Print ISSN: 1609-5693

Online ISSN: 2410-7409

Volume 40, Issue 2

Volume 40, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2016, Page 1-158


Effect of molybdate and sulfate alone and in combination overload intake on copper outcome in mature male rats

Muhammad M. Al-Ani; Duraid A. Abbas

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 1-7

This study was designed to investigate the effect of molybdate and sulfate overload alone or in combination overload intake on copper outcome in mature male rats. Twenty eight adult male rats were housed and randomly divided into four equal groups and treated as follows for 60 days: control, groups (T1) rats received sodium molybdate 50 mg/kg B.W and (T2) rats of this group were given orally 500 mg/kg B.W of sodium sulfate. Animals in the (T3) group were given sodium molybdate and sodium sulfate in combination at half dose in comparison with T1 and T2 doses. The severity of toxic symptoms were more noticed at the end of experiment especially in T1 followed by T2, while T3 showed the least toxic symptoms, also the body weight change recorded weight loss during the experiment period at the same following order T1, T2 followed by T3 in comparison with control group that showed normal increase in weight. Biochemical results showed a significant decline in serum glutathione and an increase in serum creatinine, bilirubin and blood urea nitrogen at the same pattern in all treated groups positively proportional with the course of experiment. This was attributed to the recorded deficiency in serum copper that in consequence possibly induced anemia and oxidative changes in T1 and T2 groups, but the addition of sulfate to molybdate at half doses recorded less severity of copper deficiency signs and less toxic consequences indicating a sort of antagonistic effect.

Treatment of pigeon (Columba livia domestica) infected with Hadjelia truncate by ethanolic suspension of Calvatia craniiformis in comparison with ivermectin

Amer M.A.AL.Amery; Ghassan H. Jameel; Maisaa G. Taher

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 8-13

This study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of different concentrations of C. craniiformis mushroom suspension in pigeon flock infected by Hadjelia truncata worms in Diyala province in comparison with 0.1% ivermectin. Thirty pairs of pigeons were brought to the veterinary clinic with case history of progressive weight loss, weakness, and some birds have died suddenly. In the necropsy of 3 cases the gizzards contained some nematodes, located under the koilin layer of the gizzard, which was identified microscopically as Hadjelia truncata which was one of the important parasites of the digestive system of poultry. Three different concentrations of suspension were prepared from Calvatia craniiformis mushroom powder (0.25, 0.5 and 1mgml) and that tested for antiparasitic effect in comparison with ivermectin as common broad spectrum anthelimntics drug. All the concentrations of the suspension showed active effect against the parasites but, ivermectin showed a better effect

Effect of using various doses of Bromocriptine in estrus induction and subsequent fertility in lactating anestrus Iraqi Ewes

Khammas; D. J; Al-Hamedawi; T. M; A. H; Mohammed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 14-19

Forty eight (48) anestrus lactating Iraqi ewes aged between 2-4 years were undertaken 40 days postpartum in Babylon province (Technical institute in Al-Mussaib). Ewes were randomly divided into 4 equal groups according to type of treatment implemented. Group 1 (G1) were treated with vaginal sponges impregnated with 60 mg Medroxy Progesterone acetate for 10 days. Immediately after sponge removal, each ewe was injected IM. with 500 IU. Equine choriogonadotropines. Ewes of G2 were treated with Medroxy Progesterone acetate and Equine choriogonadotropines as mentioned above in addition n to 10 mg bromocriptine/day orally for 10 successive days at the same time of sponges insertion. Animals of G3 were treated with Medroxy Progesterone acetate and Equine choriogonadotropines in addition to 20 mg bromocriptine/day orally for 10 days. Ewes of G4 were treated with Medroxy Progesterone acetate and Equine choriogonadotropines in addition to 30 mg bromocriptine /day orally for 10 days. All ewes were mixed free with 5 fertile rams for 7 days after hormonal treatment to detect estrus and natural mating. Results showed that the duration of response to treatment was significantly longer P<0.05 in G1 (3.42±0.17) days than that recorded in G4 (1.14±0.12), G3 (1.20±0.21) and G2 (2.16±0.14) days. Consequently, the number of ewes which showed estrus was significantly high P<0.05 in G4 (100%) compared to G3 (75%), G1 (83.3%) and G2 (91.6%). The percentage of pregnancy was significantly higher P<0.05 in G3 (100%) versus 70%, 83.3% and 90.9% in G1, G4 and G2, respectively. Serum estrogen values were gradually increased with the increased doses of bromocriptine in all groups while progesterone value was decreased at the last days before sponges removal in all ewes.

