Print ISSN: 1609-5693

Online ISSN: 2410-7409

Volume 39, Issue 1

Volume 39, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2015, Page 1-133

The therapeutic role of alcoholic extract of fenugreek seeds on hypothyroidism state induced by thiourea and some blood parameters in adult male rabbits

Jawad K. Arrak; Atyaf J. H. Al-Zyadi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 1-7

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of the alcoholic extract of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum graecum) on thyroid gland function in adult male rabbits exposed to thiourea that induce hypothyroidism state. Thirty adult male rabbits weighing 1500-2000 gm were used, and randomly divided into five equal groups (6 rabbits/group) and treated daily for 42 days as follows: First group (control), (T1) group were treated with alcoholic extract of fenugreek seed(200mg/ kg .B.W. orally), (T2) group were treated with thiourea (10 mg/kg. B.W. orally), (T3) group were treated once thiourea daily by (10 mg/ kg. B.W) and after (3) hours given alcoholic extract of fenugreek 200 mg/kg B.W., and (T4) group were treated once thiourea daily by (10mg /kg B.W) and after (3) hour given levothyroxine (10 ug/kg B.W). Blood samples were collected at (0, 14, 28 and 42) days of the experiment for measuring the concentration of hematological parameters. Blood parameters (HB, RBC, WBC, and PCV) were analyzed in this study. The results showed significant increase in (HB, RBC, WBC and PCV) in (T1) group significantly decreased in (T2) groups, while (T3 and T4) groups showed a significant increase of these parameters and their values appeared closely to control group. In conclusion supplementation of fenugreek seeds extract and levothyroxine have therapeutic effects against harmful effect of thiourea.

Effect of Artemisia herba alba and Urtica dioica herbs extracts in the biological of Eimeria tenella parasite in broiler chicks.

Dunya A.M. AL-Salhi; Haider M. AL-Rubaie; Amer M. A. AL-Amery

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 1-4

This study was conducted to determine the biological effects of both Artemisia herba alba and Urtica dioica on the percentage of sporulation of Eimeria tenella parasite in laboratory. The results were revealed that the percentage of the sporulation for oocysts parasite in groups treated with alcoholic and aquatic extracts of Artemisia herba alba concentrations 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% reduced up to 60% 65%, 68%, 64%, 70% and 75%, respectively. Also the alcoholic and aquatic extracts of Urtica dioica were reduced the percentage of sporulation for up to 62%, 64%, 70%, 68%, 72% and 75%, respectively, when compared with the control positive group, which amounted to 90% after 96 hours.

Some Epidemiological Study of Cryptosporidium Spp. in Broiler chickens in some areas of Karbala Province

Mohammed Th. S. Al- Zubaidi; Kadhim Kh. K. Al-Khayat

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 5-8

The aim of present study to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium Spp. in broiler chickens in some regions of Karbala province and study the effect of months, sex and age on the prevalence of parasite. The results were indicated that the overall percentage of infection was 20.71%. The highest rate of infection in Al-Husseiniya which amounted to 22.41% and the lowest in the Ain Al-Tamur region (18.86%), while the highest rate of infection was in March which amounted to 30% and the least in May month reaching 11.42%, and by age groups was the highest rate of infection at the age of five weeks (28.72%) and the lowest at the age of two weeks (13.18%), and significant difference was recorded between two sex female recorded (33.33%) and male (17.05%).

Effect of vitamin C and/or vitamin B complex intake on some productive, physiological and reproductive traits in the female rabbits

Mudhaffar N.R. AL-Saigh; Tamara N. Dawood

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 8-15

The aim of this work was to establish the vital role of using vitamin B complex and/or vitamin C in the reproduction. Twenty female rabbits were used and they were divided randomly into four equal groups, all animals were fed 100 g of concentrate pellets diet/ head. The first group was offered drinking water free of vitamins, (control group), second group was supplied with water containing vitamin C (40 mg/ 100ml water/ head), third group was supplied with water containing vitamin B complex (0.5 ml/100ml/head), and fourth group was water supplied containing 20 mg of vitamin C and 0.25 ml of vitamin B complex/100 ml water/head. At the beginning of the experiment, male rabbits were introduced to the females for mating for one hour at morning daily for two weeks before the food and water were supplied. The results revealed that, body weight of all groups increased progressively with age. The treated groups gained insignificantly more than the control group, the second and fourth group showed higher but insignificant. In second and third group caused significant increase in PCV, Hb, WBCs, lymphocyte percentage and decrease in neutrophil, monocyte and eosinophil percentages compared with the control group. However, blood glucose and serum cholesterol levels were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in second and fourth group when compared with first group. While vitamins groups caused insignificant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity enzyme. However, the treated groups showed significantly higher fertility rate and reproductive efficiency ratio compared with the control group and numerically higher in prolificacy ratio (%). But third and fourth group showed better prolificacy and reproductive efficiency ratio than the second group.

