Print ISSN: 1609-5693

Online ISSN: 2410-7409

Volume 40, Issue 1

Volume 40, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2016, Page 1-166

Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Helminthes and Protozoa among Stray Dogs in Baghdad

Afkar M. Hadi; Azhar A. Faraj

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 1-4

The aim of this study is to identify the gastrointestinal parasites and Protozoa in stray dogs. The current study include seven genera of intestinal helminthes and protozoa as follows: one cestode (Taenia sp. 29.1%), four nematode (Hookworm 86.6%, Toxocara canis 67.5%, Trichuris vulpis 51.6% and Stongyloides sp. 5%) and two protozoa (Gairdia sp. 24.1% and Cryptosporidium sp. 20.8%) from 120 fecal samples of dogs were collected from different regions of Baghdad during the period from February to July 2014.The results revealed that the intestinal parasites appeared in all months of study; however, the high rates of infection was during winter months.

5 Evaluating the bacterial culture technique by Polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of Brucella abortus in milk of cows suspected with brucellosis.

Bashar Sadeq Noomy; Nihad Abdulhassan Jafar

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 5-8

The aim of this study is to determine the sensitivity of bacterial culture technique in the detection of Brucella abortus in milk samples of aborted cows. Sixty samples of milk were collected from aborted cows during a period which did not exceed two months after the abortion. All of them were positive for rose bengal test. Results showed that Brucella abortus was isolated from 7 out of 60 (11.6%) from the milk of aborted cows, while PCR test showed that 32 out of 60 (53.3%) milk sample contained Brucella abortus. The specificity of culture techniques was 10%, but its sensitivity was only 21.8%. Beside the cautions in dealing with live Brucella abortus (as culture), it is also less sensitive than PCR, though it is better to use PCR technique in the diagnosis of brucellosis in aborted cows mil

Comparative effect of probiotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), prebiotic (Fructooligosaccharide) and their combination on some blood indices in young common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

Nasreen M. Abdulrahman; Vian M. Ahmed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 9-15

This study was carried out to examine the effect of Fructooligosaccharide as a source of prebiotic, and commercial dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as a source of probiotic and their combination in different level as a source of synbiotic. The experiment was conducted in the fish laboratory of Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences of Sulaimani University. The trials lasted for three months after 21 days of adapting period 120 common carp fingerlings with an average weight of 20 ±2 gm, were used to test the effect of different levels of the Fructooligosaccharide, yeast and their combination. In T1 fish were fed a diet with 2.5 gm/kg Fructooligosaccharide, in T2, fish were fed a diet 2.5 gm/kg yeast, T3 represents the third treatment, in which fish were fed on a diet 5 gm/kg Fructooligosaccharide. While, in T4 fish were fed a diet 5 gm/kg yeast, and T5 2.5 Fructooligosaccharide: 2.5 Yeast (gm/kg), T6 was 5 Fructooligosaccharide: 5 yeast (gm/kg), T7 2.5 Fructooligosaccharide: 5 Yeast gm/kg), while T8 5 Fructooligosaccharide, 2.5 (gm/kg) Yeast. Each treatment in three replicates in which five fingerlings common carp were stocked in plastic tanks, which fed the experimental diets twice daily. Blood parameters of tested fish showed significant differences in Red blood cell count (1012 cells/l) in T5 and T7 by 1.235 and 1.260, respectively. Hemoglobin (g/dl) data were 117.000 in the fifth treatment. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin (pg/cell) was 121.400 in T2, 137.850 in T3, 121.050 in T4, and 135.300 in T6; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (g/l) was 924.000, in the seventh treatment, mean corpuscular volume were (fL) 232.500 and 233.050 in T4 and T8 respectively. There were different effects of the treatment in the studied blood parameters in which the level of 2.5 g/kg in both Fructooligosaccharide and dry yeast affect significantly the Red blood cell, White blood cell and Hemoglobin.

Selenium levels in clinically healthy Iraqi stray cats in Baghdad city

Wasan A. Gharbi AL-Dulimy; Ahmed N. Awad AL-Ani

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 16-19

The aim of this study was to measure the selenium level in the stray cats of both sexes. Blood samples were collected from forty four male and female stray cats from different places in Baghdad city for the estimation of selenium level. The results showed that the lowest value was 1.646 μmol/L (0.13 μg/ml (ppm)) and the highest value was 3.798 μmol/L (0.3 μg/ml (ppm)) with a mean value ± Standard Error of 2.526 μmol/L ± 0.091 (0.1995 μg/ml (ppm)± 0.007). The range in males and females was 1.646 - 3.798 μmol/L (0.13 - 0.3 μg/ml (ppm)) and 2.405 - 3.798 μmol/L (0.19 - 0.3 μg/ml (ppm)), respectively with a mean 2.45 μmol/L ± 0.108 (0.194 μg/ml (ppm)± 0.009) and 2.785 μmol/L ± 0.137 (0.22 μg/ml (ppm)± 0.011) for males and females respectively .There were no significant differences between sexes under level (P≤ 0.05). The selenium concentration in blood of local Iraqi cats was within the international lowest limit of these ranges

