Print ISSN: 1609-5693

Online ISSN: 2410-7409

Volume 41, Issue 2

Volume 41, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2017, Page 1-178

Histological changes in the liver, kidney and spleen of White Albino Rat after Aluminum Chloride administration

Hadaf H. Mohammed; Ibtisam K. Abd Ali; Ali F. Reshag

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 1-6

The study was carried out to evaluate histological changes induced by Aluminum chloride in Wistar rats. Forty rats were uniformly divided into two different groups: The control group were given distilled water during period of experiment and the first group were given oral daily dose of Aluminium chloride (37 mgkg B.W). After 60 days of treatment rats were sacrificed. Liver, kidney and spleen were processed and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin the lesions of these organs were characterized by degeneration, necrosis, and congestion which meant that Aluminum chloride was nephrotoxic as well as hepatotoxic in nature. Microscopic examination results showed that Aluminum chloride exposure was harmful to the histological structure of liver, kidney and spleen

Parasitic contamination of drinking water and its prevalence among handlers and sheep

Zainab A. Makawi; Mohammed Th. S. Al-Zubaidi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 7-14

The current study was designed to determine the infection rate of intestinal protozoa in sheep and their handlers, and in their drinking water, in Wasit province, so as to study the relationship between contamination of drinking water with protozoal pathogen and infection in sheep and handlers in the period from the beginning of September 2015 to the end of February 2016. Two hundred eighty fecal samples were collected: (180) samples from sheep and 100 samples from human (50 handlers and 50 from non handlers), 50 drinking water samples were collected (18 samples; human tap water and RO bottled water and 32 samples river water). All samples were examined by conventional methods (direct moist smears, flotation with saturated sugar solution and stained with Modified acid fast, Giemsa and lugol's iodine ) The total infection rate in sheep, handlers and drinking water samples were 83.33%, 72%, 84.37% and 33.33% respectively. The result showed that drinking water samples of sheep and handlers were contaminated with protozoal oocysts or cysts of Cryptosporidium spp. (65.62%) (27.77 %), Giardia lamblia (6.25%) (0), Entamoeba spp (68.75%) (0), Eimeria spp (25%) (5.55%) and Buxtonella sulcata (40.62%)(0).

Comparative study for three protocols of general anesthesia in bucks

Raffal A. Omar; Omar Khalid Aziz; M. J. Eesa; Bilal Shaker Abed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 15-23

The aim of this study was to evaluate three regimens in induction and maintenance of general anesthesia in local breed bucks and the investigation of the best protocol of them based on different parameters. Eighteen healthy adult bucks weighing (27.50 ± 0.682 kg), aged (1.989 ± 0.135 years) were used. Animals were divided randomly into three equal groups to undergo pre-experiment preparation. All groups were premedicated intravenously with (0.5 mg/ kg) Diazepam, ten min. Later, the induction for first group was done by Propofol (3 mg/kg B.W), second group was done by Ketamine Hcl (2 mg/kg B.W), while in the third group was done by Thiopental sodium (3mg/kg B.W). After intubation with suitable endotracheal tube, maintenance of the three groups was done by (1.3-1.5%) isoflurane and nitrous oxide with oxygen at ratio 2:1. All the three groups underwent the measurement of the following parameters; (Induction, recovery and duration times) Clinical parameters (heart rate, respiratory rate and body temperature); Clinical signs, analgesia, muscle relaxation; Liver enzyme (Aspartate Amino Transferase and Alanine Amino Transferase). The complete randomized design within statistical analysis system (SAS) program were used for statistical analysis as relevant with a significance level set at P<0.05. The results of this study showed that the induction of the anesthesia was smooth and uneventful in all the three groups and recovery time was shorter in 3rd group in comparison with 2nd and 1st groups. The three regimens showed no significant differences in heart rate. The 2nd group recorded a sharp decrease in respiratory rate and body temperature in comparison with 1st and 3rd groups. Analgesia was very suitable in all the three groups. There were significant changes among groups concerning Alanine Amino Transferase and, Aspartate Amino Transferase. It was concluded that all the three protocols were safe and caused no hazard effect on the animals.

