Print ISSN: 1609-5693

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Volume 41, Issue 1

Volume 41, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2017, Page 1-177


Experimental infection on the locally isolated avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus

Zaid HaddamTaha; Aida Bara Allawe; Khazzal Abbas Khazaal

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 1-4

The aim of this study was to evaluate virulence of local isolated avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus in experimentally infected chicken. Forty chickens 10 weeks old were used for the experimental infection with the locally isolated infectious laryngotracheitis virus. Chickens were divided into three groups, the first group consisted from 20 chickens infected with isolated infectious laryngotracheitis virus (2×104.16 TCID 50/50 µl) via eyes and mouth drops (one drop for each). The second group consisted of 10 chickens (non-infected) in contact with infected group inoculated with maintenance media (Minimum essential medium) on their eyes, to observe if the infected group can spread the virus. The third group consisted from 10 chickens (non-infected) were left as a control group separated from other groups, inoculated with maintenance media (Minimum essential medium) on their eyes. Clinical signs and mortality were examined daily up to 12 days post infection. The main clinical signs were depression coughing and gasping with mild conjunctivitis and no mortality. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was conducted on the collected sera of chickens before and after experimental infection with isolated virus. The results of ELISA test was negative for all groups of chickens before experiment and positive results for infected group with titer approximately ranging from (2534-7910); Measure of central tendency and dispersion were used with mean (4874.75) and stander error (355.96 13.6%); while negative results for contact group and control group. Eighteen chickens (10 weeks old) separately were divided into three groups (infected, contact and control) treated as mention above and were used for histopathological examination; the chickens were killed, two in each group at 24 hr., 48 hr. and 72 hr. post infection. The histopathological changes on trachea and larynx were intracellur inclusion bodies formation detected at 72hr., post infection for infected group only.

The antimicrobial role of emulsifying salts against E.coli O157:H7 contaminated local markets soft cheese of Baquba city

Ahmed M.S. Al-Shedidi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 5-10

The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of contamination of locally produced soft cheese samples by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and to determine the ideal emulsifying salts and their appropriate ratios for emulsification of soft cheese and their impacts on microbial load of that influence public health. Samples collected randomly from five popular parties markets affiliated to the city of Baquba 60 samples of the local soft cheese produced by farmers at a rate of 30 samples for each of the summer season, from the beginning of July to the end of August, while the other thirty sample of winter season were collected from the beginning of December to the end of January to study their bacterial load of coli form and Escherichia coli especially E. coli O157:H7. The result showed total bacterial count characterized by high significance (P<0.01) in the local cheese samples of summer and winter season also. The results proved the bactericidal and bacteriostatic effect of emulsifying salts on microbial activity was confirmed when the total bacterial count was significantly (P<0.01) reduced in soft cheese with (2.5%) of emulsifying salts added. Were no growth of E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 after adding (2%) of emulsifying salts to nutrient broth and the results confirmed that the best mixing of the components of emulsifying salts that is made up of (90% Sodium tripolyphosphate + 10% Trisodium citrate).

Determination the causative strain for hydatid cyst in Iraqi cattle by using ND1 gene

Mohammed J. Muhaidi; Maysam N. Ahmed; Mohammed T. Dagash

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 11-16

Hydatid Cysts were obtained from 15 cows from liver, lung, spleen, heart, and peritoneal cavity, between December 2014 and October 2015. Hydatid cysts (protoscoleces) were used for deoxyribonucleic acid extraction by using mechanical grinder. The purification of mtDNA was done by (promega kit, USA). The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) genes was used as targets for polymerase chain reaction amplification, all hydatid cysts yielded amplification products. Polymerase chain reaction product for NADH1 800 basic pair. The polymerase chain reaction products were purified and partial sequences were generated. The sequences obtained were found to align with corresponding region for ND1 gene in the Gene Bank nucleotide database confirming to genotype of sheep strain (G1) in Iraq, Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequence data from ND1 genes for obtained Phylogenetic tree. G1 genotype was the most common taxon and the actual source of infection of Iraqi's cattle. All of 15 strains were G1 genotype (sheep strain) based on the partial sequences of NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1).

Immune response interaction of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Eimeria tenella

Samrraee; Ikram Abbas Aboud Al

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 17-22

This study aimed to investigate the immune responses (Cellular and humoral) to Klebsiella pneumoniae and Eimeria tenella by using Delayed Type Hypersensitivity Test (Skin Test) and Tube Agglutination Test in sixteen local breed rabbits. Animals were divided into four equal groups; First group was immunized subcutaneously with 1 ml (1000 µg/ml) of sonicated Eimeria tenella oocysts –SETO-ET), second group was immunized subcutaneously with 1 ml (1000 µg/ml) of sonicated Whole Cells Klebsiella pneumoniae antigen –SKWC-KP), third group was immunized subcutaneously with 1 ml (500 µg/ml of sonicated Eimeria tenella –SETO-ET and 500 µg/ml SKWC-KP). The fourth control group was injected subcutaneously by 1 ml of phosphate buffer saline. After 14 days all groups were given a booster dose at the same dose above. Results of Delayed type hypersensitivity showed that the third group had a high significant (P≤ 0.05) skin test reaction of Erythema and induration compared to the first and second groups after 24, 48 and 72 hours. Also, that was synchronized with the increased titers of antibodies, which increase to peak (720 ± 201.32) compared with the first group (200 ± 40.00) and second group (360 ± 100.66) after 35 days. This is the first study about the synergistic immune response interaction between Klebsiella pneumoniae and Eimeria tenella antigens in Iraq.