Histological changes of the gills of carp fish (Cyprinius carpio) in Winter and

Suhaib A. H. A. Al; Taai; Amer M. Hussin

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 20-25

Common carp fish (Cyprinius carpio) is a native Asian and Eastern Europe, so there are many types of teleost fishes in Iraq. This study was designed to explain the environmental effects on the tissue of gills of fish. Twenty six of carp fish specimens were collected from Tigris River of Taji region in Baghdad city during Winter and Summer in January and August months respectively. Also the samples were collected from rearing aquarium by breeders of the fishes with water temperature recorded (31°C), in summer and (8 °C), in winter season via thermometer through the specimens collection in each time. The seasonal temperature levels were considered important in the histological alterations of the gills, where the present study showed high and low temperature degrees through Winter and Summer seasons and recorded histological changes in the gills such as (thickness of gill epithelium, rupture with hemorrhage of blood vessels), in summer season. The histological changes recorded in Winter season included damage and cellular atrophy of gill epithelium, fusion of gill secondary lamellae ends and lamellar disorganization with lifting of epithelial cells. The present study showed significant variance through gills epithelium P˂̲0.01 between two seasons, where statistical measurement showed that interlamellar distance significantly increased P˂̲ 0.01 during summer and winter significantly (P˂̲ 0.01) decreased in winter

Histological morphology and pathological changes in liver of rats naturally infected with larval stage Cysticercus fasciolaris of Taeniae taeniaeformis

Eman H. Al-Taai; Omar H. Khalaf; Fawziaa. S. Kadhim; Rajiha A. AL-Naimi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 26-30

The aim of this study is to describe the morphology of Cysticercus fasciolaris by using light microscopy, and the pathological changes in the liver of rats naturally infected. A total of 50 liver specimens of local rats (Wister rats) were collected for examination. The gross lesions showed the presence of single or multiple cysts. Microscopic findings revealed the presence of larvae within the cysts which represent the larvae Cysticercus fasciolaris of the adult parasite Taeniae taeniaeformis which inhabited the small intestine of the domestic cats surrounded by fibrous connective tissue infiltrated with inflammatory cells (mononuclear cells and plasma cells). These lesions cause pressure atrophy to the adjacent hepatic parenchyma. In advanced hepatic infection there is a tendency to undergo neoplastic changes (fibroma). Other pathological lesions seen in the liver parenchyma were necrosis, apoptosis with infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells in the portal area, in addition; to formation of early granulomas with congestion of blood vessels which contain neutrophiles in their lumina with extensive area of hemorrhages in liver parenchyma. In conclusion the C. fasciolaris infction induce hepatic neoplasia in rat livers (fibroma) in advance cases of heavy infection, which could be developed to fibrosarcoma in future.

Molecular characterization of field isolates of Avian Infectious Laryngeotracheitis Virus from different farms in Iraq

Aida Bara Allawe; Amer Abdulameer Abbas; Zaid Haddam Taha; Shony M. Odisho

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 31-35

This study was conducted to detect virulent isolates of avian infectious laryngeotracheitis virus in Iraq by Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction with the amplification of glycoprotein G gene which is responsible for virulence of the virus. Seventy samples (larynx and trachea) were collected from different farms in Iraq to investigate presence of avian infectious laryngeotracheitis virus (detection of virulent isolates from other vaccine strains). Five samples out of seventy samples were virulent isolates (positive result) by using Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction utilizing flurescein amidite labeled probe specific for detection of isolates that have G gene (by amplification of G gene) for the first time in Iraq. These virulent isolates were negative by using Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction utilizing Quasar-labeled probe specific for the detection of attenuated isolates that lack G gene and targeted a region within glycoprotein J downstream from the sequence of glycoprotein G

A comparative anatomical, histological and histochemical study of small intestine in Kestrel (Falco tunniculus) and white eared bulbul (Picnonotic leucotis) according to their food type

araji; Ahmed S. AL-A; Siraj Moner AL-Kafagy

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 36-41

This study was conducted on 30 birds (15 birds for each type) divided as 10 birds for each part of study. Anatomical part revealed that the small intestine in both birds kestrel (Falco tinniculus) and white eared bulbul (Picnonotic leucotis) formed from 3 segments; duodenum, jejunum and ileum with no clear demarcation line between them. In kestrel the Meckel's diverticulum appeared as small projection to separate between jejunum and ileum. Both ratio of intestinal length to body length and of intestinal weight to body weight was higher in bulbul than those in kestrel. Histological study showed that the wall of all three parts of small intestine was composed of the same histological layers; these are mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa. There was almost similarity in structure of these tunics but significant differences in several Histomorphometric measurements of each tunica. Goblet cells were more abundant in all parts of small intestine of bulbul than those in kestrel and there was a gradual increasing in the number of these cells toward the end of intestine of both birds. Histochemical part of this study appeared that in villi and crypts of all small intestinal segments of both birds the goblet cells secrete neutral mucin in nature because it showed negative reaction to Alcian blue stain and positive to PAS stain