Effect of Anti-Riboflavin factor in the residues of the tomato paste industry on the Physiological and Biochemical traits of broilers

Maha A. Rzuqi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 24-30

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of anti-riboflavin factor in dried tomato seed meal on some physiological and biochemical traits of broiler. This study was conducted at the poultry farm of the Veterinary Medicine College at Baghdad University. A total of (150 broiler chicks) were used in this study for 56 days. The chicks were randomly distributed into five treated groups, 30 chicks for each period. Chicks at the age of 3 days were fed Ad libitum during the whole period and dried tomato seed meal was added to the diets of birds at the concentration of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% respectively. The results revealed that dietary supplementation with different levels of dried tomato seed meal resulted in a significant (P≤0.05) improvement regarding physiological and health traits. Also, adding 10.0% of dried tomato seed meal was the best among the other dietary supplementation levels of tomato seed meal. No signs of riboflavin deficiency appeared on broiler chicks

Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in sheep and goat in Al-Qadisiyah province/ Iraq

Mansoor Jadaan Ali Alkhaled; Weam Abbas Hamad

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 31-37

The present study was conducted during the period from September 2015 until February 2016. 100 fecal samples were collected from 60 sheep and 40 goats for diagnosis of Cryptosporidium parasite from diverse areas in Al-Qadisiyah province. The study amid to know the genetic characters of Cryptosporidium spp. parasite by using a molecular technique such as the nested polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing analyzed by phylogenetic tree to identify the parasite species. This study was done on the sheep and goat at first time in the middle region of Iraq and the identified species were recorded in NCBI-Genbank database. In sheep, the results of positive infected samples was (40%) while, in the goats were (32.5%), the DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis method based on small ribosomal RNA gene (18s rRNA) for Cryptosporidium species typing. The results were conducted by Neighbor-Joining phylogenetic tree analysis method and the 18s rRNA gene sequences were confirmed by using NCBI-BLAST data analysis in order to compare with NCBI submitted selected references isolates of (18s ribosomal RNA) gene in Cryptosporidium spp. parasites. Our finding in present study appeared to follow spp. (C. parvum, C. hominis, C. andersoni, C. ubiquitum, C. xiaio and C. suis). These identified species which primary affected sheep and goats as mentioned in previous studies when compared with newly Iraq isolates strains.

Study of the inhibitory effects of some medicinal plants extracts on growth of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from human, cow and sheep in Al-Qadisiyah governorate

Huda Abdal-Hadei Ali Al-Nasrawi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 38-47

This study aimed to evaluate-the inhibitory effects of ethanolic and-chloroformic-extracts of local medicinal plants as Oak (Quercus-acuta), Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and Cinnamon (Cinnamomum-zeylanicum) prepared in different concentrations (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/ml) against the growth of Listeria-monocytogenes isolated from infected humans and animals and comparing their activity with effectiveness of the standard antibiotics. The results showed detection of Listeria-monocytogenes in 3 of (50) blood samples collected from aborted woman making 6% samples, while the detection rates of Listeria-monocytogenes in milk samples collected from sheep and cattle were 4% (4/100) and 9.16% (11/120) respectively. The ethanolic and-chloroformic extracts-of Thyme as well as, chloroformic extracts of Oak and Cinnamon at concentrations (50 and 100 mg/ml) showed significant antibacterial activity against the growth of Listeria-monocytogenes isolates from humans, while the ethanolic extracts of Oak and Cinnamon did not show any antibacterial activity against the growth of same bacterial isolates. The ethanolic and chloroformic extracts of Thyme, as well as chloroformic extracts of Cinnamon at concentrations (50 and 100 mg/ml) showed antibacterial activity against growth of Listeria monocytogenes isolates of cattle, while ethanolic and chloroformic extracts of Oak and ethanolic- extracts of Cinnamon did not show any activity against growth of the same isolates. The results showed that all extracts have antibacterial activity against growth of-Listeria monocytogenes isolates-of sheep, except ethanolic extracts of Cinnamon at all tested concentration; as well, the chloroformic extracts of Thyme at concentrations (5o and 100 mg/ml) didn’t show any inhibitory activity for the growing of the same Listeria. monocytogenes isolates. Most of the results showed high antibacterial activity against growth of all Listeria .monocytogenes isolates from human and animals compared with negative control and this depends on their inhibition zones. In this study, we used six standard antibiotics as a positive control for Listeria monocytogenes, where rifampin. (5mcg),-chloramphenicol.(10mcg), streptomycin (25 mcg) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-(20/10mcg) were effective in inhibition the growth of all L. monocytogenes isolates from human and animals, while cefotaxime. (10 mcg) and novobiocin. (30 mcg) showed no inhibitory effects against growth of all L. monocytogenes isolates.