Isolation and identification of the Newcastle disease virus from field outbreaks in broiler and layer flocks in Iraq

Mushtaq T. B. AL-Zuhariy; Sahar Hamdi Abdulmaged; and Amer A. A. AL-Baldawi; Raed H. S. Rabee; Amer A. A. AL-Baldawi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 23-27

Newcastle disease is one of serious pathological problems and causes of vast economic losses during 2011-2016 in Iraq. The disease caused high mortalities in all types of poultry nevertheless of vaccination. In this study all samples were collected from infected flocks with clinical signs of the disease. Inoculation of chicken embryonated eggs was carried out for virus isolation, identification, Haemagglutination and Haemagglutination Inhibition assay. Using Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction to confirm the presence of the virus, Intra Cerebral Pathogenicity Index and Mean Death Time were used to confirm all the isolates that were velogenic. The important determinant of Newcastle disease virus pathogenicity is fusion protein that has been used for phylogenetic analysis. sequencing and compared genetically of Newcastle disease virus Iraqi isolate to publish sequences acquired from GenBank showed 99% sequence similarity to the Iran isolate IRI 1392k (KJ176996.1). It can concluded from these data that introduction new virus was occurred in Iraq

Morphological and histochemical features of the cloaca of Turkey hen Meleagris Gallopavo

Lamees Ezaldeen Mohammed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 28-33

The study includes six adult healthy hen turkey. The cloaca has three compartments separated by two circular folds and next to rectum is the coprodeum which the largest and measured (2.5±0.2cm) in length and (2.1±0.1cm) in diameter. The middle and smallest is the urodeum that measured about (1.01±0.2cm) in length and (1.2±1cm.) in diameter, that receives the ureter and left oviduct. Posteriorly, the proctodeum that measured about (1.4±0.1cm) in length and (1.6±1cm.) in diameter. The coprodeum mucosa has short and flat villi. The urodeum mucosa has tall branching pyramidal mucosal villi. The mucosa of proctodeum has lost the villi pattern. The three compartments were lined with mucous secreting columnar cells, most of these epithelial cells were positive for Alcian blue (2.5pH) stain and few were positive for PAS stain. The epithelial tubular glands showed positive reaction for Alcian blue satin only. The lamina propria of these compartments was cellular loose connective tissue displayed numerous of lymphatic nodules. The muscular mucosa is lost in proctodeum only. Tunica muscular is composed of two layers of smooth muscles fibers in coprodeum and urodeum and turned into skeletal type in proctodeum. The mean height of mucosal villi has significantly increased in urodeum.

Isolation of some species of fungi from fecal samples in Zawraa Park Zoo in Baghdad

Ameed Aseel I; Nagham M. Al; Gburi; Ammar Talib N

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 34-37

Fecal samples were collected from eleven animal species, representing, different species. Samples were collected from cages before daily cleaning, in clean container, the sample was homogenized in tube contain sterile saline and kept for 30 min. and transferring 1 ml of the supernatant into Sabouraud Dextrose broth and incubate at 25-30˚C for two weeks, then 0.1 ml were seeded in Petri dishes containing Sabouraud Dextrose agar with chloramphenicol (50 mg/l). Results indicates high percents isolate for Geotrichum candidium (70.90%) of all animals, the high percents was from Porcupines, Kangaroos, Camels, and ponies (100%), followed by Wolves, Lamas, Dogs, Monkys, Mountain goats, Deers and Lions (83.33, 75, 66.66, 66.66, 50, 28.57 and 20)% respectively. The second high percent isolate was Rhizopus spp. (43.63%) reported in Porcupine, Kangaroo, Camels and Lions was 100% of isolates, followed by Pony (50%), Lama (33.33%), Deers (28.57%) and Monkys (25%). Also Aspergillus niger were isolates (3.63%), from Monkys (8.33%) and from deers (14.28%) while Aspergillus flavus isolates were (1.81) from Wolves (16.66%) and Fusarium spp. isolates (1.81%), from Wolves (16.66%). The results indicated that zoo animals may consider as a source of infection and transmission of fungi.

Evaluation of Pyloroplasty repair by Single layer Simple Interrupted Extra Mucosal technique in Dogs

Humam H.Nazht; Dhyaa Ab. Abood; Omer Mohammed Sabeel

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 38-42

In this study a pyloroplasty technique was designed by using a single layer simple interrupted extra-mucosal suture pattern on pyloric region in dogs. Nine adult dogs were used to induce longitudinal surgical incision in the pyloric region under general anesthesia using a combination of 15mg/kg B.W. ketamine hydrochloride 5% and 5 mg/kg B.W Xylazine hydrochloride 2%. The incision was closed by pyloroplasty technique (longitudinal incision for whole layers with transverse suturing) using single layer simple interrupted extra mucosal technique. The examination achieved by daily clinical observation, radiological finding, at the end of 21st day post operation, macroscopical and histopathological examination at the period 3rd, 7th, and 21st days post operation. The results showed no significant clinical changes in body temperature and physiological activity. The radiological findings showed good patency of the pyloric canal after 21st days post operation. The macroscopic finding shows heavy amount of the omentum adhered around the site of incision. The microscopic finding showed good healing process by re-epithelization of the mucosal layer associated with granulation tissue proliferation, angiogenesis, and less infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells. The conclusion indicated that single layer simple interrupted extra mucosal suture pattern technique can be used successfully in repair the pyloric stenosis in dog.