Effect of L-Carnitine and Niacin addition on some blood parameters of fry Common Carp Cyprinus carpi

N. A. M. Al-Muslimawi; S. A. Al-Shawi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 20-24

The present study was conducted in order to focus on the effect of the addition of Carnitine and Niacin on some blood serum parameters of Common Carp Cyprinus Carpio. 48 fish carp mean weight 44.13 gm were distributed randomly on four feeding treatments (12 fish each) with replicates (6 fish each) in 8 glass aquaria. Treatments were as follows: fish were fed on basic diet without any addition and conducted as control (T1); addition of 200 mg Carnitine/ Kg diet, (T2) addition of 28 mg Niacin/Kg diet (T3), addition of a mixture of 200 mg Carnitine and 28 mg Niacin/ Kg diet as (T4). The experiment was conducted for 70 days and the results showed an increase in the Cholesterol concentration of T1 (187.6 mg/ 100 ml) and differed significantly (P<0.05) from T2 (163.95 mg / 100 ml), T3 (157.6 mg/ 100 ml) and T4 (162.43 mg / 100 ml) where they did not differ between them. Total protein Serum concentrations of T2 (5.11 mg/ dl), T3 (5.00 mg / dl) and T4 (5.07mg/dl) were not differ significantly but all differed significantly (P≤0.05) with T1 (4.07mg/ dl). Conclusion showed that fish fed on (200 mg Carnitine and 28 mg Niacin) had low serum cholesterol concentrations and high serum total protein

Morphological and morph metric study of the mandible in the local Rabbits (Oryctolagus Cunicuius)

Qismah Modhafar Salih

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 25-29

Eleven adult local rabbits (6 female and 5male) were used for this study. The mandible were prepared to study the gross anatomical features. The main gross characteristics feature of the local rabbits mandible the ramus forms a broad, thin and flat plate, the surface of the ramus is greatly increased in its posteroventral portion to form the angle or angular process. The articular surface is elongated and carry on its caudodorsal end a slightly oblique condyloid process, this process in rabbit is raised much above the planes of the molar table and has a prolonged aspect in a longitudinal plan. In front of the shallow mandibular notch, the coronoid process is short and blunt process situated in front of mandibular notch. In the rabbit mandible the alveoli for the canine teeth were absent resulting in a large diastema Mandibular foramen situated on the medial surface immediately behind the last molar. There is a large retroalveolr foramen. The female local rabbit showed significant greater measurement than the male.

Histopathological changes in some tissues of Tigris river fishes, exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons, Baghdad city

Nahla Taleb Mansoor; Enam Bader Faleh; Lauya Mohamad Abas; Kasim Rethaw Asmer; Mustafa Jawad Jalil

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 30-37

During the period between January till December 2012, a total of 119 fish samples were collected and examined from Tigris River between Al-Jadiriya Bridge and Al-Zaafaraniya region in two stations, the first station was located under Al-Jadiriya bridge and the second station was located at Al-Zaafaraniya region before Diayla river in order to know the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons in the tissues of the examined fishes. Fish samples belonged to (16) species (Acanthobrama marmid, Albernus caeruleus, Aspius vorax, Barbua belayewi, B. grypus, B. xanthopterus, Carassius carassius, Carasobarbus luteus, Cyprinion macrostomum, Chondrostomua regium, Gara ruffa, Heteropneustes fossilis, Leuciscus cephalus, Liza abu, Mystus pelusius and Tilapia zillii). The histopathological examination included 44 specimens from the internal and external organs of Chontrostoma regium in order to examine the histopathological changes in some organs like (gills, muscles, kidney, liver and spleen). The results revealed congestion, edema, separating, severe vacuolation and dilation of gill secondary lamella, while muscle samples showed mild hyalinization, infiltration of mononuclear cells and fragmentation. The kidney showed hydropic degeneration, necrosis changes, hyperplastic of melanomacrophages, severe dilation of blood vessels with cellular swelling of renal tubule epithelial lining and depletion of hemopoiotic tissues. Severe dilation and congestion of blood vessels and sinusoid, nucleopleomorphism were noticed with nucleomegalocytic of hepatocytes, hemorrhagic with mineral deposition in hepatic parenchyma. Lymphoid depletion in white pulp and hemopoitic tissues, congestion of red pulp, severe hyperplasia were noticed with dilation of splenic tissues. Water samples from Tigris river were analyzed for measuring the level of petroleum hydrocarbons in water and appeared that the pollution 0.0048 mg/L in Al-Jadiriya station and 0.0674 mg/L in Al-Zaafaraniya station.