Determination of some biochemical parameters in clinically healthy and anemic dromedary camels

Al-Dhalimy A.M; Al-Hadithy H. AH

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 42-47

The study was conducted on 150 healthy and 102 diagnosed iron deficient anemic camels to determine serum iron, total iron binding capacity, unbound iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, copper and cobalt concentrations. The normal (81 males and 69 females) and anemic (48 males and 54 females) groups both aged between 1-15 years in Najaf governorate- Iraq. Blood samples were collected from the jugular veins into plain tubes during the period November 2014 until May 2015, and the separated sera were used for the measurement of studied parameters. Results showed that the ranges and means ± SE in normal and anemic camels were as follows; Serum iron concentration was 7.37-19.48 μmol/L and 12±0.22 μmol/L, 1.52-15.70 μmol/L and 8.43±0.21 μmol/L, respectively, TIBC 73.80-108.47 μmol/L and 89.19±0.7 μmol/L, 93.12-135.32 μmol/L and 111.28±1.02 μmol/L, respectively, UIBC 57.5-95.25 μmol/L and 76.5±0.74 μmol/L, 83.27-125.69 μmol/L and 102±1.06 μmol/L, respectively, TS% 7.80- 24.04 % and 14.3 ±0.27%, 1.22-14.79% and 7.6±0.21%, respectively, serum copper 6.28-16.5 μmol/L and 11±0.2 μmol/L, 3.67-12.40 μmol/L and 7±0.19 μmol/L, respectively and serum cobalt 0.84-6.78 μmol/L and 3±0.13 μmol/L, 0.42-6.42 μmol/L and 2.67±0.16 μmol/L, respectively. However, There was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in serum iron, TS% and copper. While, there was a significant (P<0.05) increase in serum TIBC and UIBC of anemic camels in comparison with normal control. The cobalt concentrations were almost similar in both groups. The present data recorded reference ranges and mean values of specific biochemical parameters in clinically normal and anemic camels with significant differences between them.

A comparative histological study of ceca and rectum in common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) and white-eared bulbul (Pycnonotus leucotis) according to their food type

Iman mousa khaleal; Raghad jawad Salman

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 48-56

The present study is designed to investigate the histological structure of large intestine of two species of Iraqi birds which belong to two different orders which vary in their kinds of food. Adult birds common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) that belong to carnivorous and white-eared bulbul (Pycnonotus leucotis) which belongs to omnivorous. This study was carried on 10 birds (5 common kestrel and 5 white-eared bulbul) used for histological study of the ceca and rectum in the two species of birds that include the determination of ceca and rectum, measurements of height columnar cells, villus height, and the thickness of wall tunics. Different types of stains were used including Haematoxylin and Eosin as well as special stains including Periodic Acid Schiff, Alcian blue- Periodic Acid Schiff and Van Gieson. The present result revealed that the ceca was lymphoid type and the wall of the ceca consisted of mucosa, muscularis externa and serosa whereas the submucosa was absent in the two studied birds. The mucosa in ceca was formed by along villi, with different shapes at the proximal part of the ceca while in the middle parte it changed into folds or mounds like which were flat mucosa in the proximal part of the ceca in the two studied birds. The mucosa of ceca was lined by simple columnar cells with brush border and goblet cells; this epithelium extended to line the crypts of lieberkuhn in the bases of villi and folds. While the rectum appeared as muscular tube which consist of four basic of the digestive tract tunics; tunica mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa and serosa. The mucosa was covered by simple columnar cells with brush border and numerous goblet cells that continue to line the crypts of lieberkuhn located between the villi and that which occupied the lamina propria.

Determination of reference values of some serum biochemical parameters of healthy Donkeys in Iraq

K. M. AL-Salmany; Alaa

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 57-60

This study is conducted to establish the profile of some serum biochemicals which included creatinine, urea, glucose, total protein and albumin concentrations in 104 clinically normal donkeys (65 males and 39 females) aged 2-4 years. Animals were classified on the basis of age and sex, in Baghdad city/ Iraq. The Results showed that the, mean values ± standard error (SE) of serum creatinine and urea concentrations were as follows: Creatinine 65.55±2.01 µmol/L and urea 6.79±0.20 mmol/L, while serum concentrations of glucose, total protein and albumin were 54.7±3.09 g/dl, 123±14.3 and 3.4±0.08 mmol/L, respectively. Creatinine values showed a significant difference between 4 years and more than 4 years old subgroups. However, there were no differences in serum urea concentration between male and female and compared with biochemical ranges obtaining for another donkey breeds. This suggested that most biochemical values determined in this study serve as reference ranges for Iraqi donkey and could be used in health control and diagnosis of diseases. In conclusion a significant increase in serum creatinine was recorded at age 4 and more than 4 years as compares with serum urea and no differences in serum glucose, total protein and albumin.