Molecular detection of Rotavirus type A in diarrheic calves of Mid-Euphrates governorates Iraq

Hamed Abbas Hassan; Qassim Haleem Kshash

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 48-53

Four hundred fecal samples from diarrheic calves of both sexes (1-60 days old) from four Iraqi Mid-Euphrates governorates (Babylon, Al-Najaf, Karbala and Al-Qadissiyiah) were collected to investigate rotavirus type A infection by using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction technique. The results showed that infection rates were (14%), while the high rate (20%) was found in age of (1-30 days), however non-significant values were related to animal gender. Moreover, a high infection was recorded at January (29.5%) and the rotraviral infection was recorded in four provinces but the higher was in Babylon (23%). The clinical examination of infected calves showed voluminous watery diarrhea, profound weakness and mild depression; the body temperature, respiration and heart rates were decreased significantly and appetite was changeable towards loss or anorectic

Toxic effects of subacute exposure to Nerium oleander leaves hexane extract on the heart of rabbits

Ali Aziz Alkhayyat; Rana Abdulla Salih

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 54-60

The study is performed to investigate the cardiotoxic effect of two season oleander leave extract in rabbits. The study involved a collection of the Nerium oleander leaves of two seasons (summer and winter) taken from Baghdad. The leaves were prepared by drying and grinding, and the extraction was carried by soxhlet apparatus with organic solvent (hexane). The toxicity was carried out on rabbits by giving 10% of the median lethal dose (LD50) for four weeks by considering different electrocardiography parameters and cardiac histopathological study after two weeks and four weeks of daily treatment. The electrocardiography parameters include R-R duration, T amplitude and Q-T duration values. The results of lead II referred to the heart rate as in R-R duration values which showed significant differences at (P<0.05) in two weeks between digoxin and control group, furthermore non significant increase occurred in all groups compared to control group in different times, and T amplitude revealed a decrease indicative of the levels of potassium in cardiac intracellular were decreased in all groups as compare to control group in different times, and decreased of Q-T duration which indicate calcium levels in cardiac intracellular were increased in all groups as compared to control in different times. Histopathology study of heart muscle in all groups in different times, showed edema, vacuolation, fragment and mononuclear cells infiltration in the pericardium in heart muscle. In conclusion, the N. oleander leaves extract has a toxic effect on the cardiac muscle.

Effects of running speeds on some markers of muscular tissues and synovial fluid of Iraqi Arabian Horses

Amir I. Towfik; a J. Hassan; Heifa; Basima J. Mohamed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 61-66

Arabian horses are regarded as the most famous breed for speed for long distances due to their genetic superiority. The aims of the study were to focus on the effect of different running speeds on the muscular tissues (Myoglobin, creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase), lactate dehydrogenase and synovial fluid (creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase). Non-trained eight local Iraqi Arabian horses were run on soil track for a distance (1) Km, walking, trot, canter, and gallop. Blood and synovial fluid samples were collected before and after running. The biochemical parameters of serum showed gradual increase according to each type of speed. All of them were significant at P≤0.01. The biochemical parameters of the synovial fluid also showed gradual increase according to each type of speed. Creatine kinase was significant at P≤0.05 in walking and trot but significant at P≤0.01 in canter and non-significant in gallop. While aspartate transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase were significant at P≤0.01 at all speeds.

Vaginal microflora in ewes after estrus synchronization with intravaginal sponges

Iman Fadhil AbdulHussain; Zina Bakir Abdul-Hussain; Sulake Fadhil Abbas Al-Zubaidi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 67-71

The aims of this study were to detect the changes in microflora and incidence of vaginitis in ewes after using of intravaginal sponges. Twenty five Awasi ewes were divided randomly into two groups (1st group included 9 animals and 2nd group included 16 animals). Both groups were treated with intravaginal sponges (20 mg) for 12 and 10 days respectively. Swabs were taken from vagina before insertion of sponges and immediately after sponges’ removal. The results showed that, only 2 ewes in 1st group exhibited estrus while all ewes in 2nd group exhibited estrus. Escherichia coli was the most predominant bacteria before insertion and withdrawal of sponges (66.66 and 68%) respectively. Four from nine ewes in 1st group, whereas only one ewe in 2nd group revealed vaginitis. It was concluded that intravaginal sponges do not change microflora in the vagina plainly but may cause vaginitis.