The effect of melatonin on adrenal gland and pancreas function in alloxan – induced diabetes in adult female rabbits

Intisar Arar Taher; Jawad Kadhim Arrak

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 38-46

The present study was carried out to investigate the ameliorative effect of melatonin on pancreatic and adrenal dysfunction induced by alloxan in adult female rabbits. Twenty four adult female rabbits were randomly divided into four equal groups treated for 42 days as follows: control group received 2 ml of distal water intraperitoneally, animals of the second group received single dose of 150 mg /kg of alloxan (group T1), while the third group received single dose of 150 mg/kg of alloxan and after 7 days received 10mg/kg I/P of melatonin for 42 days of experiment (T2 group). The fourth group received 10 mg/kg I/P of melatonin for 42 days .After the 7 days of alloxan injection the blood is collected from (T1) and (T2) animals, to investigate of diabetes induction in these groups. Also blood samples were collected at zero time, 14, 28 and 42 days of the experiment for measuring the serum concentration of glucose, total protein, total cholesterol, reduce glutathione and hormones concentration (insulin and cortisol). The result of present study indicated that melatonin administration is not affected in body weight in rabbits to T2 and T3 as compared with control group, while (T1) group showed significant decrease in these parameters as compared with other groups. The adrenal gland weight to body weight ratio showed significant increase in adrenal weight in (T1) as compared with all other group while T2 and T3 groups showed significant decrease as compared with T1 groups. While the pancreas gland weight to body weight ratio showed significant increase in pancreas weight in (T3) group as compared with other groups. Animals T1 and T2 groups showed significant decrease as compared with T3 and control groups. Animals T1 group showed significant elevation in serum glucose, total cholesterol and serum cortisol concentration as compared with control, T2 and T3 groups. The results also showed a significant decrease in total serum protein, serum insulin and reduce glutathione concentrations in alloxan treated group (T1) as compared with control, T2 and T3 animals. Inferred from the result of this experiment is treatment of diabetic female rabbits with melatonin (10 mg /kg .B.W) for 42 days lead to improve the function of adrenal gland and pancreas gland. Also it showed the possibility of reducing oxidative stress triggered by alloxan through the use of melatonin.

Diagnosis of Eimeria spp. in Capra ibex (local meriz goat)

Saad M Al-Bayati; Adnan M Al-Rekani; Ahmed A Hamed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 47-52

Out of 77 of local meriz goats (Capra ibex), 29 (37.67%) were diagnosed as infected with coccidia. The infection percentage was 22.08% in kids less than six months of age as compared with older age (15.59%). A moderate diarrhea was the only clinical sign which was observed in three infected kids (3.9%). Six Eimeria (E.) species were diagnosed, they were E.alijevi, E.christenseni, E.caprovina, E.minasensis, E.megaembryonica, E.ninakohlyakimovae. E.megaembryonica was suggested to be a new species as it has a bigger embryonic mass which could be depended as a new parameter for coccidia classification. The germinal disk with two layers was very clear and observed in pre-sporulation Oocyst of most diagnosed species. The last three criteria are new in their mentioning. Also, Pot. Dichromate with 5% concentration is essential for follow-up of sporulation process to prevent of high bio - pollutants of fecal samples but without any effects upon biological features of isolated coccidia species

Role of acellular bovine urinary bladder submucosa on skin wound healing in Iraqi goats

Ahmed H. F. AL-Bayati; Hameed A. K. AL-Tememe; Nada H. A. AL-Mudallal

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 53-60

This study is designed to assess the effectiveness of bovine urinary bladder submucosa on healing of cutaneous wound in Iraqi goats. A 32 (2X2) cm of full-thickness cutaneous wounds were induced in eight goats, two on each side of the lateral thoracic region. The wounds were divided into two equal groups (16 wounds/ group); treatment group included the wounds on the right side which were treated by covering the wound beds with strips of acellular sterilized bovine urinary bladder matrix. While, the wounds on the left side were left without any treatment (control group). The results were evaluated clinically (along) and histopathologically on 7, 14, 21, and 35 days postinducing of wounds. The clinical evaluation of treated wounds showed that the wound healing process contraction%, re-epithelization % and total wound healing % were P<0.05 significantly than that of control wounds at 35 days of the study. The histopathological results confirmed that urinary bladder matrix treated wounds have enhanced cellularity, increased vasculature, thick and large granulation tissue suggesting enhanced cutaneous healing, than those in untreated wounds. Depending on the clinical and histopathological findings, this study concluded that a cellular bovine urinary bladder matrix play an important role in stimulation of cutaneous wound healing of goats without signs of immuno-rejection

The protective role of Pomegranate seed oil (Pometone) on serum protein in sodium fluoride treated female rats