The combined action of the Nisin and Lactoperoxidase system activation on the microbiological quality of raw milk with special emphasis against E.coli O157H7 in milk

Zina Saab Khudhir; Safwa Mustafa Hammad

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 61-65

Escherichia coli O157:H7 were isolated from 90 bovine and ovine locally produced soft cheese samples and their identification were confirmed based on the cultural, biochemical reactions and serological properties, E.coli O157:H7 isolates obtained by plating on the Chromogenic agars. They were further tested serologically for the presence of both O157 and H7 antigenes using the agglutination test kit. The highest non-significant prevalence (P>0.05) level of E.coli O157:H7 was found in the ewe’s soft cheese samples (37.77%) followed by the cow’s soft cheese samples (31.11%). The antimicrobial potency of the Nisin against the sensitive Lactobacillus strain was lost after (10) minutes of heating at (80°C) while retaining (100%) of its antimicrobial potency after its exposure to the pasteurization time and temperature (63°C/ 30 min.). The highest antimicrobial potency of Nisin was achieved at neutral pH (100%) while 90% and 45% of its potency were retained under acidic (pH=3) and alkaline (pH=9) conditions respectively. Nisin had short bacteriocidal incubation period against the sensitive lactobacillus strain where its antimicrobial potency reduced after 48 hours and lost after 120 hours of refrigeration storage period. E.coli O157:H7 was insensitive to the action of Nisin while stressed E.coli O157:H7 by activation of lactoperoxidase system in pasteurized milk was susceptible to its action and such result gave an indication of the synergistic effect of Nisin with activated lactoperoxidase system.

The combined effect of bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-ATCC and Lactoperoxidase system activation on microbiological quality of raw milk with special emphasis against E.coli O157:H7 in milk

Najim Hadi Najim; Farah Ibrahim Mustafa

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 66-72

Isolates of Enterohaemorrhagic E.coli O157:H7 were isolated from 51 and 41 of locally produced bovine and ovine soft cheese samples. Their identification were confirmed based on the biochemical reactions and both the morphological cultural and serological properties. Presumptive E.coli O157:H7 isolates obtained by using the conventional selective plating on the chromogenic agar were tested further for the presence of both O157 and H7 antigenes using the latex agglutination test antisera. The current microbiological studies revealed that 31 (33.70 %) out of 92 bovine and ovine soft cheese samples were positive for E.coli O157:H7. The highest non significant (P>0.05) prevalence level of E.coli O157:H7 was found in the ewe᾿s soft cheese samples (36.59 %) followed by cow᾿s soft cheese samples (31.37 %). Agar well diffusion bioassay method was used for measuring the antibacterial activity of the crude bacteriocin that was produced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-ATCC against Escherichia coli and the closely related sensitive strains such as L.acidophilus LA-K and L.acidophilus ROO52. The crude bacteriocin that was produced by the L.rhamnosus GG-TACC exhibited significantly (P<0.05) the highest antibacterial potency (100 %) against both the closely related strains of lactobacilli and the stressed E.coli O157:H7 by the activation of the LPS. The activation of the natural LPS of inoculated pasteurized milk had significantly (P<0.05) influenced the inactivation degree of the crude bacteriocin against E.coli O157:H7. There was a significant (P<0.05) reduction in the viable counts of stressed E.coli O157:H7 after each exposure time period (6, 24 and 48 hrs.) to the crude bacteriocin at room storage temperature. An overall conclusion on the basis of the current results pointed out that complete elimination of viable bacterial cells was not achieved neither in the stabilized milk (Activation of LPS) nor after subjecting the stabilized milk to the action of the crude bacteriocin produced by L.rhamnosus GG-ATCC at room storage temperature

Morphometrical Study of human neonatal cerebral cortex (Age of 28 day)

Bader; K. Hameed; Ayad; H. Ibraheem; A-H. Abdullah; Sammira

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 73-76

The character and timing of gyral and sulci development is one manifestation of the complex orchestration of human brain development. This work describes the morphometry and thickness measurement of human neonate cerebral cortex at age of 28 days. Four Brains samples were fixed in 10% neutral buffer formalin for 24 hrs. Slides from various brain regions were prepared and routine hamatoxylin and eosine staining procedure was applied using histological technique. The present results clarify that the brain mean measurement from the frontal to the occipital pole was 189.6 mm, while the measurements of the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices were 4.06, 3.84, 3.48 and 3.68 mm, respectively.