Influence of different levels of licorice (Glycyrrhizaglabra Inn.) and garlic (Alliumsativum) mixture powders supplemented diet on broiler Productive traits

M.A.AL-Zuhairy; Muataz E.Hashim

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 9-14

The objective of this study was determined the effects of different levels of licorice and garlic mixture powders supplemented diet on broiler productive traits. A hundred and eighty, one-day old (Ross-308) broiler chicks, had been randomly distributed in to four treatments each one consists of three replicates and each replicate contained (15) chicks. the first treatment was a control group, 2nd, 3rd and 4th treatments contained 0.25, 0.50 and 1% of garlic and licorice mixture powders and the fourth treatment the diet contained 1% of garlic and licorice mixture powders, and the birds were weighed and feed intake per week, Results showed that: Body weights were increased (P<0.05) significantly in the third treatment group, and non-significantly in second and fourth as compared with the control group. Weight gain were increased significantly in all treated groups compared with the control group, and Feed intake was decreased significantly in the treatment groups second, third and fourth compared with the control group. And feed conversion ratio was improved significantly in all treatment groups, compared with the control group. And dressing percentages were significantly improved in fourth and none significantly in third, second as compared with control group. The conclusion from the results of this study that the mixture powder of garlic and licorice in levels 0.25, 0.50 and 1% supplemented in broiler diet may be improved the broiler production performance.

61 The therapeutic effect of Nigella sativa L. seeds oil on experimentally infected rabbits with hepatic coccidiosis

K. Ali; Rafid; Rajiha A. S. Al-Naimi; Houida H. Abed; Eman H. Al-Tace

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 12-22

The present study was carried out to investigate the therapeutic effect of Nigella sativa seeds oil emulsion as against Eimeria stiedae experimentally infected rabbits. After isolation of local E. stiedae strain from infected gallbladders, a total of 90 local rabbits (6-8 weeks age) and body weighing (750-1000 gm) were used. They were divided into 6 groups as follow: Group: 1 uninfected and untreated (control group), Group: 2 infected (untreated) with 10,000 sporulated oocysts of E. stiedae, Group: 3 uninfected and given 200mg/kg B.W. N. sativa L. oil emulsion, Group: 4 infected with 10,000 sporulated oocysts of E. steidae. and treated with N. sativa L. oil emulsion of 200 mg/kg B.W on day 16, post infection, Group: 5 uninfected and given 400 mg/kg B.W N. sativa L. oil emulsion, Group: 6 infected with 10,000 sporulated oocysts of E. stiedae. and treated with N. sativa L. oil emulsion of 400 mg/ kg B.W on day 16, post infection. Fecal sample were examined for oocyst count (16 days post infection) at each period of experiment (10, 20 and 30 days) 5 animals for each group were sacrificed, and specimens for liver, were excised for histopathological examination. The E. stiedae infected group showed deleterious pathological changes in infected livers. Both treated doses of N. sativa had significant anticoccidial activities as reflected by reduced fecal oocysts shedding and remarkable improvement of liver tissue histopathology. This improvement include restoration of normal hepatic architecture and increase of the binucleated hepatocytes, disappearance of hemorrhage between the hepatic lobules, formation of foreign body granulomas and reduction in the various stages of the parasites and oocysts in the bile ducts .The result showed that changes more rapid when animals were treated with 400 mg/ kg/ B.W of N. sativa seeds oil emulsion than when treated same emulsion at dose 200 mg/ k.g/ B.W without side effects. From the results obtained in the present study N. sativa seeds oil emulsion was safe without side effects and the dose 400 mg/kg/B.W was more effective against E. stiedae infection than dose 200 mg/kg/B.W which may be recommended for use as adjuvant therapy in clinical practices

Study the effect of calf sex in incidence of dystocia in dairy heifers in Balad district

Nooruldeen Yaseen Khudhair

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 15-18

The study was conducted at Specialized Clinic in the Genital Diseases and Artificial Insemination in Balad district in Salahalddin province, from 1/6/2011 to 1/6/ 2014. The study included 90 heifers experienced dystocia. The heifers with difficult male births were 60 (66.67%) while the number of heifers with difficult female births was 30 (33.33%), with significant (P< 0.01) difference between the two groups. Heifers have difficult male births with alive male off springs were 24 (40%) whilst the heifers have difficult male births with dead male off springs were 36 (60%). The results showed significant (P< 0.01) difference between them. The number of heifers have difficult female births with alive female off springs was 13 (43.33%), while the heifers have difficult female births with dead female off springs were 17 (56.67%). The difference between these groups was significant (P< 0.05).