Ellaf Hussian Ali; Najim Al-Okaily

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 61-68

This study is designed to determin the protective role of pomegranate seed oil against deleterious effect induced by sodium fluoride on serum proteins in rats. Forty (40) adult female rats were randomly divided into four equal group (10/group) and treated daily for 40 days as following: Group C administered distilled water (control), group T1 received sodium fluoride 120 ppm/liter in drinking water, group T2 received both sodium fluoride 120 ppm/liter in drinking water and Pometone 30 mg/kg B.w. orally and group T3 administered Pometone 30 mg/kg B.w. orally. Fasting blood samples were collected at 0, 20 and 40 days of the experimental periods and serum samples were aliquoted for estimation serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations. Also, protein electrophoresis was measured. The results revealed that sodium fluoride caused significant reduction in serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations, in addition to changes in the patterns of serum protein fractions % (albumin, α1-globulin, α2-globulin, β-globulin and γ-globulin) as compared with control rats. In conclusion Pomegranate seed oil caused elevation of proteins concentration as compared to group T1 and could potentially be beneficial in preventing the hepatic damage caused by sodium fluoride

Histological study of the thyroid tissue in carp fish (Cyprinus Carpio) in Summer and Winte

Amer M Hussin; Yahia Yass Khudher

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 69-72

This study is designed to investigate the effect of temperature on thyroid gland of 24 adult healthy female carp fish (12/ season). Neutral buffered formalin solution10% was used for fixation and routine histological techniques. Hemotoxline and Eosine and PAS stains were, also used. The results revealed that the thyroid tissue in carp fish was closely associated with the renal and sub pharyngeal tissue. Spleen and liver did not show any thyroid follicles. The thyroid tissue of carp fish consisted of disseminate thyroid follicles not surrounded by apparent capsule. Different sizes and shapes of thyroid follicles were observed. The follicular cells form tight epithelium. Para follicular cells were distributed among the follicles. The seasonal thyroid follicles were often filled with colloid summer and winter. In conclusion the study was classified glands units of the thyroid tissue into two states: The first stat of the low activity in winter its cells were epithelial flat to squamous and follicles almost filled with homogeneous, while the state of activity in the Summer, follicular homogenous colloid cells were cuboidal follicular and sessile to high contain homogeneous diluted colloid

A comparative biomechanical study of repaired tendons wrapped with two biological matrices in Bucks

N.H.AL-Falahi; S.I.Salih; A.H.Obaid

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 73-78

This study is planned to evaluate the efficacy of two biological matrices represented by autologous platelet rich fibrin matrix, as well as a cross linked decellularized caprine pericardial extracellular matrix on enhancing healing of the experimentally severed superficial digital flexor tendon in a goat model. It was carried out on 48 adult apparently healthy bucks, which were divided randomly into three equal groups. Under the effect of sedative and local ring block anesthesia, superficial digital flexor tendon was severed at the mid metacarpal region of the right forelimb. In the first control group, tenorrhaphy was performed and left without additives. While in the second group the tenorrhaphy site was wrapped with a previously prepared autologous platelet rich fibrin strips, as well as in the third group the tenorrhaphy site was wrapped with a cross linked decellularized pericardial extracellular matrix strip which was prepared from the whole fresh caprine pericardium obtained from the slaughter house. Both matrices were fixed in their position at the tenorrhaphy site by few interrupted stitches. The biomechanical evaluation of the operated tendon indicated an increase in tensile strength with time in all groups, but the comparisons among groups showed a significant (P≤0.05) increase at day 15 in both treated as compared to control animals. On day 45 the pericardial extracellular matrix group showed a significant increase in tensile strength as compared to platelet rich fibrin matrix and control groups, but at day 75 there were no differences among groups, at day 180 the pericardial extracellular matrix group showed a significant increase in the tensile strength as compared to platelet rich fibrin matrix and control groups. In conclusion, both biological matrices led to improvement in the biomechanical properties of the operated tendons with time

Distribution of E.coli O157:H7 in fecal and urine samples of cattl

Aseel M H Al-Rudha; Al-Rubaie E M; Khalil N K

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 79-82

This study was designed to isolate of Enterohaemoragic E.coli O157:H7 from feces and urine in cattle. 175 samples (80 fecal and 95 urine) were collected to isolate EHEC O157:H7 during the period from March to June 2014 from Al- Hindia slaughter house from local breeding cattle, aged between 1-2 years and over 2 years, and the samples were subjected to culture on specific media Cefixime Tellurit- Sorbitol MacConkey agar at 37 ˚C for 18-24 hrs. then the isolates were identified by biochemical tests (Indol test, Potassium cyanid test) and seriologically by Latex Kit test. The results showed that 73(91.25%) out of 80 fecal samples and 39(41%) out of 95 urine samples were E.coli O157:H7 positive, the total of positive isolates were 64%. That reveals the important role of feces and urine samples to contaminate the environment and disseminate of infection