Protective role of Nigella sativa oil on renal damage induced by acetaminophen in male rats

Zena; M. Hamad

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 77-81

Acetaminophen also called paracetamol is commonly used as analgesic and antipyretic agent which in high doses causes liver and kidney damage in man and animals. Nigella sativa oil have antioxidant properties. Thirty adult male rats were used and randomly divided into three equal groups. Group (A) untreated and served as control group; Group (B) rats were orally intubated (by gavages needle) acetaminophen suspension (150mg/kg B.W). Group (C) rats were given orally acetaminophen suspension (150mg/kg) plus 1ml/kg B.W of Nigella sativa oil for 42 days in both treated group. Fasting blood samples were collected at 21 and 42 days of experiment to study the following parameters: Serum creatinine concentration and blood urea nitrogen concentration. The results revealed a significant increase of acetaminophen group in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen concentrations as compression with GA. Animals treated with Nigella sativa oil plus acetaminophen (C) showed a significant decline in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. In conclusion, the acetaminophen was effective in induction of oxidative stress and change in some biological markers related to kidney disease. Also it seems that Nigella sativa oil exerts protective actions against the damaging effect of acetaminophen

Effect of magnetically treated water on enzymes and total protein in seminal plasma of Holstein bulls born in Iraq

Kreem Iwaid AL-Badry; Sadeq Jaafer Zalzala; Faris Faisel Ibrahim; a Yeedam; Wafa

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 82-88

Some enzymes of seminal plasma such as, Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, Glutamic Pyruvic transaminase, Acid phosphatase and Alkaline phosphatase are essential for metabolic processes which provide energy for viability, motility and fertility of spermatozoa. These enzymes are used as good indicators of semen quality as they measure the plasma membrane stability of spermatozoa, so the aims of study are to estimate the enzymes level and total protein in seminal plasma of Holstein bulls. In present the available knowledge there is no study in Iraq regarding the effect of using magnetically treated water on enzymes and total protein in seminal plasma of Holstein bulls born in Iraq to improve the Artificial Insemination programs. Sixteen bulls were divided equally into two groups depending on their age. Young (17-19 months) and adult (29-32 months), then randomly distributed into two equal sub groups (control and treatment) through February until June months. Treatment group was given magnetically treated water which passed through magnetic device with strength of 2000 gauss; control group was given normal water without magnetism. Results show that there is a monthly variation in levels of enzymes, in the group drinking magnetic water effect significantly (P<0.05), all enzymes of seminal plasma of Holstein bulls in Iraq, with no effect on total protein.

Induce estrus with ultrasonography examination and progesterone hormone assay for pregnancy diagnosis in Iraqi goats

A. F. Alwan; A. KH. Taklan; S. M. Nada

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 89-93

The aim of present work is to induce ovulation in 40 female goats in non-breeding seasons and pregnancy diagnosis using RIA of progesterone serum level and trans abdominal ultrasonography with 3.5 MHz prop. The 40 Iraqi goats were naturally inseminated during estrous phase, using fertile backs, after withdrawal of intravaginal impregnated sponges with 20 mg of cronolone (Fluorogestone Acetate progestagen) kept for eleven days and 400 IU of equine chorionic gonadotrophin inject I/M 24hrs. before sponge withdraw. The results indicated that all does were showed (100%) estrous sign, the estrous time was 24-66 hrs. after sponge withdrawal and the pregnancy rate 67.5%. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein before progesterone treatment, at the time of insemination and after 21 day of insemination. Early pregnancy diagnosis by RIA of progesterone concentration was performed and showed progesterone hormone value as were increasing significantly (P<0.01) from 0.26±0.12 ng/ml before insemination to 3.29±1.10 ng/ml in 21 days after insemination. Pregnant animal was examined using transabdominal ultrasonography during 45, 60 and 90 days after insemination. In conclusion, estrus could be efficiently induced in female goats during non-breeding season using 20 mg cronolone impregnated sponge and 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin I/M at 24 hrs. before spongy withdrawal. The effective of early detection of pregnancy by progesterone assay in 21 days after insemination and ultrasonography by abdominal 3.5 MHz transducer after 45 days of pregnancy.

Histopathological and diagnostic study of Toxoplasmosis in human and sheep by using ELISA in Kut city

Zainab; R. Zghair; Alaa M. N. Al-Khafagi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 94-99