Evaluation of interleukins (2, 6 and 8) in immunized white rats by Salmonella enterica subspecies typhimurium and Cryptococcus neoformans antigens

Ikram A. A.AL-Samarraae; Maadhidi; Roaa N.A. AL

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 72-76

This study was designed to evaluate the levels of interleukins (2, 6 and 8) in immunized white rats by killed whole cell antigens of Salmonella enterica subspecies typhimurium and sonicated Cryptococcus neoformans, and using ELISA in day 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 after immunization one hundred white rats of both sexes divided into five groups (20 rats for each). The first group was immunized by killed whole cell antigens of Salmonella enterica subspecies typhimurium (9× 108 CFU /ml) and sonicated Cryptococcus neoformans (1000 µg/ml), The second was immunized by killed whole cell antigens of Salmonella enterica subspecies typhimurium (9× 108 CFU /ml) and sonicated Cryptococcus neoformans (500 µg/ml). The third was immunized by killed whole cell antigens of Salmonella enterica subspecies typhimurium (9× 108 CFU /ml) as positive control group, The fourth was injected 1 ml of phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.2) as control negative group and fifth was immunized by sonicated antigens of Cryptococcus neoformans (1000 µg/ml). The results of IL-2 showed significant differences (P<0.05) between the 1st, 2nd and 3th groups compared with 4th and 5th group, while there was no significant difference (P≥0.05) between 4th and 5th groups. Also IL-6 showed that there were significant differences (P<0.05) between the 1st, 2nd and 3rd groups in comparison with 4th group, while there was no significant difference (P≥0.05) between the 1st, 2nd, 3rd groups and 5th group. In the IL-8 showed that there was a significant difference (P<0.01) between the1st and 2nd groups and between 3rd group and 1st and 2nd groups without significant difference (P≥0.05), also between the 1st, 2nd and 3rd groups and 4th group significant difference (P<0.05) and with a significant difference (P<0.01) between 5th group and all other groups (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th).

Investigation of In-ovo cytogenetic effect of Levofloxacin

Marwa; H. N; Falah; M. K. AL-Rekabi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 77-85

This study was carried out to investigate the cytogenetic effect of Levofloxacin after In-ovo inoculation. Forty eight fertilized eggs were used, divided equally into eight groups and inoculated through shell puncture above air cell with materials in equestion and incubated for two different periods three and seven days. They were assigned as group one and group two 10 µg Levofloxacin, group three and group four 20µg levofloxacin, group five and group six considered positive control 0.05 µg Mitomycin-C, group seven and group eight (Phosphate Buffer Saline) considered negative control groups. All eggs from in-ovo experiments were subjected to cytogenetic tests, such as Mitotic Index, Replicative Index and Sister Chromatid exchange. Eighty fertilized eggs were handled with the same manner of in-ovo inoculation and used for calculation Hatchability index and weekly body weight. The results revealed significant (P˂0.05) increases in Mitotic Index and Replicative Index of all groups treated with levofloxacin compared to positive control, but there were significant (P˂0.05) decreases compared to control negative. There were no significant changes in Sister Chromatid exchange of all treated levofloxacin in–ovo. The hatchability index revealed significant (P˂0.05) decreases in group three which was inoculated 20 µg levofloxacin after three days of incubation compared to all Levofloxacin treated groups and both positive and negative control groups. In conclusion, levofloxacin in–ovo inoculation has no substantial cytogenetic effects

Effect of adding Manganese chloride and Co-enzymes (α-lipoic acid and Q10) on post-cryopreservation semen quality characteristics of Holstein bulls

