of the control group was significantly (P<0.05) lower than other groups.

A comparative study between two techniques of subtotal laparoscopic cholecystectomy in goats

A. A. Ajeel; S. I. Saleh; M. J. Eesa; M. A. Alkhilani

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 114-122

A comparison between two techniques of subtotal laparoscopic cholecystectomy was studied to find the best technique for treating severe cholecystitis and to study the fate of the remaining part of the gallbladder. All experimental animals had inducing cholecystitis by clipping the cystic duct for five days which was enough for inducing cholecystitis in goats. 24 adult female goats were used in this study. The goats were divided randomly into two equal groups; subtotal laparoscopic cholecystectomy with cystic duct and cystic artery clipping by titanium clips (group A) and laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy with cystic duct clipping only (group B). Operations were performed under general anesthesia by using thiopental sodium at a dose of 15 mg/Kg. B.W. intravenously to maintain the inhalation anesthesia by endotracheal tube with a mixture of halothane (1.5- 2.5 %) and oxygen (2-3 %). The intraabdominal pressure with CO2 was used at a low pressure 8-10 mmHg. The liver function tests included; alkaline phosphates (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total serum bilirubin and C- reactive protein were measured in different intervals; before operation (zero day) and at 1hr, 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th postoperative day. The liver function tests showed a significant elevation (P< 0.05) in alkaline phosphates (ALP) and in the total bilirubin values in group B (P> 0.05) comparison with group A and no significant difference in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and C- reactive protein between all experimental groups as well as time intervals. The biopsies were taken at the 3rd, 7th and 15th postoperative day for histopathological of the remaining part of gallbladder which showed that subtotal cholecystectomies could be performed successfully with the two techniques. Degeneration appeared in the remaining part of the gallbladder and offered best in the healing stages.

A comparative study between olive oil and Nigella Sativa oil in treatment of hyperlipidemia induced in male albino mice

Lubna Ahmed Kafi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 123-127

This study was conducted on 20 adult mice divided randomly into 4 equal groups. The first group served as negative control (NC) that received the diluent (sun flower oil), while hyperlipidemia was induced in the other three groups; the second group received the diluent and was considered as positive control (PC), while groups three and four were treated with olive oil (OO) or Nigella sativa oil (NSO) at a dose of 0.4ml/kg BW given orally, respectively for two months. At the end of experiment and fasting overnight, lipid profile which included total cholesterol TC, triglyceride TG, high density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol VLDL-C) were measured. The results indicated significant (P<0.05) improvement in all these parameters as compared to the positive control, while the value of HDL-C was significantly higher in the olive oil treated group as compared with all groups including negative control group.

Effect of β-glucan on behavioral, biochemical and hematological parameters against toxicity of copper sulfate in common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

Sanaa A. Mustafa; Eqbal S. Najem; Jamal K. Al-faragi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2014, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 128-137

The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of a commercial ß-glucan against acute toxic effect of copper sulfate on common carp Cyprinus carpio L. behavioral, hematological parameters and biochemical tests. A total of 250 Fish (150 ± 2 g) were fed a basal control diet or the basal diet plus a ß-glucan (1 g kg-1 diet) for 60 days. LC50 was calculated for 72 h which was 10.83 mg L-1. At the end of the trial, CuSO4.5H2O was added to all treatments at a dose of 5 mgL-1 for T1 and T2, 7mg L-1 for T3 and T4, 9 mgL-1 for T5 and T6 for 96h. Fish behavioral changes were recorded during 96h of exposure to different Cu concentrations with and without β-glucan, which showed abnormalities such as increase swimming activity, jerky movement, loss of equilibrium, respiratory stress, increase operculum movement, frequent jumping, erratic swimming and swimming near the water surface. On the other hand, ß-glucan supplemented groups showed significant increase (P≤0.05) in Hb concentration, PCV%, RBC and WBC count in comparison with groups without ß-glucan. The results of dietary groups without ß-glucan showed a significant decrease (P≤ 0.05) in Hb concentration, hematocrit value, RBC count, but there were significant increase (P≤ 0.05) in WBC count with an increase of Cu concentration compared to control groups.
Results showed significant increase (P≤ 0.05) in dietary groups without ß-glucan in values of ALT, AST and ALP enzymes activity with elevation of Cu levels compared to control group. But, ß-glucan supplemented groups showed significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in values of ALT, AST and ALP enzymes activity in comparison with dietary groups without ß-glucan. These results suggested that β-glucan has protective effect against CuSO4 toxicity and future studies should be pursued particularly immune response and molecular studies.