This study is designed to diagnosis blood Toxoplasmosis in human (women and men) and sheep (male and female) by using Elisa test; as well histopathological examination of heart, liver and lung of sheep were also done, internal organs were also obtained heart, liver and lung. Women diagnosis was performed by collection 96 samples from aborted women ageing from 15-45 years and divided into three groups; first group 15-25 years involved 50 sample, second group 25-35 years include 37 samples; and the third group 35-45 years included 9 samples. The results of Elisa test showed six positive of IgG, (two for each group) and one positive IgM for the second group, a significant (P<0.05) difference in the first and third groups between IgG and IgM was found. The total percentage of the infection 4, 8.1and 22.2 for the first, second and third groups respectively, and Total of 96 blood samples were collected from men with different chronic diseases and were divided into four groups, (first, second and third) each containing 25 samples and suffering from Thalasemia, renal failure and cancer respectively; of them 21 samples collected from normal men as fourth control group. The results of Elisa diagnostic test indicated 9, 9, 7 and 2 positive of IgG for first, second, third and fourth groups respectively, and 1, 2, 0 and 1 positive of IgM. The total percentage of Toxoplasmosis infection 38.4, 44, 28 and 14.28 for the first, second, third and fourth groups respectively, with a difference between them except the second group appeared significantly P(0.05). 92 samples of sheep blood were collected from male 46 and 46 female. The results of Toxoplasmosis showed one case positive IgG for female and one for male only. The histopathological examination of sheep positive case with chronic infection revealed pathological changes in the organs, the heart showed multiple variable sizes of parasite cysts embedded and scatter between cardiac muscle fibers, in addition to aggregation of inflammatory cells around the blood vessels forming nests of inflammatory cells with congestion of blood vessels in liver and lung. In conclusion that the infection with Toxoplasmosis in Kut city revealed the percentage of infection in men more than the aborted women, also it reported few cases of infection in sheep.

Ultrasonic estimation of gestation age in goats via placentomes diameter

Yaseen Mahmood Rasheed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 100-106

The aim of the present study is to establish the relationship between gestational age and placentome measurement via real-time ultrasound. This study is conducted in the college of Veterinary Medicine at Diyala University. Seventeen multiparous does were synchronized for estrus and naturally served to obtain pregnancy and subsequently scanned using both transducers. Ultrasonic (U.S) examination was performed transabdominally (TA) with sector-probe (5MHz) and transrectally (TR) with linear-probe (7.5MHz), in 10 day interval done started from day 35-135 post mating. The placentome was observed for the first time on day 35 by using TR ultrasonic examination (7.5MHz) linear transducer, as echogenic densities on the surface of endometrium. The results showed a significant increased (P≤0.05) in placentomes growth with gestation age. The placentome diameter (PD) reached maximized size around days 126 (39.6±2.37mm). Also, the results indicated significant difference between placentome diameter (PD) size in single and twin-pregnant does at (P≤0.05). The average of PD size in the single and twin-pregnant does was, respectively, 7.5±0.41mm and 9.2±0.74 mm at the day 35 and 45 of gestation. The maximal size of PD was 39.2±2.50mm in singleton-bearing does during 116-125 day and 41.0±2.19 mm in twin-bearing does during 126-135 day of gestation. In conclusion, the determination of gestation age according to placentome measurement was not reliable after day 90. Also, the use of 7.5 MHz linear array transducer for TR examination was found to be efficient, for early recognition of placentomes starting point from 35 days of gestation, as well as, the larger placentomes are expected in twins-bearing does.

Aortic arch in rabbits: Morophological and Histological study

Maha Abdul-Hadi Abdul-Rida Al-Abdula

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 107-112

The study aimed to investigate the morphological and histological variations of the aortic arch of local breed rabbits (Oryctylagus conniculus). Nine adult local rabbits were obtained to study the aortic arch (four animals for corrosion cast technique, two injected with colored latex and three for histological study). All the rabbits were euthanized and exsanguinatd, for the cast of the aortic arch they injected by self polymerizing resin via the left ventricle of the heart and the specimens were macerated in (KOH %25) for two weeks and the cast of the aortic arch were prepared. Two main branches were identified from aortic arch (except in one cadaver has three branches). The brachiocephalic trunk firstly and the left subclavian artery, the two common carotid artery (right and left) and the right subclavian artery arising from brachiocephalic trunk, the right and left subclavian arteries gave the same branches (double vertebral arteries, costocervical trunk, cervical profound artery, internal thoracic artery, external thoracic artery, superficial cervical artery and continuous as axillary artery). Histologically the wall of the aortic arch is consist of three layers from internal to external: tunica intima, it's the thinnest layer (1±0.166) µm, tunica media, it's the thickest layer (12±0.0149)µm and tunica adventitia, the thickness of this layer is (5±0.166)µm. Tunica intima consisted of single layer of endothelial cells, tunica media consisted of numerous elastic lamina in a circular arrangement and the tunica adventitia was consisted of connective tissue, smooth muscle fibers, collagen fibers, few elastic fibers, fibroblast cells, and mast cells vasavasorum. The aortic arch has a large diameter (98±0.2019)µm and thickness of the wall is (18±0.0282)µm to convey the high blood pressure in aortic arch. In conclusion, there was a variation in the branches of the aortic arch in different species of animals when the results compared with other studies and also, the diameter, thickness of the wall of aortic arch varies from one animal to another.