Molecular detection of lumpy skin disease virus in cattle by polymerase chain reaction in Iraq

Khitam Mahdi Mhemid; Ibtesam Qasim Hassan

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 83-88

This study is conducted to detect lumpy skin disease virus in Babylon, Al-Qadysia and Al-Muthana governorate during autumn 2014 using conventional polymerase chain reaction. A total of 150 specimens: 50 whole blood samples, 50 skin nodular biopsies and 50 tick samples were collected from infected animals of different breeds, genders and ages during lumpy skin disease outbreak. The results revealed that 104 cases (69.33%) were positive for lumpy skin disease virus by using polymerase chain reaction, with significant (P<0.05) differences between positive and negative cases. Out of 50 blood samples, 22 cases (44%) were positive for lumpy skin disease virus. The nodular skin samples collected from slaughtered animals showed 36 positive cases (72%), whereas 46 tick samples (92%) were positive for the disease, with significant (P<0.05) difference among them. According to gender, the finding showed significant results of lumpy skin disease in females (78.78%). It was recorded that higher percentage of positive cases was found in Friesian cattle (100%), crossbreed (73.58%) while native breed was (50.76%) with significant (P<0.05) difference among them. Regarding age groups, the results showed that all ages were susceptible to lumpy skin disease and significantly not different

Histomorphological and histochemical study of stomach of domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica)

F. J. Al-Saffar; Eyhab; R. M. Al-Samawy

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 89-96

The study aimed at describing the histomorphological and histochemical structures of the stomach wall in domestic pigeon. Twelve healthy birds were collected from local suppliers at Baghdad province. Birds were divided into three equal groups for gross, histological and histochemical approaches. All birds were euthanized and their abdomens were dissected, then their stomachs were identified and photographed in situ. Specimens from stomach were fixed as well and then processed for histological and histochemical staining techniques using Hematoxylin-eosin, Masson Trichrome, Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and PAS -Alcian blue (AB) (pH 2.5). Grossly the stomach of the pigeon consisted of two distinguishable chambers, that were glandular or proventriculus and muscular or ventriculus. The proventriculus was tubular-shaped organ. Whereas, the ventriculus appeared fusiform in shape and surrounded by considerable amount of fatty tissue. Histologically the proventriculus mucosal lining was simple columnar epithelium cells. The submucosal consists of numerous and voluminous deep submucosal glands which occupied the greater part of the organ wall. The internal lining of the ventriculus was simple columnar cells. Muscularis mucosa appeared circularly arranged bundles interrupted by the presence of mucosal glands in the lamina propria. The tunica muscularis appeared as a very thick structure of smooth muscles fibers of three layers, thin inner, outer longitudinal and very thick intermediate circular layers.

Antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects of Datura.Innoxia leave hydroalcoholic extract in rabbits

Zahraa; M. Ayad; Duraid; A. Abbas

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 97-102

Datura innoxia was tested as a proposed formula at concentration of 3% that evaluated in-vivo by using 12 rabbits divided equally into 3 groups (plant extract ointment, Tetracycline ointment, Vaseline vehicle). By inducing four abraded skin wound on the back of each group of rabbits by using three special scalpel device, two of the wounds were infected artificially with 250×108 cfu pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus while other two wounds were not infected. Two abraded wounds were treated topically once daily and for two weeks with 3% D.innoxia ointment or 3% tetracycline ointment and one abraded wound was left not treated and the other one was applied with Vaseline as control. Antipyretic effect was also evaluated by taking rectal temperature each 2 days. The result showed the superiority of the extract formula in the therapy of induced skin infection with S.aureus over that of tetracycline ointment at same concentration (3%), since it showed better healing activity, more anti-inflammatory and also better antipyretic effects than tetracycline and control groups. This must be due to its good pharmaceutical content that posses analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic as well as antibacterial effect than tetracycline that contain only antibacterial activity.

Evaluation the effect of laparoscopic unilateral ovariectomy in young Iraqi black goat on the histomorphometric of the remaining ovary at adult stage