S.M; Eidan; O.A.A; Sultan; Ibrahim; F.F; K.F; Hurish; Naseer; H.H

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 86-93

This study was undertaken to explore the adding effect of manganese chloride (MnCl2), co-enzyme Q10 (Co-Q10) as well as α-lipoic acid to Tris extender on Freeze ability of Holstein bulls’ semen. This study was carried out at the department of artificial insemination at the Directorate of Animal Resource, Ministry of Agriculture in Abu-Ghraib, Baghdad for the duration from October 2013 to Jun 2014, including three experiments. Seven Holstein bulls of 3.5-4 years old were used in this study. Semen was collected via artificial vagina by one ejaculate/ bull/ week. The assessments were conducted for fresh semen, which was later pooled, equally divided for various treatments within each experiment, using Tris extender. In the first experiment, pooled semen was divided into three groups. First group was diluted with Tris only. Manganese chloride was added to Tris extender (0.7 mM) in the 2nd group while in 3rd group (0.9 mM) of the Manganese chloride was used. In the second experiment, semen was divided equally into three groups. The first group was considered as a control group diluted with Tris only. Co-enzyme Q10 was added to 2nd (0.2 mM) and 3rd groups (0.5 mM) treatments respectively. In the third experiment, semen was divided into three groups. The first group was diluted with Tris only (control group). While the 2nd and 3rd groups were added 0.5 and 1.0 mM α-lipoic acid respectively. The effect of these additions on Holstein bulls semen quality was studied during different periods (48 hours, one, two and three months post cryopreservation) for three experiments. The results revealed that the addition two levels of the MnCl2 (2nd and 3rd, experiment 1), Co- Q10 (2nd and 3rd, experiment 2) and α- lipoic acid (2nd and 3rd experiment 3) led to significant increases freezability as compared with control groups during all the experiment periods. In conclusion, the addition of MnCl2, Co-Q10 and α-lipoic acid led to improved post-cryopreservation semen quality of Holstein bulls. This will in turn enhance fertility rate of artificially-inseminated cows and owners economic income consequently.

Morpho-histological comparative study of the liver in White-eared bulbul (Pycnonotus leucotis), Mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), and Gull (Larus canus)

Khalid Ibrahim Abd Al-Khazraji

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 94-99

This study was conducted to compare some of anatomical features and histological structure of the liver in three species of birds that varied in their size, taxonomy, and food environment. The study revealed that the liver in the mallard, gull and white-eared bulbul was bilobed big gland, and the left lobe was smaller than the right one. It was observed that the two lobes in mallard were undivided, while the right lobe in gull has two parts, whereas the left lobe in white-eared bulbul is subdivided into two parts. Histologically, the liver capsule in gull appeared thicker than other two species. The hepatic parenchyma was not shown to be clearly defined lobules in three species. The hepatocytes were organized radially around the central vein as plates or cords of one-two cell thick in mallard and gull, and of two-several cell thick in white-eared bulbul, and those plates were separated by blood sinusoids. It turned out that the hepatic portal triads were less numerous in white-eared bulbul compared with other two species. It was found that there are differences in measurements of some histological structures of the liver among the three species.

Histomorphological study of the spleen in indigenous Gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa)

M. H. Abed Muslih; S. M. Mirhish

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 100-105

The study aimed to investigate the anatomical and histomorphometrical features of spleen in gazelle. To achieve this goal, spleens of 7 animals were used. The gross aspect of the study revealed that the spleen of gazelle appeared dark brown in color with elliptical shape and was situated at the left lateral surface of the rumen. It occupied the area extended from the 8th rib to 11th rib. Length and width of the spleens were calculated and the mean were 7.94±0.1, 5.88±0.2 respectively. There were three ligaments connected the spleen with adjacent structures, namely splenogastric, splenorenal and splenophrenic. The blood supply of the spleen was studied using X-rays and resin injection methods. The splenic artery was divided into three primary branches, each one subdivided into two secondary branches. The latter branched into tertiary branches which were distributed all over the splenic parenchyma. Microscopic findings showed that the capsule of spleen in gazelle was composed from of two layers, the outer one made of mainly of dense connective tissue; whereas the inner layer of capsule consisted of connective tissue fibers in addition to abundance of smooth muscle fibers interweaving among them. The total mean thickness of the capsule was 210.51+8.3 µm. The splenic parenchyma in gazelle consisted of white pulp represented by lymphoid follicles with their marginal zones and periarterial lymphatic sheath while the red pulp represented by splenic cords and sinusoids. The area of white pulp in the gazelle comprised about 9.6% of the spleen parenchyma. Red pulp composed mainly from cords of connective tissue and small sinuses or sinusoids filled with blood cellular element which extended among these cords and was lined by flattened endothelial cells with relatively large spaces or slits between them. The sinusoids were found to be lymphocytes, reticular, plasma, macrophages and occasional megakaryocytes whereas the megakaryocyte appeared large with acidophilic cytoplasm and dark elongated multilobated nucleus. This research work was performed in order to establish the basic histomorphological information helpful for the veterinary medical practice and veterinary surgions to developing their work on gazelle like designing the approach of some surgical operations like spleenectomy or any surgical entrance may be needed in these animal species.