Determination of lead concentration in water and in different organs of Carrasobarbus luteus and Cyprinus carpio Tigris River

Abdulmotalib J. Al-Rudainy; Sarah M. Al- Samawi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 43-48

The present study was carried out during the period from November 2015 to April 2016 to determine the concentration of lead in Tigris River. A total of 75 fish of Hamri Carrasobarbus luteus and 82 specimen of common carp Cyprinus carpio were sampled at three different stations. Atomic absorption spectrometry is a technique for measuring quantities of Lead present in water and fish. The results showed that the mean concentration of lead in water more than in fish organs. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences in lead concentration between all stations. In C. luteus and C. carpio showed no significant differences in gills, muscles, liver and kidney between different length groups for each station. Length group 21- 30 cm at station 2 showed increasing differences compared with the same length group at station 1, Also C. carpio of Length group 31-40 cm at station 2 showed significantly increasing (P≤0.05) compared with the same length group at station 1. The highest concentration of lead was recorded in studied organs of C. luteus at station1as the following sequence: Gills > kidney > liver > muscles, while station 2: kidney > gills > liver > muscles, station 3 characterized as following sequence: Kidney > liver > gills > muscles. The highest concentration of lead was recorded in studied organs of C.carpio at station1as the following sequence: Gills > liver > muscles > kidney, while station 2: Gills > kidney > liver > muscles, station 3 characterized looks like a sequence of station 1 as following: Gills > liver > muscles > kidney. In conclusion, the result of the present study approved the presence of lead in the water of Tigris River and fish living inside it. In addition, the mean concentration of lead in water was more than in fish organs. The results also reported that lead concentration was higher than the allowable WHO concentration.

Determination of insecticide Deltamethrin residues in local and imported raw milk samples collected from different animal's species and the effect of processing heat treatment on its content in milk

Sara Ahmed Abd Al-Zahra; Najim Hadi Najim

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 49-54

A total of 163 milk samples (500 ml each) of cows, ewe, goats, buffaloes, camels were collected randomly at weekly intervals (10 samples/ week) from both Abu-Ghraib and Al-Fudhailiya villages and also for different local retail markets inside the Baghdad province and these samples were including milk of different animal species, milk cans, bulk milk tanks and imported Ultra-high temperature processing milk. Among the total milk samples only 138 milk samples were examined during two climatic periods where the first period was in summer that extended from the beginning of September to the end of October 2015 while the second period was in winter that extended from the beginning of January to the end of February 2016. Besides that, some of the selected positive samples for Deltametrin residues were subjected to one of the commercial heat treatments such as 63°C/30 min., 80°C/5 min. and 100°C/5 min. to evaluate the efficiency of heat exposure on the degradation of Deltametrin residues in milk. The results pointed out that milk samples containing the higher fat percentage exhibited significantly (P<0.05) the highest concentration of Deltametrin in summer (0.08ppm) than in winter (0.008 ppm) seasons. It was clearly obvious that the detectable concentrations of the Deltametrin were higher in buffalo's and ewe milk samples than those found in cows, goats and camels and such results could be attributed to the higher fat content of buffalos and ewes milk than the other animals as well as the lipophilic nature of the Deltamethrin. In other word, increased the fat percentages of milk was being associated with an increased level of Deltametrin residues due to the lipophilic nature of the Deltametrin pesticide. The current results revealed that milk samples that were collected from buffaloes, ewes and cows recorded significantly (P<0.05) the highest Deltametrin residues in summer season where their mean levels that exceeded the accepted MRLs of 0.05 ppm to milk samples of goats and camels that had significantly (P<0.05) the lowest mean levels of Deltametrin residues where their means levels were 0.038 and 0.032 ppm respectively. There was a significant (P<0.05) seasonal variation of the Deltametrin concentrations in milk samples for each animal species where all the milk samples that were collected from buffaloes, ewe, cows, goats and camels had significantly (P<0.05) higher mean levels of Deltametrin residues in summer season than in winter season, milk samples that were collected from milk cans (5, 25 and 50 kg) recorded significantly (P<0.05). The highest Deltametrin residues during the summer season in comparison to 10 tons bulk milk tank samples.

Evaluation of the bactericidal effect of Nisin and /or Potassium sorbate and Sodium chloride on the viability of Staphylococcus aureus in soft cheese

Zina Saab Khudhir; Adnan Jawad Ahmed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 55-59