Direct Amplification of B1 gene of Toxoplasma gondii DNA using Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction Following Microwave Treatment for Whole Blood Samples

Balkes Fadel hade; Abdulameer Mohamed Ghareeb; Hameed Kawan

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 23-27

Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is a cause of fetal death since T. gondii can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta (transplacental) from an infected mother or at vaginal delivery. Blood obtained from women and sheep to confirm their infection with toxoplasmosis by using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay test (ELISA) to ditective positive specific anti-Toxoplasma (IgM, IgG and IgM, or IgG) antibodies. This study used two methodes to extract DNA (the first one was a standard extraction commercial method (CM-PCR) of genomic DNA using a commercial kit (Promega, USA), and the second one was the direct heat DNA extraction using microwave oven (MW-PCR) for whole blood samples obtained from infected women and sheep. Then nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (n PCR) were used to amplify Toxoplasma B1 gene to detect T. gondii DNA in whole blood samples. The results indecated using of microwave treatment instead of commercial kit to extract DNA is low cost and short time,and complement serology for clinical studies and diagnostic purposes of toxoplasmosis.

Isolation and identification of pseudomonas aeruginosa from infected sheep and detection of phosolipase C (lecithinase)

Assma H. Aljobori; Ahmed N. Mahmood

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 28-32

The current study dealt with the isolation and identification of 19 isolates (14.07%) for the period (October 2013 to January 2014) from different samples (135 samples) number of isolates belonging to Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 8 isolated from urine samples, their percentage were 33.33 % and 5 isolates from nasal swabs, (11.11%) and 4 isolated from milk samples (9.30%), 2 isolated from wound swabs (24%) and isolates from eye infection (9.09%). These isolates were identified by morphological examination and biochemical tests and API-20 NE system. The second part was the study of the antibiotic susceptibility that was carried out on 19 isolates of P. aeruginosa for 12 types of antibiotic. The results showed that isolates were resistant to 9 out of 12 antibiotics with percentage (Penicillin 100%, nalidixic acid100%, pipracillin 100%, erythromycin 68,4%, Chloramphenicol 63%, 78%, trimthoprim 73%, ceftacizidem 89%, cefitriaxon 84% and cefotaxime 89%) on the other hand most of isolates were sensitive to (epipenime, azythromycin, and polymixin). Detection of phospholipase C (Lecithinase) by agar well diffusion method on different selective media as (egg yolk agar, briliant green crystal violates lecithnase agar BCL), 12 isolates out of 19 showed a positive reaction on these media. The result depended on measurement the diameter of opacity zone produced and the blush green zone on the BCL media, the diameter of zone ranged from 8mm to 32mm. both media (EYA and BCL media is the best media for detection of phospholipase by P. aeruginosa.

Serological diagnosis of persistent infection with Anaplasma marginale bacteria in cattle

Hasanain AJ. Al-gharban; Salim H. Dhahir

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 33-39

Bovine anaplasmosis is one of the tick-borne diseases caused by Anaplasma marginale bacteria
which can cause high economic losses to livestock. Cattle that recovered from acute infection become carriers without clinical signs related to the disease and these bacteria can persist for lifetime in the blood. The present study was conducted to detect antibodies of persistently infected cattle with A. marginale in Wasit province/ Iraq. A total of 100 blood samples were collected randomly from cattle over one year old. Blood smears were prepared, stained with Giemsa,s stain and subjected to microscopic examination for detection of Anaplasma marginale bacteria within an infected RBCs, while serum samples were tested by a competitive enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay test (cELISA) for detection of antibodies in persistently infected cases . Mythic 18 Vet system was used as blood analysis for blood parameters measurement. Results of blood smear examination revealed 13 acute cases, while ELISA detected 35% of carriers. Whereas, the hematological parameters showed that the acutely infected cattle had the macrocytic hypochromic anemia, the persistently infected cattle displaed the microcytic hypochromic and the normocytic hypochromic anemia. Results of blood analysis revealed a significant difference (P˂0.05) in hematological parameters of acute and chronic cases. It has been concluded that cELISA is a reliable screening test for detection of antibodies specific to Anaplasma marginale bacteria

Anatomical and Histological Study of Thyroid, Parathyroid and Ultimobranchial Glands in Iraqi Local Breed Turkey “Meleagris gallopavo”