Assessment of gestational age in goats by Real-Time Ultrasound measuring the fetal crown rump length, and bi-parietal diameter

Yaseen Mahmood Rasheed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 106-112

The aim of the present study was to specify the relationship of gestational period with measurement of Crown-Rump length and Bi-parietal diameter via trans-abdominal ultrasonography in goats. This study was conducted in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Diyala University. The study was carried out on twelve multiparous does, their ages were between 2-5 years. Does were synchronized for estrus with PGF2α (Estrumate) at 11 days apart and naturally served to obtain pregnancy (estrus day=day 0), and subsequently Ultrasonic scanned. Weekly ultrasonographic examinations were performed using 3.5-5MHz sector transducer, from week (5-10) and (6-14) of pregnancy for measuring the Crown-Rump length and Bi-parietal diameter, respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that the relationship between gestational age and Crown-Rump length or Bi-parietal diameter were highly significant (P<0.01). The Crown-Rump length was strongly positively correlated with gestational age (R2=0.99) followed by the Bi-parietal diameter (R2=0.95). In conclusion, the gestational age of goats can be accurately estimated by trans-abdominal ultrasonography measuring of fetal Crown-Rump length and Bi-parietal diameter during first and second trimester of pregnancy.

Contamination of the local produced broilers carcasses with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and its effect in public health in Diyala province

Shukr M. Yaseen; Ahmed M. Saleh; Rafid S.A.Al-Zubaidy

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 113-117

The study was conducted to indicate the contamination of the local produced broilers carcasses by Escherichia coli O157:H7, and its effects on public health. Sixty samples of local produced Broilers were collected randomly from five different areas in Baquba center of Diyala governorate, (Iraq). Thirty samples to each were collected in summer, from the beginning of July to end of August, and in winter season from the beginning of December to end of January to investigate their microbial load. All summer samples had significantly (P<0.05) higher microbial count of Coli-form Bacteria, Escherichia coli and E.coli O157:H7 than winter samples, but there were no significant differences in the mean values of Escherichia coli count CFU/g, and E.coli O157:H7 count between summer and winter seasons. The conclusion of study showed that the contamination of local produced broilers by these bacteria was higher through summer as compared to winter season; the reason is because of temperature in summer which leads to growth and Proliferation of these bacteria and misuse of preparation and production of meat acts to increase the microbial load in these products.

Detection of single and multiple pregnancy depending on placentomes measurement in Shami goats in Iraq by Ultrasonography

Khawla A. Hussein

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 118-123

The aims of present study were designed to determine the relationship between fetal number single or twin and placentome measurement by real time Ultrasonography at different stage of pregnancy. Twenty mature female of shami goats were synchronized for estrus with vaginal sponges impregnated with 60 mg of medroxey progesterone acetate (MAP) (Esponja-vet – spanin) under strict hygienic conditions, the sponges were inserted by applicator for 14 days, following by eCG (Folligon) intra muscularly injection each female goats (doe) received 500 IU Folligon. At the time of sponges withdrawl, estrus detection was done and each doe expressed estrus sings serviced naturally by buck proven fertility to obtain pregnancy. Result showed 100% of female express estrus after synchronized Ultrasound examination was performed by trans-rectally with linear probe (7.5 and 5 MHz) in early stage of pregnancy and using sector probe (3.5MHz) to trans-abdominal examination, the examination of animal started done from day 30 to 100 post mating every 5 day. The placentome was observed at first time of pregnancy at day 30 by using trans rectal examination with liner probe as an echo-genic parts on the surface of endometerium. The study showed a significant effect (P≤0.05) in placentome growth and gestation age. The placentome diameter reached maximum size at days 91-100 and was 34.76 ± 0.41mm. Also the present study showed no significant differences between placentome diameter in single and twin pregnant doe at (P≤0.05). The average of placentome size in single and twin was respectively, 7.72 ±0.46 mm and 8.42±0.34 mm at day 30-41 of gestation, the measurements reached high value (34.76 ± 0.41 mm) at day 91-100 of pregnancy. In conclusion the detection of gestation age in Shami goats according to placentome measurement was not a reliable method after day 90-100 of gestation. Also the placentome diameter measurement is not a practical method for diagnosing fetal number (single, twin) in pregnant Shami does.