Effect of different concentrations of Nisin, Potassium sorbate and Sodium chloride on the keeping quality of the locally produced soft cheese samples against the Staphylococcus aureus viability was conducted during November 2015/ May 2016. Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 20(73.33%)out of 30 bovine and ovine locally produced soft cheese samples and their identification were confirmed based on the morphological, rapid biochemical reactions and serological properties. Staphylococcus aureus isolates that obtained by plating on the Chromogenic agar were further tested serologically. The highest significant (P<0.05) prevalence levels of Staph aureus were found in the cow's soft cheese samples 8/10(80%) followed by both ewe's and buffalo's soft cheese samples7/10 (70%) respectively. Three concentrations for each of Nisin, Potassium sorbate and Sodium chloride (50, 25 and 12.5 IU/ml), (0.4, 0.2 and 0.1%) and (10, 5 and 2.5) were used respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the Nisin and both Sodium chloride and Potassium sorbate against Staphylococcus aureus that were determined by the turbid metric technique were 50 IU/ml, 10% and 0.4% respectively. Mean values (log c.fu/ml) of the starting initial Staph aureus counts in the experimentally manufactured soft cheese samples decreased significantly (P<0.05) from 7.00±0.002 (log c.fu/ml) at 0 hour to 5.11±0.039 (log c.fu/ml) after 24 hrs of exposure to action of Nisin and Potassium sorbate inside the brine solution at 37°C. The bactericidal activities of Nisin and Potassium sorbate were more effective than either of them alone after 24 hrs. of exposure inside the brine solution at 37°C (reduction level approximately 3 log cycles), but the bacterial counts still were above the safe limit, which is required for the production of Staph aureus enterotoxin.

Antibacterial activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro

Ahmad N. A. Salih; Orooba M.S. Ibrahim; Mohammad J. Eesa

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 60-65

This study was conducted for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using olive leaves aqueous extract and evaluate its antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro. The synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by Ultra Violet Visible – spectrophotometer and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Well diffusion method was used to show the antibacterial action of silver nanoparticles against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro in comparison with standard antibacterial silver sulfadiazine by using different concentrations of each agent ranged from 12.5-200 μg/ml. The results of this study showed it possible to produce silver nanoparticles in eco-friendly and easy process and UV-Visible absorption spectra of the silver nanoparticles revealed maximum absorbance at 420 and 430 nm. The Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis demonstrated the mean of the silver particles diameter was 26 nm. The antibacterial findings of the synthesized silver nanoparticles against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro showed that the silver nanoparticles were more effective than silver sulfadiazine against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It could be concluded that olive leaves extract can be used effectively in the production of silver nanoparticles and these synthesized nanoparticles had considerable antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro.

Analysis of chemical and biochemical composition of fertile and sterile hydatid cyst fluids of human origin

Haider Barakat Abbas; Athmar K. Abbas. ALazawi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 66-70

The present study were made for analysis of major chemical and biochemical components of twenty hydatid cysts fluids include two group (10 fertile cysts and 10 sterile cysts) obtained from the lung and liver of 29 infected patients admitted to medicine city hospital for operation during a period of 6 month these components were measured by colorimetric assay kits (Biolabo®, Human). Results revealed marked (P<0.05).differences in the mean values, particularly among enzymes (Glutanicoxaloacetic transaminase, Glutanic pyruvic transaminase and Alkaline phosphatase), between fertile and sterile fluids while Lactate dehydrogenase level was exhibited high activities in fertile and sterile isolates, these values was less than normal values in serum . The mean values of Iron, Zinc Sodium Phosphorus and potassium, were found higher in fertile isolates, while marked decrease in sterile isolates. Furthermore, the Copper revealed quantitative differences (P<0.05) between the two isolates. Manganese and chloride constituted the major volume in the fluid anions, in fertile and reach maximum in sterile fluid. Differences were detected in the levels of glucose of fertile which increased significantly (P<0.05). The data detected no significant difference (P>0.05) in total protein which exhibit high in fertile and sterile fluid. Also Calcium and Magnesium mean values revealed same in both isolates. Trace elements like Urea, Uric acid, Bilirubin Creatinine and Lipid increase in liver diseases such as (Cholesterol, and Triglycerides) level was found higher in fertile and sterile isolates. In compare with previous studies the present investigations reflected quantitative difference in mean values of biochemical parameters of fertile and sterile of hydatid cyst fluids contributed to fertility of cyst and viability of protoscoles. Fertile cyst which contain broad capsule and protoscoles which responsible of high concentration in these elements than sterile fluid which lack the broad capsule and protoscoles , which may pointed some variable in parasite metabolism endurance, growth rate, intermediate host specificity location of cyst among lungs or livers or even strain variation.

Cytotoxic effect of green tea leaf extract on tumor cell line

Manhal F. Ahmed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 71-75

The study was conducted to evaluate antitumor effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts (aqueous and methanolic) on Rhabdomyosarcoma; cell line and a normal cell line; mouse embryo fibroblast; Chemical detections of green tea extracts revealed that the aqueous and methanolic extracts were positive for flavonoids, alkaloids, phenol and glycosides. The percentage growth inhibition of five plant concentrations (50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 µg/ml) were assessed in vitro using tumor cell lines Rhabdomyosarcoma and normal cell line mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The results revealed that the five concentrations of the plant extracts showed anti-tumor properties in a concentration-dependent manner, and the methanolic extract recorded better values of percentage growth inhibition than the aqueous extract in Rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines, while, less percentage growth inhibition values were recorded in the mouse embryo fibroblast cell line.