K. I. Al-Khazraji; M. J. Eesa; S. M. Merhesh

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 103-107

The ovarian histomorphometric in adult normal and unilateral ovariectomized Iraqi black goats (Age 7 months) was studied to evaluate the effect of laparoscopic unilateral ovariectomy of young goat (age 2-3 months) on other remaining ovary histologically. Ten young female Iraqi black goats were used in the study. The goats were divided randomly into two equal groups; young goats were left normal (group A) and young goats underwent to right laparoscopic unilateral ovariectomy (group B). All animals in both groups were left to reach adult stage at 7 months age, in which they underwent to removal their ovaries laparoscopically by using the harmonic scalpel. Operations were performed under general anesthesia by using of a mixture of xylazine and ketamine intramuscularly. The ovarian histomorphometric included; height of germinal epithelium and thickness of tunica albuginea, cortex and medulla were measured at adult stage for both groups. The study revealed a significant elevation (P<0.05) in thickness value of tunica albuginea, cortex and medulla in the right ovary compared with the left one in normal adult goat (group A). The left ovary in group (B) showed significant increase in the thickness value of tunica albuginea, cortex and medulla compared with those in similar (left) ovary in group (A) which indicated that the remaining ovary in group (B) showed compensatory action in increasing their histological structures measurements. The short operative time, no intraoperative and less postoperative complications referred to that the laparoscopic ovariectomy in goats could be performed successfully with this technique and by using of harmonic scalpel

An effect of hyaluronan as abdominal post-operative anti-adhesive in dogs, macroscopic, laparoscopic and histopathological study

M. Hashim; Shatha; I. Salih; Serwa

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 108-115

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of hyaluronan as abdominal anti-adhesive. Sixteen healthy adult local breed dogs, aged between (1-2 years) and weighed (15-20) kg were used. They were divided into two equal groups. First group is considered as a control group (A), the second group is the hyaluronic acid group (B); both groups underwent celiotomy under the effect of general anesthesia (combination of ketamine-xylazine at the dose rate of 15mg /kg and 5mg/kg B.W, respectively). Three sero-muscular incisions were 3cm long created at anti-mesenteric border in the descending colon and sutured with simple continuous suture using4-0chromic cat gut, abdominal wall closed in routine manner, in control group. The same procedure was performed in group B but 2 ml of 1%sodium hyaluronate was applied intra peritoneally prior to abdominal closure. Evaluation of the results was based on macroscopic, laparoscopic and microscopic examinations. Macroscopic examination showed severe adhesions in all animals in both 7th, 30thpost operative days with high grade scores (grade 3-4), except in one animal there was no adhesion in group A. While in group B, all dogs had developed mild adhesion formation at 7thpost operative day in low grade score (grade, 1). By 30thpost operative day there was no adhesion (grade, zero) except mild adhesion, in one case between omentum and abdominal wall (grade, 1). Histopathological examination showed dense fibrous connective tissue with congested blood vessels and irregular collagen fibersin group A. While in group B there were fine bundles of cellular connective tissue, granulation tissue with mononuclear cells infiltration. There were significant differences (P<0.05) between group B (1.00±0.00) and group A (3.50±0.28) at 7th, also at 30thpost operation a significant difference (P<0.05) was found between group B (*0.25±0.25) and group A (2.75±0.94) macroscopically. Histopathological examination also revealed a significant difference (P < 0.05) between group B(*1.00±0.81)and group A(2.75±0.50) at 7th and 30thpost operative days group B(*1.00±0.81) and group A(2.25±0.95).The study revealed, the effectiveness of hyaluronan in reducing intra-abdominal adhesions that occurred after abdominal surgery in dogs, in comparison with control group

Optimization of ligninolytic enzymes production from Aspergillus terreus SG-777 by solid state fermentation

Sahar Ghazi Imran; Ghazi M.Aziz; Nada Sabah Razuqi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 116-124

The present study aimed at producing the ligninolytic enzymes extracts by growing single and co-cultures of an indigenous Aspergillus terreus SG-777 utilizing solid state fermentation (SSF) using lignocellulosic substrates. A further goal was to optimize the production condition of ligninolytic enzymes by selected fungal culture and lignocellulosic substrate. The production process was further improved by optimizing a number of physical parameters such as (substrate, incubation time, moisture level, inoculum size, pH, and temperature). By optimization of different parameters, the maximum specific activities of enzymes synthesized by Aspergillus terreus SG-777 were observed as 0.83 U/mg for manganese peroxidase (MnP), 18.03U/mg for lignin peroxidase (LiP) and 0.91U/mg for laccase, when using the banana stalks as substrate after 8 days incubation at рH 5.5 and 35°C temperature with 1×105 spore/ml ml inoculum size, 1:5 w/v moisture content, 20:1 C:N ratio (glucose and ammonium tartarate as carbon and nitrogen supplements), 1ml of 1mM MnSO4 as mediator, and 1ml of 1mM MgSO4.7H2O2

Effect of acrylamide and fructose on some parameters related to metabolic syndrome in adult male rats