Hanaa Kareem Ali; Shakir Mahmoud Mirhish

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 40-48

The present study is designated to demonstrate the distinctive features, location, shape and boundaries, as well as the histological structures and the blood supply of the thyroid, parathyroid and ultimobranchial glands in the local breed turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Twelve healthy birds from the local breed of Turkey were taken and divided into two equal groups: Six birds for anatomical study and six birds for histological study (three males and three females) for each study. Some anatomical parameters of the three glands which include: Length, width and volume, gross description, anatomical location and blood supply of the three glands were done. The anatomical results showed that the local breed Turkey has a pair of thyroid glands located in the thoracic inlet closely related to the common carotid artery and supplied with blood by three groups of arteries, the cranial thyroid, the middle thyroid and the caudal thyroid arteries. The mean length, width, weight and volume of the thyroid gland in turkey male were higher than in the female. Histologically thyroid gland enclosed by a thin collagenous capsule and consisted of spherical thyroid follicles lined by a single layer of epithelial cells enclosing a cavity filled with colloid and contain accessory parathyroid nodules between follicles. The Turkey bird also has asymmetrical pair of parathyroid glands, the right parathyroid gland located adjacent to the right thyroid gland while left one is being clearly separated from the left thyroid gland and located adjacent to or in contact with the left ultimobranchial gland medially to the common carotid artery, the gland in turkey is a single gland in all specimens. The mean length, width, weight and volume of the parathyroid gland in turkey female were more than in male. Histologically parathyroid gland is surrounded by collagenous capsule and composed of irregular anastomosing and branching cords of chief cells radiated about central sinusoids. The turkey bird also has a pair of ultimobranchial glands lying one on either side of the trachea, caudal to the parathyroid gland closely related to the bifurcation of the brachiocephalic artery. The mean length, width, weight and volume of ultimobranchial gland in turkey were of equal values between males and females. The gland composed histologically of different epithelial components including: C–cells or calcitonin–producing cells arranged as groups and loose cords, parathyroid nodules, vesicles or follicles of various shapes and sizes and cystic structure occupy most of the gland stroma. The mean length, width and volume of ultimobranchial founds in Turkey were similar in male and female

Teratogenic effects of Metoprolol in the chick embryos

Abbas Razzaq Abed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 49-55

This study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of Metoprolol on chicken embryos during the period of cuddling automated .This study was completed in Babylon hatchery dedicated to the production of chick chickens, which is located in the province of Babylon. One hundred eggs (Belgian origin, CZ 1924) were divided into equal four groups. The first group injected eggs by Metaprolol at dose 10 mg /70kg BW, and the second group eggs was injected by Metoprolol at dose 15 mg /70kg BW, while eggs in the third group was injected by physiological normal saline only and the fourth group did not inject their eggs any material and considered the control group and all the eggs used in this experiment to take on the fourth day of cuddling. The results of this study showed a decrease in the percentage hatching in groups injected with Metoprolol (T1 and T2 groups, 4% and 13%, respectively) compared to the T3 and the control groups. Also showed the results of the current study, no significant difference at the level of (P <0.05) in the weights of embryos after hatching. While histopathological examination showed the presence of pathological lesions in the heart tissue in injected eggs groups by Metoprolol (T1 and T2 groups) and included these changes infiltration of inflammatory cells, thickening in epicardium and the presence of vacuolation in heart tissue with the appearance of edema, heart tissue damage, congestion in the blood vessels and the occurrence of hemorrhage.

Laparoscopic partial splenectomy by using two techniques in goats

Z. J. Malik; M. J. Eesa

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 56-61

The aim of this study is to evaluate the laparoscopic partial splenectomy, using horizontal interrupted mattress suture and electro- cautery techniques in goats. Sixteenth adult goats were divided into two main equal groups (A and B). Each group was additionally divided into two equal subgroups, according to follow up on 15th and 30th days postoperatively for histopathology examination.All operations were performed under general anesthesia. Physical and clinical examination were measured pre-operatively and 1st to 7th days postoperative. The results revealed that the two techniques of both groups were performed successfully and the operation time in group A was 86.125±20 min., which was longer than that in group B 62.375±10 min. There were significant (P<0.05) differences in the physical parameters in all the experimental goats. All animals gradually returned to the normal solid food intake and activity, defecation and urination after 72hrs postoperative. Laparoscopic gross pathological changes revealed adhesions between spleen, rumen, and abdominal wall which were more severe in group A as compared with group B. Histopathology examination showed that both groups were associated with collagen and fibrous tissue formation similar to capsule surrounding the site of the incision, which was more in group B than in group A, and the latter group was infiltrated with more inflammatory cells. Also group B had more lymphocyte aggregation around the central artery, in addition to that there was thickness of capsule and mature granulation tissue, but in group A there was edema, congested red pulp and immature granulation tissue.