Bacteriological and molecular study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from different clinical cases in Erbil and Kurkuk

Asif Hasan Abdul Razzaq; Abdul Wahab Bedawi Al-Kubaisi; Leqaa Majeed Aziz; Ali Saleh Hussain

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 124-130

This study included isolates of bacteria from 125 clinical samples in Erbil and Kirkuk Hospital including (burns, wounds, urine and sputum); 38 isolates were identified as P. aeruginosa after conducting microscopic and biochemical tests. The results of antibiotic sensitivity test showed that all isolates of P. aeruginosa were different in resistance to Pipracillin, Erythromycin with rate of (100%) and to the Nalidixic acid (94.73%) while the lowest resistant antibiotics were to Co-trimoxazole, Ceftazidime and Ciprofloxacin, which amounted to (26.31%, 23.68 and 21.05%) respectively. For molecular diagnosis of P. aeruginosa some virulence genes the alg D and exo A were amplified through Polymerase Chain Reaction technique. The results showed that in 38 isolates cases only 22 (57.9%) were positive for algD gene by amplification of 520 bp band. While in urinary tract infection; 6 samples (60%) had alg D gene, and 8 (57.14%) isolates had alg D gene in wounds samples; also 7(70%) isolates from burns had that gene, while the sputum samples showed only one with alg D gene which was the lowest ratio; but in amplification of exo A, the results showed the presence of only one isolate from burns with molecular weight 396 bp with no appearance in others.

Detection of antibiotic residues in locally raw milk by using high performance liquid chromatography at different seasons and the effect of heat treatment on their concentration

Najim Hadi Najim; Ahmed Salman Moqef Al- kurashi

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 131-136

The aim of this study was to determine the level of antibiotics residues in the locally produced cows raw milk as well as to evaluate the effect of different commercial heat treated process on the level of antibiotics residues in milk. A total of 52 locally produced milk samples were collected from apparently healthy cows in AL-Fudhailia village, milk cans (50 Kg), bulk milk tanks (1, 5 and 10 tons) which belonged to the milk reception and collection centers and dairy plants in Baghdad were collected during beginning of December 2015 to the end of April 2016. Results revealed by using high performance liquid chromatography that there was a significant seasonal variation in the residual concentration of each detected antibiotic in milk samples, where it was found that all cow's milk samples had significantly higher concentrations of antibiotic residues in spring than in winter seasons. Generally by excluding both the season and the kind of antibiotic, it was found that milk samples that were collected from 50 Kg milk cans recorded significantly highest antibiotic residues followed by bulk milk tanks of 1 and 5 tons in comparison to 10 tons. Antibiotics recovery experiment was conducted by spiking the bovine milk samples with Known concentrations four ß-lactams (Benzylpencillin, Cloxacillin, Amoxcilin, Ampcilline) and other five detected antibiotics and then exposed to one of the three different commercial heat treatments. The results showed that the pasteurization process (63°C/30 min.) a slight inactivation of four ß-lactams and other five detected antibiotics, whereas 80°C/5 min. high degree of antimicrobial loss at the rate of 89% and 82%. However, boiling at 100°C/5 min, high degree of antimicrobial loss at the rate of 100% and 90% respectively

Comparative evaluation of bovine pericardial membrane and amniotic membrane in wounds skin healing in rabbits

N.H. Al-Falahi; Dhyaa. Ab. Abood; M.S. Dauood

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 137-145

The present study aimed to compare between the amniotic and pericardial membranes for the wound dressing models. Ten local breed rabbits have been used in the current study. They were divided into two main equal groups: Experiment (Amniotic and pericardial membranes) and control group. According to healing periods each group was subdivided into four subgroups (7, 14, 21 and 28) days post wounding. Specimens of amniotic membranes were collected from full term pregnant cows, and pericardium was obtained from abattoir immediately after slaughtering. The study was conducted on skin wound for experiment application site as full-thickness skin wounds (3×3 cm) were done on the dorsal thoracic sides. Histopathological evaluation of study depended on the degrees of inflammatory exudate, epithelialization, fibroplasia and type of leukocytes infiltration. Results revealed marked reduction of the inflammatory phase during all periods of post treatment with amniotic membrane, the degree of epithelization and fibroplasia in addition to angiogenesis were enhanced in amniotic and pericardial dressed wounds during period of 14 and 21 days. The study concluded that no significant differences are between the pericardial membrane and of amniotic membrane in wound healing of skin