Histological changes in pituitary-testes axis in rats exposed to cadmium chloride: Protective role of Eruca sativa seeds

Baraa Najim Al-Okaily; Zenah Mohammed Al-Shammari

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 76-85

The present study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of Eruca sativa seeds against changes of pituitary and testes in cadmium treated rats. Forty adult male albino rats were used and divided into 4 equal groups and treated for 8 weeks as follow: The first group was given distilled water and used as a control group. The second group (G1) was administered tap water containing 30 ppm/ L of cadmium chloride. Animals in third group (G2) received tap water containing Cadmium chloride as in G1 plus 250 mg/Kg B.W ethanolic extract of Eruca sativa seeds, while rats in fourth group (G3) administered 250 mg/Kg B.W of ethanolic extract of Eruca sativa seeds only. After 8 weeks of experiment the animals were anesthetized, the pituitary and testes were excised for histological studies. Results showed that cadmium chloride intake caused severe alterations in the pituitary gland manifested by a marked apoptotic cells of pars distalis, accompanied with marked necrosis leading to left large multiple spaces in their parenchyma. Whereas testes revealed shrinkage, irregular arrangement of seminiferous tubules and increase intertubular spaces. A considerable changes was also found in the seminiferous tubules with loss most of their epithelial layer and filled with cellular debris, incomplete spermatogenesis, congested blood vessels and few Leydig's cells. Administration of Eruca sativa extract reduce the deleterious effects of cadmium chloride on pituitary gland as well as more or less complete spermatogenesis process with thickness of interstitial tissue in most of seminiferous tubules. It could be suggested that the antioxidant properties of Eruca sativa extract protects the deleterious histological damage induced by cadmium chloride in adult rats.

Deltamethrin residues in imported and locally produced butter, cream and soft cheese in the south of Baghdad city

Najim Hadi Najim; Amel Hussein Ali

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 86-91

A total of 40 imported cream, butter, cheese and yoghurt samples were collected randomly at weekly intervals (1samples/ product/ week) from various supermarkets inside the Baghdad province during the summer period. A total of 84 samples of locally produced cream, Butter, soft cheese and yoghurt that belonged to buffaloes, cows and ewes were collected randomly at weekly intervals (1 sample/ product/ week) from three different townships (Al-mahmudiyah, Al-Rasheed and Al-latifiyah) and were examined on two periods, the first was the period that extended from the beginning of September to the end of November 2015 while the second was the period that extended from the beginning of January to the end of march 2016. Besides that 12 Buffalos̓ raw whole and skimmed milk samples (6 samples each) and 6 samples of locally produced ewes̓ ghee (Samna) were examined during the summer period. Each dairy product sample was tested for the occurrence of Deltamethrin residues by using the High Performers liquid Chromotography and for fat content by using Gerber method. From the obtained results, data revealed that all of the imported cheese, cream and butter samples were 100% positive and yoghurt samples were 60% positive for the occurrence of Deltamethrin residues during the summer season. The results of this study established the statistically significant (P<0.05) influence of the season on the concentrations of the Deltamethrin residues in all of the examined locally produced dairy products where it was found that each of the 7 locally produced dairy products samples (6 samples/ each product) had significantly (P<0.05) higher concentrations of Deltamethrin residues in summer than in winter seasons. All the examined locally produced dairy products except yoghurt during the summer season presented high contamination levels with Deltamethrin residues and were 100% above the Maximum Residue Limits of 0.05 ppm that recommended by the WHO, FAO and European legislation.

Role of aqueous extract of Crocus sativus to improvement of sexual dysfunctions induced by imipramine in male mice

Salma J. Askar

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 92-97

The present study was carried out to focus light on the possible improvement and enhancement of functional performance of male mice sexual activities by using the aqueous extract of Crocus sativus. Several pharmaceutical drugs affect sexual activities and upset the sexual desire sequence that can lead to impotence or loss libido, example of these drugs are tricyclic antidepressant such as imipramine. To achieve this goal, twenty adult albino male mice were used, which were randomly divided into equal four experimental groups. The first group was given 10 mg/kg B.W. imipramine, the second group was given 100 mg/kg B.W. aqueous extract of Crocus sativus, and the third group was given 100 mg/ kg B.W. Crocus sativus aqueous extract and 10 mg/ kg B.W. imipramine, while the fourth group served as control, which was given D.W. In all groups the doses were given orally by stomach tube at 0.1 ml/10 g. B.W. for 30 days. The recorded parameters were; latency of copulation (second), frequency of copulation (per-hour), and duration of copulation (second). At day thirty blood samples were collected to determine the hormonal levels of luteinizing and testosterone hormones and the testis were obtained for histopathological processing .The results of sexual activity measured parameters showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in latency of copulation and significant increase in both frequency of copulation, and duration of copulation in the groups given aqueous extract of Crocus sativus and that given aqueous extract of Crocus sativus and imipramine as compared with imipramine and control groups. While results of hormonal levels showed significant increase (P<0.05) in both groups of Crocus sativus aqueous extract and imipramine as compared with imipramine only and control groups. On bases of these results, it can be concluded that the sexual activities of male mice given imipramine tend to be improved and returned when administered with aqueous extract of Crocus sativus.