Faisal Ali Lateef Al-Agele; Khalisa Khadhim Khudiar

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 125-135

This study is designed to investigate the effect of acrylamide on some metabolic syndrome parameters in adult male rats relative to fructose. Forty adult male rats were randomly divided into four equal groups (ten rat/group) and treated for 60 days as follows: Control: Rats in this group were received distilled water orally, groups T1 and T2: rats of these groups were given orally 0.5 and 1mg/kg B.W acrylamide respectively. Animals in the fourth (T3) group were given 40% fructose in drinking water. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture technique at different periods 0, 30 and 60 day of the experiment for measuring serum concentration of the following parameters related to metabolic syndrome: Dyslipidemia (high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triacylglycerol), uric acid and glutathione. The result revealed that oral intubation of two concentration of acrylamide or exposure of rats to 40% fructose in drinking water caused disturbance in lipid metabolism manifested by triacylglycerolemia, lowered high density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration, lowered serum uric acid and glutathione concentration with hyperuricemia. These functional changes were accompanied by structural changes in the kidney. Sections in rat's kidney showed renal damage manifested by desquamation and degeneration of epithelial cells of renal tubule as well as lymphocyte infiltration between renal tubules. The results of this study concluded that acrylamide succeeded to induce sever changes in parameters related to metabolic syndrome in rats as does the fructose (the well-known inducer of metabolic syndrome). According to the available literature it seems that this is the first study which showed the effect of acrylamide on some parameters related to metabolic syndrome

Amygdalin and magnetic water ameliorate histological changes in liver induced by 1, 2 dimethyl hydrazine

Ahmed S. Farhan; A. A. Thaker; Fadel M. Abed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 136-139

This study aimed at evaluating the ameliorative effect of amygdalin and magnetic water on 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine induced toxic damage in tissues and oxidative stress in rat liver. Seven groups of ten rats each were selected for the study. Group I animals were treated as control. Group II rats received 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (20 mg/kg body weight) injections subcutaneously once a week for 16 consecutive weeks and then kept without any treatment untill the end of the experimental period. Group III rats received amygdalin (20 mg/100 mg) daily via Oro-gastric tube. Groups IV rats were given magnetic water freely. Group V rats were given 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine + amygdalin. Group VI rat were given 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine + magnetic water Group VII rats were given 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine + amygdalin + magnetic water. Liver histological changes were studied. Degenerative changes were observed in different areas of liver tissue in 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine group, and these changes include: Fibrosis with the appearance of cell necrosis, hemorrhage, fatty infiltration and pleomorphic nuclei. While other groups showed normal appearance of the hepatic cells but some changes were observed in 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine + amygdalin + magnetic water group include: Fibrosis with the appearance of cell necrosis, hemorrhage, fatty infiltration and pleomorphic nuclei but changes in this group were less than in 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine group. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the amygdalin and magnetic water have the potential to ameliorate carcinogen 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine induced hepatotoxicity by antioxidant and antiinflammation activity

Anatomical and histological study of the kidneys and salt glands in great flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus)

Ali Faris Reshag; Dhyaa Ab. Abood; Mohammed S. Dawood

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 140-146

This study was designed to explain the anatomy and histology of kidneys and salt glands in Great Flamingos. Eight adult healthy Great Flamingos of both sexes have been used. The results showed that the kidneys in Great Flamingos consist of three separated lobes. The right kidney was longer 8.9±0.3 mm than the left kidney 8.4±0.4mm. The ratio of the kidneys weight to the total body weight was 0.39%. The salt gland was very large crescent shape, and occupied the supraorbital fossa and has 20.8±0.2mm long and 3.9±0.2mm in diameter. The volume of cortex was 60-70% and the medulla was 30-40%. Within the middle region of cortex there were numerous large corpuscles (mammalian type) and few of small corpuscles (reptilian type). There was a variation between the means diameters of mammalian type 59±1µm and reptilian type 42±0.9µm. The proximal and distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts were lined by simple cuboidal epithelium and their means diameters were 46±0.9, 44±1 and 55.1±0.7µm, respectively. Within medulla the thick and thin segments were arranged at the peripheral zone of medullary cone while the collecting ducts were at the central part of cone and all were lined with simple cuboidal epithelium except thin segments were lined with squamous cells. The salt gland were consisted of lobules surrounded by thick connective tissue capsule and each has mass of branched tubuloacinar secretory unites. The latter were made up by single layer of cuboidal cells. The tubules lead into central duct lined by double layer of cuboidal cells while the main duct lined with stratified cuboidal epithelium. The secretory units of salt gland gave negative reaction to PAS and combined AB (pH 2.5) and PAS stains and this indicate the absence of neutral mucosubstances. The results concluded that the kidneys in great flamingo was small size organ with low relative weight in compare to birds size and the salt glands was active organ.