Effect of crude polyphenol extracted from black olive fruit (Olea europae) on male reproductive system of rats

Anwar Ibrahim Obaid; Layla Hashim Alol; Aous Kahtan Al-Mzaien; Omar Hussein Khalaf

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 62-69

The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of olive polyphenols (200 mg/kg) on mature reproductive performance of male rats subjected to oxidative stress by 1%hydrogen peroxide. Twenty rats were divided randomly into four equal groups and treated for 30 days to control group C which were orally adminstrated ordinary tap water, while the first group (G1) was given 1% H2O2 in drinking water, the second group (G2) was treated orally alcoholic extract of polyphenol in olive (200mg/kg) by oral intubation. The third treated group (G3) was treated orally H2O2 and black olive fruit- polyphenol. Blood samples were collected after 30 days for measuring, the serum concentration of testosterone, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and leuitinizing hormone (LH). At the end of experiment, the animals were scarified and testis were removed, weighed as well as section from them were taken for histopathological study and the epididymis were taken for counting dead and live sperms. The results showed a significant increase in the weight of the testis in G2 group as compared to the control and significant decrease in the percentage of live sperms in (G1) group and significant increase in the percentage of dead sperms in H2O2 treated G1 group and control group. The results show significant differences in testosterone hormone concentration between treated groups and control group while there was known significant increased in concentration of luteinizing hormone between treated groups and control group. There was a significant decrease in FSH in treated (G1) group comparing with control group. The histological study showed edema and thickness of basement membrane of seminiferous tubules with incomplete spermatogenesis process in treated (G1) group, there were no lesions observed in other treated groups. Finally, the outcomes of of this study documented the advantageous effect of crude polyphenolic compounds of olive against the harmful effect of H2O2 on reproductive system of adult males rats.

The prevalence of the genus Eimeria in Draught and Al- Fourosia club horses of Baghdad Province

Amer Rasool Fadhl; Dalia Ahmed Kalef; Athmar K. Abbas

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 70-74

The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of infection with the genus Eimeria in draught and Al- Fourosia club horses of Baghdad province regarding season sex, and age. The prevalence of Eimeria oocysts was investigated from November 2009 to July 2010 in 369 horses from Baghdad province; they included 136 draught horses and 233 Al-Fourosia club horses varying in age from < 2-12 years old. Fecal samples were examined by using direct method and flotation technique. Eimeria oocysts were found in 75 (20.32%) of the samples divided into 41(30.14%) from draught horses and 34 (14.59%) from Al-Fourosia club horses with a significant difference (P<0.05) between the two groups. No differences were recorded regarding sex. The highest rate of prevalence was recorded in draught horses during April, May and June, and the lowest rate, in January and July. In Al-Fourosia club horses the rate of prevalence was also highest in April, May and June, while the lowest rate, was in January and December. The results showed the effect of the age on the rate of prevalence with significant differences (P<0.05) between draught horses and Al- Fourosia club horses at less than 2 years old; the rate was 0% in draught horses and 11.11% in Al- Fourosia club horses. In contrast, the rate was much higher in drought horses than Al- Fourosia club horses at the age of 2-4 years old. A similar finding was recorded in the 4-6 year old group.

Prevalence of Giardia lamblia in Asymptomatic Patients by Direct Examination and ELISA Methods

Fadia Abd Al-Muhsin AL-Khayat; Farah Thamer Abdullah; Najwa Shhab Ahmed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 75-80

Stool samples from 182 asymptomatic patients were collected from two hospitals in Baghdad (Al-Yarmok and Central Child) during the period from the beginning of March to the end of June/2014 and subjected to microscopic and ELISA diagnostic techniques for Giardia lamblia detection; the sensitivity and specificity for ELISA were calculated. Cysts of G. lamblia were observed in 37 and 49 stool samples of asymptomatic patients from a total 182 examined samples with prevalence recorded 20.32, 26.92% by direct examination and ELISA respectively. Of 145 samples showed negative result in microscope examination, 12 samples were positive in ELISA, sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 75.51 and 100%. Higher prevalence rates were observed in asymptomatic children aged 2-8 years old 27.84% (22+ve/79) in contrast with 26.21% prevalence rate in asymptomatic adults aged 21-57 years old (27+ve /103). According to gender, males showed higher prevalence 28.94% (33+ve/114) while females showed lower prevalence rate 23.52% (16+ve/68). No differences in the level of infection in both age and gender were recorded. Conclusion: The superior sensitivity of the rapid enzyme assay in detecting asymptomatic cases of giardiasis when a single stool specimen is analyzed, the availability of an immunodiagnostic assay which can detect small amounts of antigens in the feces which have a potential tools to improve the diagnosis.