Variations in the coding of melatonin receptor gene MTNR1A of Iraqi sheep breed

Najwa; Sh. Ahmad; I. H; Al-Timimi; M. A; Rahawy; Ani A.A

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 98-103

The aim of the study was found variation of melatonin receptor gene by sequence analysis, investigation in association between MTNR1A polymorphisms with any variation in allele’s frequency of the mutations C606T and G612A of the MTNR1A gene in the Iraqi local sheep lambing out of season. Blood samples were randomly collected from 60 ewes from Agriculture Research-Ruminant Researches Station Breeding Station, Baghdad. Genomic DNA was isolated using a Geneius TM Micro gDNA Extraction Kit. A large fragment of exon 2 of MTNR1A gene was amplified by PCR using specific primer pairs. The PCR product was sequencing 20 samples of MTNR1A gene was performed by National Instrumentation Center for Environmental Management (nicem). The result recorded that sequencing of Ovisaries breed local Iraqi ewes lambing in breeding season genotype rr appeared 100%compatibility with standard, Sequence ID: gb|HQ658147.1|, and have number score (1354) bits there was no any polymorphism in melatonin receptor type 1A (MTNR1A) gene, from 76-808 number of nucleotide from gene of Gene Bank. Sequence product from Iraqi ewes lambing out breeding season have genotype RR appeared 92% compatibility with and Sequence ID: gb|HQ658147.1|, and have number score (896) bits There was high polymorphism in melatonin receptor type 1A gene, from 130-710 number of nucleotide from gene of Gene Bank. The genotype RR that were fifteen only which are identical (G120T, G502C, T512G, T525G, T546A,C567T, T579A, T582C, C605G, A611T, A614T, C620T, G624T, C629T and T642A) that change of amino acid specialty C605G that change Proline to Alanine while four silent mutation (G328C, G499C, C604T and C609A) without amino acid change in spring (out-of-season) breeding in Iraqi local sheep.

Study the effects of naturally acquired canine Dirofil Ariasis on some hematological and biochemical parameters

Amal Hassen Atyha; Donia A.A. Alani

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 104-108

The present study was aimed to check the amount of variation in some hematologic and biochemical parameters accompanied with natural acquired canine dirofilariasis. Blood samples were collected from sixty five stray dogs (5-10) years old belong to local breed dog in the villages of Al-Hindya area/ Karbala Governorate, The affected animal showed differences in hematological and biochemical values as compared with reference ranges. In conclusion, the disease showed no significant clinical signs although many pathological changes in some blood constituent with serum biochemical parameters were observed, before euthanasia for dogs.

Gross and histopathological study on common carp Cyprinus carpio L. diseases in rearing culturing ponds in Kirkuk Province – Iraq

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; Dlyna Wrya Bakir; Soma Hillal Hussen

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 109-117

The present study aimed to investigate the infection ratio and pathological lesions in common carp fish in Kirkuk province. To achieve these goals, a survey study was conducted from 01/12/2015 to 01/04/2016. Results of the survey study showed that the infection ratio of acidity and alkalinity of pond’s water 27.88% (46/165), bacterial kidney infection 20% (33/165), water mold (saprolegniasis) 12.12% (20/165), spring viremia of common carp 11.52% (19/165), Coccidiosis 11.52% (19/165), fungal gill rot infection 7.27% (12/165), hemorrhagic septicemia 6.67% (11/165) and enteric parasite infection 3.03% (3/165). Pathological study showed that lesions in acidic and alkaline of pond’s water consisted from necrosis with sloughing of scales and intestinal mucinous degeneration as well as necrosis of intestinal villi. In bacterial kidney infection lesion consist of diphtheric membrane cover abdominal cavity and presence of microorganisms in renal cortex and medulla. In Saprolegnia sp. infection the pathognomic lesions were recorded which consist from fungal hyphae extended from fish body into water. In spring viremia of common carp lesions consist from exophthalmia and pinpoint hemorrhage on fish body with presence of pseudodiphtheric membrane associated with hemorrhagic exudate as well as extensive necrosis of intestinal villi. In Eimeria sp. infection lesions composed from presence of infective stages of coccidian parasites in enterocytes. In fungal gill rot infection the mosaic appearance lesion was observed consisted from necrotic area (white color) and health area (red color). In hemorrhagic septicemia infection lesions consist from ulcers surrounded by areas of hyperemia with extensive necrosis of intestinal lining. In enteric parasites infection we noted presence of large numbers of worms in intestinal lumen, also there is nodule in intestinal mucosa contain nematods of 2 cm in length, in other cases there is presence of worms inserted in intestinal mucosa of 30 cm length covered with fibrous membrane. It concluded from this study that the infection ratio with different diseases in common carp varied in compared with other countries and depends upon changes in climate and breeding habits as well as the gross and microscopic lesions are identical to that recorded worldwide.

Effect of using germinated for common vetch seeds Vicia sativa on growth performance of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

Mahmoud A. Mohammad

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 118-124

This investigation was carried out to utilize common vetch Vicia sativa in formulating diets for 84 common carp Cyprinus carpio L. with initial weight 28±2g/fish were distributed randomly over seven experimental diets with three replications for each. The fish fed experimental diets for 56 days contained 30% and 45% of common vetch Vicia sativa of total diets which treated with germinated for 5 days (diet 2 and 3), 7 days (diet 4 and 5) and the last diets contained crude vetch (diet 6 and 7). The statistical analysis of data showed that the fish fed at diet 3 was significantly different (P≤0.05) compared to fish fed at another diets in total weight, total weight gain, relative growth rate, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio. It is in conclusion germinated common vetch seed can be successfully used as an inexpensive plant protein source at level of 45% (germinated seed for 5 days) in common carp diets without adverse effect on fish performance.