Seroprevelance study of Toxoplasma gondii in horses and camels animal in Wasit province

Shoob Naser Asal; Ibrahim A. Al Zubaidy

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 147-150

The aim of this study is to investigate the seroprevelance of Toxoplasma gondii in camels and horses in Wasit province. To determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in certain animals Farm in Wasit province, this study included the extent of the disease in camels and horses within two months starting from the January until February of 2015. A total of 184 samples were collected of them 92 horses and 92 camels. The results showed that the incidence of Toxoplasma gondii in horses was 18.4%, in camels 20.6% and the infection percentage of females were more than that males in both horses and camels 21.1 and 20.2%, respectively. Also the present results revealed that younger animals infections were more than in older animals; as well, the percentage of infection in January was more than the incidence in February in each of the horses and camels

Study on post-partum uterine involution by Ultrasonography and progesterone profile in local goats in Iraq

Souhayla O Hussain; Khawla A Hussain; Ahmed A. Al-Ani

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 151-156

The study was conducted to investigate and characteriz the time of uterine involution in local goats in Iraq by measuring the uterine diameter, uterine lumen (mm) and monitoring early post-partum ovarian activity as proved by Ultrasonography and progesterone assessment in local goats. 15 goats were submitted to examine from day 3 to 40 after kidding by Ultrasonography. Trans abdominal ultrasound approach was performed from day 3 to 5 after kidding and continued by trans rectal approach to follow up the uterine involution until day 40. Progesterone levels were measured starting from day of parturition, then a weekly measure until day 34 of post-partum period. Progesterone was assayed by Radio immune assay (RIA). The obtained results showed that complete of uterine involution started at day 26 (6.67) % and completed at day 34 post-partum in all does (100%). on the other hand involution of the uterus was completed at day 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 33 after parturition with a percentage of 6.67%, 13.34%, 33.34%, 40%, 46.67%, 66.67%, 73.34% and 80% respectively. Average uterine lumen (mm) from days 3-7, 8- 14, 15- 21, 22- 28, 29 -35 and 36-40 were 9.02, 5.82, 5.14, 3.51, 2.66, and 2.0 (mm) respectively. Average uterine diameter (mm) was 40.25, 33.9, 31.4, 25.57, 20 .15 and 16.35 at day 3-7, 8- 14, 15-28, 29-35 and 36-40 respectively. Regarding progesterone profile, results indicated that the mean value of the hormone was 0.267±0.005 ng /ml at parturition and the values were 0.320±0.007, 0.414±00.5, 0.536 ±0.013, and 1.945 ±0.129 ng/ ml at day 7, 14, 21 and day 30, respectively. It could be concluded that Ultrasonography image proved to be a valuable and safe tool in monitoring uterine involution and measuring of progesterone is a precise biological marker for the detection of resumption of ovarian cyclist during post-partum period.

Influence of best thawing method to reduce microbial load in red meats

Raad A. Ismail; Dahfir A .A. Al-Obaidi; Foad K. Salom

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 157-160

The current study was carried out at the college of veterinary medicine, University of Baghdad, for three months. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different thawing method of frozen minced red meat to reduce its bacterial load. Four thawing methods were used where the tap water at 18 °C for two hours was used in the first method, while the hot water at 40 °C for 1.5 hours was used in the second method and in the third method the frozen minced meat samples were left at room temperature (28 °C) for two hours, where as in the fourth method the frozen meat samples were stored inside the refrigerator at 4 °C for 20 hours. Data revealed that there were significant differences (P<0.05) in the mean values of total aerobic bacterial counts between the tap water, room temperature and the refrigeration thawing methods and were lower than the standard limits recorded by ICOSQ and were ranged between 4.84 to 6.0 log cfu/gm of meat. On the other hand these data revealed that thawing in hot water had non significantly (P>0.05) the highest counts of total aerobic bacterial counts in comparison to the other mentioned three thawing methods and were ranged from (6.04–7.9) log cfu/gm of meat, which were higher than the standard limits recorded by ICOSQC. In conclusion on the basis of this investigation, it is pointed out that thawing of frozen minced red meat inside the refrigerator for overnight was the best and suitable to get meat with stable microbiological quality

Hepatotoxic effect of chronic exposure of Tacrolimus in male Albino rats

Ali; I. Al-Ameedi; Falah; M. K. Al-Rekabi; Sh. J.Al-Rikabi; Ahmed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 161-166

This study was carried out to investigate the hepatotoxicity of chronic adminstration of an immunosuppressant Tacrolimus in male albino rats. Thirty male albino rats were randomly divided into 3 equal groups, the first one (T1) recieved therapeutic dose (70µg/kg.BW) of Tacrolimus. The second group (T2) recieved double dose (140 µg/kg.BW) of Tacrolimus, while the third group recieved distilled water for the same period and considered as control (C). Alanine aminotransferase, Aspartate aminotransferases, Alkaline Phosphatase, serum potassium and serum calcium showed significant increase in both treated groups T1 and T2 as compared with control, proportional to the dose of Tacrolimus. There were histopathological changes seen in liver at the end of exposure manifested by necrosis, hemorrhage, hyperplasia and fibrosis.It can be concluded that Tacrolimus has hepatotoxic effects when used for a long period