Experimental Infection with bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus in mice

Aida Bara Allawe; Anton Sabri Al-Bana

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 81-84

Four weeks old mice were used for experimental infection with isolated bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus. Mice were divided into three groups: The first group was infected by intracerebral route, the second group was infected by intranasal route and the third group was a control group. Experimental infection with isolated bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus in mice revealed that the isolated BPIV-3 was unable to kill 4 weeks old mice within 65 days when inoculated by intracerebral route, but isolated BPIV-3 was shown to kill (5 out of 10) 4 weeks old mice within 65 days when inoculated by intranasal route. There was no mortality in the control group within the same period. Two weeks old mice were used for experimental infection with isolated bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus and histopathological examination of infected organs was performed. Experimental infection of 2 weeks old mice by isolated BPIV-3 revealed that isolated BPIV-3 induced hydrocephalus after intracerebral inoculation. Histopathological examination for collected organs of BPIV-3 infected 2 weeks old mice (brain and lung) indicated histopathological changes were detected in comparison to non-infected collected organs. Virus was reisolated from infected brains of experimentally infected mice with locally isolated BPIV-3.

Isolation and Identification of Cryptococcus neoformans from Human Skin Lesions and Application of Animal Experiment (in vivo)

Mahmood F.A; Alwan M.J

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 85-89

The study aimed at determining the percentage of Cryptococcus neoformance isolated from skin lesions in human in order to find the effect of heat killed cryptococcal antigen on infection with this fungus in mice and efficiency of chitosan in protecting the mice against the infection with the fungus Cryptococcus neoformance. In order to achieve the first aim, 100 cutaneous samples were collected from variable skin regions in humans suffering from cutaneous lesions from both sexes and with variable ages. The samples were collected from Abu-Ghraib Hospital,Al-Yarmook Teaching hospital and Al-karama Hospital during a period from December 2012 untill March 2013. The results showed that 3 (3%) isolates out of 100 skin samples were the fungus C.neoformans. The fungal isolates were from patients with average age 1-25 years they did not have any systemic clinical signs. Also the results showed that the ratio of fungal isolates from females was higher than those isolated from males. In order to achieve the second aim ,Sixty white mice from both sexes and with average age 8-10 weeks were divided randomly into 4 groups equally and treated as follows 1st group was immunized with 0.2 ml of heat killed C.neoformans antigens (HKCAgs) in a dose of (1X107) fungal cells,subcutanously at two doses with two weeks interval. The 2nd group was immunized similar to 1st group and at the same time fed diet supplemented with 1gkg diet of chitosan for 8 weeks. While the 3rd group served as control positive group, 4th group served as control negative group.Cell mediated and antibody mediated immune responses were determined at day 27-30 post-immunization. Immunized animals fed diet supplemented with chitosan showed higher values of delayed type hypersensitivity reaction and Abs titer compared with those values of immunized animals only.

Study of histopathological changes in brian of mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii isolated from domestic rabbit

Raghad Ibraheam Khalil AL-Mahdawi; Alia Yousif Yakoob; Rajiha abd Alsattar

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 90-93

The study was designed to determine the infection rate of Toxoplasma gondii in the rabbits and histopathological changes of infected internal organs in mice. A total of 60 blood samples were collected from clinically healthy rabbits from different region of Baghdad city for the serological detection of T. gondii infection. Biological assay in mice was performed by intraperitoneal inoculation of 0.1 ml digested organs suspension, (lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, muscles, and brain) during the period from October 2013 until July 2014. The results revealed histopathological changes in bioassay mice infected by T. gondii isolated from domestic rabbit, no histopathological changes in the brain of animals of first group1 (control group), but in the group 2 (killed at day 15) the main pathological changes were perivascular perineuronal edema with presence of some degenerated neurons characterized by shrunken dark blue stained (basophilic) cell bodies. In the animals of the group 2 (killed at day 21) the main brain histopathological changes were Sever congestion of meningeal blood vessels with infiltration of inflammatory cells and focal aggregation of microglial cells with diffuse obvious focal gliosis, whereas, in the same group animals that killed at day 28 the main brain histopathological changes were focal encephalomalacia and edema between molecular and granular layer