Protective effect of cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotide against experimental mastitis induced by Cryptococcus neoformans infection in goats

Nidhal R. Mahdi; Shaimaa N. Yassein; Jenan M. Khalaf

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 113-123

The present study investigated the effect of synthetic non-methylated oligonucleotides containing Cytosine-phosphate-guanosine dinucleotides (Cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotide) on caprine mastitis with Heat Killed Cryptococcus neoformans Ag. 20 healthy local breed does were used with weight ranging of 25-30 Kg and free of mastitis by examination via California Mastitis Test and Somatic Cell Count. The does were allotted into four equal groups, the first group (G1) was treated intramammary with 100μg/kg of Cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxy nucleotide on fifth day postpartum in the right mammary gland while the left mammary gland served as control and were infused with sterile phosphate buffered saline. On day 8 postpartum repeat dosages of Cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotide and phosphate buffered saline were infused respectively. On day 9 pp the right mammary gland was infused with 2ml of 2x108 cell/ml of Heat Killed Cryptococcus neoformans Ag. The second group (G2) was infused at day 9 postpartum with 2ml of 2x108 cell/ml of Heat Killed Cryptococcus neoformans Ag in the right mammary gland only. The third group (G3) was left until the challenge test done after one week of immunization in the G1 and G2, by inoculation of 2ml of 5x106 viable C. neoformans in the right mammary gland. The fourth group (G4) was kept as a control receiving 2ml of sterile PBS. Blood samples were collected at 0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days of the study, to determine the antibody titer by passive haemagglutination assay, while the cell mediated immunity was evaluated by detecting the goat Interferon Gamma by ELISA test and Phagocytic index. Also the cell mediated immunity was determined by delayed type hypersensitivity test after 21 days of immunization. The results showed a significant variation (P≤0.05) between vaccinated groups (G1 and G2) and the control. However, there was a significant increase (P≤0.05) of skin thickness shown after 48 hrs in the G1compared to G2. High level of Interferon Gamma concentration was noticed in the G1 as compared with other groups. Moreover, cell mediated immunity developed effectively in the G1 which was noted by a significant increase (P≤0.05) of phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear cells. The high level of antibody titer was observed in the G1 as compared with other groups. In conclusion: These results suggest that vaccination with Cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotide plus Heat Killed Cryptococcus neoformans Ag intramammary lead to a good protection of caprine mammary glands against C. neoformans mastitis.

Urinary tract bacterial infection of local Iraqi buffaloes (Bubalus Bubalis) in Mosul city

O. M. Al-Iraqi; A. Y. Shareef; S. H. Dhahir

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 124-130

This study is conducted on the samples of urine obtained from buffaloes. Eighty six urine samples were obtained from local buffaloes of different ages, of both sex in Mosul abattoir. The results showed that urine of infected animals was cloudy, dark yellow to reddish color with putrid odor of low specific gravity. Microscopic examination of urine sediment demonstrated increased number of pus cell, erythrocytes, epithelial cell, presence of casts and crystals/ high power filed. Chemical examination revealed elevated urine pH and protein content. Serum examination displayed increase levels of urea and creatinine compered to normal urine samples. Culture of urine samples confirmed 24 positive samples (27.90%). Corynebacterium renale being the most isolated organisms 12(50%), Trueperella pyogens 5(20.83%), Staphylococcus aureus 4(16.66%) and 1(4.16%) for each of Acinetobacter lwoffii, Corynebacterium pilosum and Corynebacterium cystitidis. Male buffalo calves at age 1-3 years revealed high percentage (18.60%) of urinary tract infection, while low percentage of urinary tract infection existed by female buffaloes age more than 3 years (6.98%).

Effect of salts addition of some organic acids on growth performance of Common Carp Juvenile Cyprinus carpio L.

Ashwaq Muhan Muhsan; Saeed Abdulsaddah Al-Shawi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 131-134

This study was carried out in the laboratories of fish for 90 days in 16 glass aquaria (60 cm, 40 cm and 30 cm/70 L) to investigate the effect of some organic acids salts on some growth indices of common carp fish Cyprinus carpio L. A 128 fish were used with an average weight of (40.8±1) gm. and have been distributed on eight treatments with two replicate and eight fish for each replicate. Formulated eight diets that equally iso-nitrogenous (33.85%) and iso-caloric (1535.605 KJ/gm) were investigated. Organic acids salts (Sodium lactate, Sodium acetate and Sodiumformate) were supplemented singly (0.5% of each salts) and mixed to the experimental diets (0.25% of each salts). The statistical results showed that treatments T6 (0.25% sodium lactate + 0.25% sodium formate) had the best studied growth parameters at the level of P≤0.05 which clarified by weight gain (41.05±0.25 gm) and food conversion ratio (2.8±0.02).