Testosterone role during seasons changes in the dogs testes

Najlaa Sami Ibrahim; Nazih Wayes Zaid

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 125-130

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of seasons on serum testosterone level, testis histology examination and testosterone receptors by using cytoimmunochemistry techniques. Samples of blood and both testes were collected from 24 local dogs aged between 2-3 years and weighted 18-22 kg. This study carried out at 2015, divided into four seasons. No differences in testosterone level were observed between seasons. However, histological examinations were characterized by significant (P<0.01) changes during seasons in tubular diameters, germinal thickness and tubular area. Cytoimmunochemistry investigation showed differences between seasons also, there was a distributions of testosterone hormone receptors in the Leydig cells, Sertoli cells and in germinal epithelium during spring and autumn, at the same time the winter season showed distribution of testosterone hormone receptors in Leydig and Sertoli cells only. The summer season characterize by diffuse of receptors in Leydig cells only. In conclusion there was a significant effect of season on testis of dog in Iraq, the summer season was the lowest in reproductive activity while the spring and autumn season was the highest of reproductive activity of dog in Iraq.

Morphological and histomorphometrical study of the Sacculus rotundus at different postnatal ages in indigenous rabbit

A. G. Al-Haaik; F. J. Al-Saffar

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 131-137

Current investigation was carried out to explore structural developmental changes of the acculus rotundus in indigenous rabbits at different postnatal ages. To conduct that, morphological, histological and morphometrical approaches were employed on 24 rabbits at ages one, ten, fifteen and forty days. The findings indicated that in one day kits, the Sacculus rotundus cannot recognized with the naked eye but in the next advanced ages it appeared as expanded pear-like structure situated at the end of ileum. It opened into the 2nd gyrus at the base of cecum by saccorotundocecal orifice. Because it extends for 1-2 millimeters inside the lumen of the cecum, an annular ridge formed encircles the site of this opening. Length and width of SR was increased significantly by age progression. The main four layers of the alimentary canal were presented in the wall structure of Sacculus rotundus but with apparent variations in its structural constituents and dimensions. Two types of epithelia were recognized in its mucosa, villus epithelium and follicular associated epithelium. The lamina propria was very thick and full of well-developed nodular and diffuse lymphoid tissue alongside the whole circumference of its wall even in the newly born kits. In conclusion, the SR might be considered as primary lymphoid organ in rabbit.

Investigation the polymorphism of gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor gene in Iraq sheep

Hayder Abdul-Kareem Hasan AL-Mutar

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 138-144

In the present study, the investigation includes the estrus activity after synchronization of estrus by using 20 mg impregnated sponges with Medroxy Progesterone Acetate for 12 days with 400 IU I/M injection of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin 24 hrs. before sponges withdrawal. All 30 Iraqi sheep's showed (100%) estrus after sponge withdrawal. Twin percentage 40% while single percentage 60%. The polymorphisms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene were analyzed as a genetic marker in 30 Iraqi sheep's. Two noticed genotypes (GA and GT), and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the exon2 region of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene as genetic marker and correlated with high litter size after hormonal super ovulation response in sheep. The frequencies of alleles G,A and G,T in Iraqi ovine breeds were 0.50 and 0.50, respectively the outcomes revealed that GA, GT genotype was related with better litter-size in Iraqi ovine breeds. Therefore, these outcomes recommend that gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene is a powerful candidate gene that impacts litter-size in sheep.

Role of Sex Chromatin on performance in the Arabi sheep

Salim Omar Raoof; Dlpak Birkhader; Sirod Sami Yahya; Younis Ahmad Sheakh

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 145-150

This study was conducted on 122 Arabi sheep belonged to private flock in Erbil plain Kurdistan region- Iraq, from July/ 2014 to August/ 2015 for studying the role of sex chromatin on daily milk production, total milk production, lactation period, fertility rate, prolificacy, birth weight and fertilizes estrous sequences. The repeatability for the studied traits were estimated. The ratio of sex chromatin shapes drum stick, sessile nodule, tear drop and small club were 23.37%, 60.22%, 8.54% and 7.87% respectively.The overall means of daily milk production, total milk production, lactation period, birth weight, fertilize estrous sequences, fertility rate, and Prolificacy were 814.65 g 81.49 kg 103.53 day, 78.10%, 1.60, 3.84 kg and 1.50 respectively. Sex chromatin shapes had significant (P<0.05) effect on all traits studied. The results revealed that the estimation of the Repeatability coefficient for daily milk production was 0.42. It was concluded from this study that production traits (milk production and birth weight) and reproduction (fertility rate, prolificacy and fertilize estrous sequences) performance of Arabi sheep were significantly affected by the shapes and percentage of sex chromatin distribution and measurements. The sex chromatin shapes could be used as a tool for early selection of the elite individuals.