In vitro antiviral potential of Ocimum basilicum and Olea europaea leaves extract against Newcastle Disease Virus of poultry

Sarah A. H. Al-Amri; Shony M. Odisho; Orooba M.S. Ibrahem

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 94-99

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of using alcoholic Ocimum basilicum and Olea europaea leaves extract, to study the antiviral activity against the Newcastle disease virus of poultry chicken embryo fibroblast monolayer culture. The extract was also decided for the chicken fibroblast culture and the concentrations (500, 250, 125, 100 and 50 µg /ml) of an alcoholic extract of Ocimum basilicum and Olea europaea leaves in maintenance media appeared to be nontoxic. Where the cytopathic effects of the Newcastle disease virus on chicken embryo fibroblast monolayer culture are well established so these concentrations were used to detect the antiviral activity of Ocimum basilicum and Olea europaea in addition to in vitro, pre and post -inoculative treatment of fibroblast cells with plant extracts to get an idea of viral reduction titer in cell tissue culture. Absence of cytopathic effects in monolayer cell culture and virus titer reduction were used as an indicative of antiviral activity of extract of Ocimum basilicum and Olea europaea leaves. In vitro, pre and post -inoculative treatment of fibroblast cells with plant extracts showed that leaves of Ocimum basilicum, and Olea europaea had antiviral activities of Newcastle disease virus at 500 and 250 µg/ml. In conclusion the viral reduction titer was found range between 10-6 to 10-1 with 500 µg /ml of Olea europaea and Ocimum basilicum extract as compared to 10-7 with virus control

Effect of Force 6® Poultry (Curcumin) on Lipid profile in Broiler chicken in presence of IBD vaccine

Amjed H. Ulaiwi; Shony M. Odishio; Salah M. Hassan

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 100-104

The aim of this study was to investigate effect of Force 6® Poultry on lipid profile in broiler chicken in presence of IBD vaccine. Two hundred chicks at one day old were divided into four equal groups as: Group 1; 50 day old unvaccinated chicks were given (50 gm/ton) of Force 6® Poultry (curcumin) along the experimental period (35 days), chicks in group 2; were given IBD vaccine in (15-day old) (BURSINE-2), chicks in group 3 were vaccinated with IBD at (15-day old) and given Force 6® Poultry along time of experimental (with 50 gm/ton). Group 4, 50 chicks were saved as negative control. Blood samples were collected from heart for lipid profile detection and included (cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein HDL, very low density lipoprotein VLDL, low-density lipoprotein LDL). The result of lipid profile showed significant (P˂0.05) differences with higher value between groups which were (G2, G4) which did not receive force 6 poultry than group (G1, G3) which received force 6 poultry for (cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL,VLDL). In conclusion, the Force 6® Poultry had main effect to improve lipid profile of treated groups than these groups untreated.

Role of Chitosan Application in Postoperative Abdominal Adhesions in Rabbits

S.I. Salih; atelaf A. Al-Mutheffer; A.K. Mahdi; R.A; S. Al-Naimi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 105-111

This study was performed to evaluate the reliability and efficacy of intra-peritoneal performances of chitosan powder in preventing abdominal adhesions following laparotomy. Twenty clinically healthy rabbits of both sexes, weighing 1.5-2 kg were allocated randomly into 2 equal groups; control group (G1) and treated group (G2). After surgical preparation the animals had undergone to laparotomy which was performed to create a sero-muscular incision of 4cm length in the stomach, in G1 the incision was closed by suturing stomach wound and abdominal wall, While (G2) animals were subjected to same operation but after stomach incision suturing, 1gr. of chitosan powder was sprinkled on stomach incision and peritoneal cavity prior to the lina alba and skin closures. 5 animals of each group were euthanized at two periods: 7th and 21st day post operation, adhesions in abdominal cavity were examined macroscopically and microscopically. The results showed clearly no adhesions at the operation site (the stomach wound), also on all abdominal organs and peritoneum cavity in both examination periods in G2. In conclusion this study revealed that chitosan plays a vital role in restrictions of intra-abdominal adhesion even though the mechanism of action is still unknown

A comparative histological study on the blood film of young and adult, male and female Monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus)