Effect of potassium nitrate plus vitamin C in feed of rabbits on the some biochemical parameters

Saad Thabit Jassim Alrawi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 135-139

This study is conducted at investigating the effect of potassium nitrate and vitamin C in feed of the rabbits on the some biochemical parameters. Twenty eight adult New-Zealand rabbits were divided randomly into four groups (7 rabbits each), they were fed potassium nitrate and vitamin C for 16 weeks as follow: Group 1 (G1) fed potassium nitrate (168 mg/ kg B.W./ daily), group 2 (G2) fed potassium nitrate (168 mg/ kg B.W./ daily) and vitamin C (50 mg/ kg B.W./ daily), group 3 (G3) fed potassium nitrate (168 mg/ kg B.W./ daily) and vitamin C (100 mg/ kg B.W./ daily) and group 4 (G4) fed basal ration as control group. Blood were collected from heart at zero, eight, twelve and sixteen weeks. The results showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in cholesterol, triglyceride and blood nitrogen urea in the group that had fed potassium nitrate G1 compared with G4, whereas the groups that were fed vitamin C with potassium nitrate showed a mild decrease compared with group potassium nitrate that had been fed potassium nitrate alone (G1). In conclusion, the feeding rabbits with potassium nitrate caused an increase in cholesterol, triglyceride and blood urea concentration in the serum, whereas the vitamin C ameliorates this effect

Effect of selenium and melatonin on some parameters Related to metabolic syndrome induced by Acryl amide in male rats (Part I)

Khalisa Khadim Khudair; Rawnah Isam Sabeeh

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 140-146

This study was designed to investigate the ameliorative role of sodium selenite and melatonin on acryl amide induced metabolic syndrome in adult male rats. Twenty (20) adult male rats were randomly and equally divided into 4 groups (G1, G2, G3 and G4) and were treated orally for seven weeks G1, (control group) was given distilled water, G2 were given orally 1mg/kg /B.W of Acryl amide, G3 group received 1mg/kg /B.W of Acryl amide followed by 0.5 mg/Kg/ B.W. of sodium selenite orally. G4 group received 1 mg/kg /B.W of acryl amide (orally) followed by 8 mg/Kg/ B.W. melatonin (IP/ injection). Fasting blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture at (0, 7 weeks) of the experiment for measuring serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and serum uric acid, in addition to measuring waist circumference .The results showed an occurrence of central obesity, hyper uricemia, dyslipidemia (hyper cholesterolemia, triacyleglycerolemia and lowered high density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration) in acryl amide treated animals. The results also indicated the alleviation of the changes in the above- mentioned parameters related to metabolic syndrome by sodium selenite and melatonin through lowering central obesity, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, elevation of serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lowering in serum uric acid.

Prevalence of microsporidiosis in human and cattle

N. E; Kadum; M. J; Alwan

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 147-154

In order to identify microsporidia and other fungi in stool and urine samples of human, and in fecal and milk samples of cattle, 100 stool samples with or without diarrhea and 50 urine samples, human fecal and urine samples were obtained from certain Baghdad hospitals and certain rural areas surroundings Baghdad city, in addition to 50 fecal and 56 milk samples of cattle apparently healthy were collected from Alshula Slaughter House and directly from anal of the animal field of College of Veterinary Medicine/ Baghdad University. All samples were collected during six months from 1/10/2014 to 1/4/2015. Thin films were formed and stained by Webers Modified Trichrom stain and Modified Trichrom-Ryan Blue stain. The results showed that (23%) 23 out of 100 stool samples of human were positive for Microsporidia spp. and (16%) 8 out of 50 urine samples of human were positive for this fungus. While the result revealed (18%) 9 out of 50 fecal samples and (7.14%) 4 out of 56 milk samples of cattle were positive for Microsporidia spp. The result also explained that (25.3%) 19 cases of patients suffering from diarrhea expressed Microsporidia spp. after the examination of 75 stool samples, while (16%) 4 persons without diarrhea showed positive Microspordia, through the examination of 25 stool samples. The study explains that the Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a common species associated with human infection and Encephalitozoon intestinalis is a common Microsporidia associated with cattle infection whereas Encephalitozoon cuniculi is rarely identified in human but recorded in cattle.

Molecular detection of Babesia bovis in cattle in Al-Qadisiyah province

Noaman N. A; aiz; Khawla H. Sabbar

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2016, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 155-158

This study aim to determine Babesia bovis infection in cattle based on genetic methods. A total of 96 blood samples were collected from alive and slaughtered cattle from different areas in addition to the abattoir of Al-Qadisiyah province from December 2013 to August 2014. Real time polymerase chain reaction (RT.PCR) technique was used to detect the presence of the protozoan with the effect of animal's age and sex in the infection rate 47.91 % (46/96) of examined cattle were given positive result to B. bovis infection. The highest infections were shown among the adult cattle (≥1 year), while there was non-significant difference (P>0.05) in the infection rate according to the sex. So the most cattle in Al-Qadisiyah province appear to be bearing the infection predominantly as a carrier hosts.