Study the effect of adding Cuminum cyminum seeds in the diet on semen characteristics and hormones level in serum of local bucks

Sadeq jaafer Zalzala

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 151-154

This study was conducted on sixteen local Iraqi bucks aged 3 to 4 in College of Veterinary Medicine/ University of Baghdad from January to May, 2016. They were divided randomly into two equal groups; 1st group (G1) was treated by oral administration of 15 gm/daily cumin seeds for 3 weeks, while the 2nd group (G2) represented control group. The 1st group showed a significant (P≤0.05) increased in semen volume (2.08±0.36 ml), furthermore number of sperm was increased significantly also according to assessment of semen color (4.23±0.26). Mass and individual motility showed significant higher level in the 1st group (86.00±1.97, 87.00±1.62%, respectively), than in the control group. Significant increased in cortisol and testosterone level recorded in the 1st group as compared with the 2nd group. In conclusion, cumin seeds enhanced improvement of semen bucks quality

Study the ultrastructure changes in the liver of mice post infection with Listeria monocytogenes

Zainab I. Ibrahim; Moutaz A. W. Abdul; Mounam; Laith A. M. Alsufi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 155-159

Listeria monocytogenes has important medical health infection in human and animals. The present study aimed to investigate the significant ultrastructure changes occurred in liver post-infection by pathogenic strain of Listeria monocytogenes. Twenty-six mice of both sexes divided into two groups; 1st group (n=21) infected with 0.2 ml (2x109 CFU/ml) of Listeria monocytogenes I/P and 2nd group (n=5) served as negative control group, all animal of both groups sacrificed at 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours post infection (7 mice for each time of infected group). The histopathology of liver tissues post infection revealed degenerative changes and severe necrosis in hepatic lobules exclusively at 6 and 24 hours also there were significant ultrastructure changes of hepatocytes; degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes appeared at 2 hours post infection.

Histopathological study of the influence of platelet rich-plasma and low level laser therapy on healing of experimentally fractured proximal sesamoid bone in equine

Raffal A. Omar; M J Eesa; Sinan A

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 160-168

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of platelet rich plasma and low level laser therapy (diode laser) on the healing of proximal sesamoid bone fracture. Eighteen healthy adult donkeys were divided into three equal groups: First group was used as control group, second group was treated by platelet rich plasma and the third group treated by diode laser. Also each group was divided to two equal subgroups according to period of postoperative macroscopical, histopathological examination: (one and three months post operation). All animals were exposed experimentally to transverse mid body fracture of lateral proximal sesamoid bone, in control group the bone fixed internally by screw and followed by external fixation with Plaster of Paris under general anesthesia, the second and third groups were exposed to similar surgical procedure except in second group injected of autologous platelet rich plasma in the fracture site, and the third group exposed to serial session of low level laser. All experimental animals were in a good health postoperatively, except hyper granulation tissue was observed in one animal belongs to the first group and another one belongs to the second group exhibited superficial exudates at the site of operation. Histopathological examination showed connective tissues and thin bone trabecular filling the fractured gap in first group at one month postoperatively, whereas, the bone trabecular was replaced by compact bone at three months postoperatively. Moreover lamellar bone and thick compact bone formation were seen at one month in third group, as well as to a lesser degree in the second group; however the fractured gap was filled with compacted bone mainly at three months postoperativelyin third group. In conclusions, both laser and platelet rich plasma were enhanced healing of the proximal sesamoid bones fracture but the superiority of better healing was occurred by laser treatment.

Effect of ketorolac administration post bone cavitation surgery on some hematological parameters

Raffal A. Omar

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 169-177

This study was designed to determine the effect of ketorolac on some hematological parameters post cavitation surgery in domestic rabbits. Ninety-six adult domestic local breed male rabbits were used in this study, weighing (1.23 ± 0.33) kg. They were divided randomly into two groups in the first one (n= 48/group) which represented control group, while the second one (n=48/group) represented the treated group (Ketorolac group). All rabbits in both groups undergoes surgical operation (bone cavitation in femur bone) under general anesthesia. In the Ketorolac group, animals were treated by using 30 mg/kg of Ketorolac directly post-operation and continued daily for 5 days, while in Control group no treatment was given postoperatively. The hematological parameters were recorded which include white blood cells count; red blood cells count; hemoglobin; packed cell volume; mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration; mean corpuscular volume and platelets at the period of (3, 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42) days post operation were estimated. Results concerning hematological values showed no significant differences in packed cell volume values between control and treated group and within each group, while haemoglobin values showed a significant decrease at period 7 and 14 days between control and treated group. Within control group the significant decrease were noticed clearly at period of 7 days. Data concerning mean corpuscular hemoglobin values within control group showed significant decrease were noticed at 5 day, but within treated group, there were no significant differences. mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration values showed significant decrease ate period 3; 5 and 21 days between control group and treated group respectively. Within control group the significant decrease were noticed obviously at 5 days while within treated group the significant decrease were noticed at 35 days. mean corpuscular volume values showed significant increase at 3 and 5 days period between control and treated groups. Platelets counts within control group showed significant increase at period of 14 days, within treated group the significant increase were recorded at 42 days. Red blood cells showed significant decrease between control and treated groups, while within control group, the significant decrease were at 7 days. White blood cells count within treated group showed significant increase recorded at 21 days. Differential White blood cells count concerning Lymphocytes cells within control group the significant increase were recorded at 42 days while the significant decrease were noticed at 21 days, but within treated group the significant increase were recorded at 35 days and significant decrease were noticed at 14 days. Neutrophils counts showed significant decrease at periods 3, 14, 28 and 42 days between control and treated groups respectively; while within control group there were significant decrease at 3 days, but within treated group the significant decrease were noticed at 42 days. Monocytes cells showed significant increase at 35 days between control and treated groups, within control group there were significant increase at 35 days, while within treated group the significant increase recorded at 7 days.