Muntadher S. Al-Zubaidi; and Amer M. Hussin

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 112-118

Twenty Vervets monkeys were used to study the effect of sexes and ages on morphohistological and hematological pictures. The study revealed that age and sex affect blood values. Vervet monkeys registered a significant dominancy of hematological parameters in adult males. Erythrocytes of vervet monkeys were of macrocytic type, howell-Jolly bodies were observed. Rouleaux formation, Anisocytosis, Aggregation, and Agglutination were not observed. A significant predominancy of neutrophils in females and lymphocytes in males was recorded. The neutrophil was well defined, large with ring-shaped highly segmented nucleus. Band neutrophils were not observed in peripheral blood. Eosinophils recorded high values. Circulating leukocytes acted as a transient phase in the functional development of tissue leukocytes. Lymphocytes were the most common cells among leukocytes. Three sizes of lymphocytes and two of monocytes were registered. The value of monocytes percent was higher in males. The herein study declared that blood platelets showing different sizes, shapes and affinities for basic stains and according to these functional affinity, light resting and dark stimulating blood platelets were classified. There was a reverse relationship between the number of erythrocytes and blood platelets among different sexes and ages. In conclusion, the present study hypothesized that blood platelets serve as a supporting cells for blood cells especially erythrocytes. Besides, humoral immune defense in monkeys were well developed.

Histopathological study of cecal tonsils in broilers exposed to heat stress after treatment with lactobacillus acidophilus

H. A; Balqees; Ebtasam; J. A; Nawals

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 119-124

This study was designed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus spp on the histology of cecal tonsils in broiler chicks exposed to heat stress. eighty broiler chicks were divided randomly into four groups equally and treated as follows: 1st group was administred orally with 1×108/0.1 CFU/ml of (L.B.) at one day old, 2nd group was treated as 1st group but at 21 days old, and 3rd group (control positive), all three groups were exposed to heat stress (38-40Cº) for period 10 days for three hours continuously, 4th group (control negative) was kept under natural condition. Organ samples from cecal tonsils were taken for histopathological test after 48 hrs., 120 hrs. and 240 hrs. of exposure to heat stress. The result revealed that most important lesions in 3rd group occur after 48 hrs. Cellular debri and marked cellularity (inflammatory cell) occur after 120hrs. was vacculation and degeneration of epithelial layer cell. While the first 1st group after 48 hrs. showed moderate cellularity, after 120 hrs. showed marked lymphocyte proliferation and after 220 hrs. Increased goblet cell in the epithelial cell and 2nd group showed after 48 hrs. mild cellarity of lamina properia, and after 120 hrs. showed moderate lymphocytic hyperplasia. In conclusion exposure to heat stress caused destructive lesion in the cecal tonsil especially after 48 hrs. and 120 hrs. and gave lactobacillus acidophilus at 21 days more effective that at one day in reducing the effect of heat stress on histology of cecal tonsils

Histomorphological study of the Miebomian glands in local Iraqi breed goats (Coprus hircus)

Ahmed Sh. J. Al-Rikabi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 125-127

The study was designed to investigate the histomorphology of Miebomian gland in local Iraqi breed goats (coprus hircus).The research work included specimens of upper and lower eyelids of the eyes of 10 head of local breed black Iraqi goats aged 10-14 months (5 male and 5 female) and the routine histological technique was done from fixation till staining of histological sections. The study revealed that the Miebomian glands present in the sub palpebral conjnctiva arranged in parallel position along the upper and lower eyelids of the eye each gland opened besides the hair follicle (cilia) and its secretion are oily (lipid) called miebum. This material very important to spreading the tear on the cornea to prevent evaporation and reaching the nutrients and oxygen to the cornea of the eye. In conclusion this study revealed the importance of the miebomian gland in the healthy status of the eye, in local Iraqi goats

Detection of invasion gene invA in Salmonella spp. Isolated from slaughtered cattle by PCR method

Arcan A N Al-Zubaidy; Afaf Abdulrahman Yousif; Mawlood A. A. Al-Graibawi; Jalil Darkhan

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2015, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 128-133

The present study was carried out for the identification and molecular characterization of Salmonella spp. isolated from cattle at abattoir by biochemical, serotyping and virulence gene based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Eleven Salmonella were isolated from cattle at abattoir, these isolates were cultured and biochemically characterized by double checking with a conventional method and by KB011 Hi Salmonella TM identification kit then confirmed by serotyping and testing for detection of the invA virulence gene by PCR by using a Salmonella-specific 506 bp invA gene amplicon. The biochemical and serotyping results revealed that the 11 isolates belonged to four serotypes, S. enteritidis was the predominant serotype,5 isolates (45.45%) followed by S. newport 3 (27.27%), S. ohio, 2 (18.18%) and S. anatum, 1(9.09%). The PCR technique confirmed that all Salmonella isolates carried the invA gene (DNA amplification showed one distinct band with molecular weight of 506 bp amplified fragment on electrophoresis in agarose gel).The PCR assay described herein was found to be a rapid and simple method to confirm the isolates as Salmonella.