Activity of isolated specific bacteriophage in treatment of chronic osteomyelitis induced by multiple drug resistance Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Rabbits

Sarhan Rashid Sarhan

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 146-156

This study was conducted to find out the possibility of using the Pseudomonas aeruginosa specific-bacteriophage as an alternative to antibiotics in treatment of chronic osteomyelitis in rabbits by injection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa suspension in tibia. The current study included an isolation of bacteriophage from sewage water by using agar overlay method and also an isolation of the bacteria from patients suffering from post-traumatic bone infection. The second experiment was in-vivo evaluation of phage activity in treatment of chronic osteomyelitis in rabbits. All animals of infected groups with Pseudomonas aeruginosa before treatment exhibited histopathological changes after 35 days of infection, the infected groups showed chronic osteomyelitis represented by sever chronic inflammatory cells infiltrates mainly lymphocytes, and macrophages and hemorrhage between bone trabeculae, also some sections showed extensive fibrosis in the marrow spaces. The treated group with P. aeruginosa specific – bacteriophage (1.5 ×107) PFU/ml for 10 days showed early repair elucidated by presence whorls of chondrocytes, and also the presence of multiple osteoblasts indicated bone formations. Also the presence of extensive fibrosis in the marrow space with present of osteoblasts indicated bone formations and repair.

Effect of frequent kidding on reproductive and productive traits in Shami goats

Salim Omar Raoof; Kanyaw Ismail Mahmud; Younis Ahmad Sheakh Mohamad

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 157-162

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of frequent kidding on the reproductive and productive traits in Shami (Damascus) goats. The study was carried out in a commercial private farm at Qushtapa district in Erbil, Iraq. Sixty seven Shami goats were involved during the period from July/2013 to May /2016 for the three kidding seasons. The overall means of daily test milk production and seasonal milk production were 1.955 kg and 176.70, respectively. Frequent kidding significantly (P<0.05) affected daily test milk production and seasonal milk production. Total kids born in three kid crops system in two years (accelerating kidding) were 150 compared with75 kids in two kid crop (naturally annual mating system). The total milk production was 5.85 kg in the accelerating kidding system, compared with 4.056 kg achieved through the annual system. Month of test, age of does, sex and type of birth and weight of does at kidding had exhibited significant effects on daily test milk production and seasonal milk production. Daily milk production was higher during the third month (2.004kg) compared with those obtained from the second (1.957 kg) and first (1.903 kg) months of test. Daily test milk production produced by does at about 5 years old was higher (2.079 kg) than that produced from younger goats (1.634 kg). Daily test milk production of does which gave males were higher (1.943kg), recorded significant at the level (P<0.01) than does which gave females (1.777kg). Does weighting over 60 kg at kidding produced 1.933 kg of milk compared with does weighting less than 50 kg (1.819 kg). Repeatability estimate obtained for daily test milk production was 0.64. It can be concluded that the performance of animals in the three kidding in two years of Shami goat was more beneficial for farmers and provided more milk and meat.

Seropositivity rate of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus among Iraqi dromedary Arabic camels

Karim S. Ali Al-Ajeeli; Abdulrazak SH. Hasan; Usama Abdul karim Ayish

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 163-167

This study was conducted to determine the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus infection rate among Iraqi dromedary camels and to explore its risk factor. A total of 167 blood samples were collected, ninety of them were selected randomly and included in the study from 50 males (55.6%) and 40 females (44.4%). The age range was 1-15 years. Samples were collected from Al Najaf-slaughter house. Sera were separated and tested for the presence of anti-MERS-CoV IgG using the recombivirus Camel anti-MERS-CoV spike protein S1 domain (MERS-S1) IgG ELISA kit. The results revealed that 81(90.0%) of camels included in this study were positive for anti-MERS-CoV IgG, with 95% confidence interval for the prevalence rate (82.5-94.9). Additionally, the Inter-quartile range of anti-MERS-CoV IgG titer was (5-19.7) and a mean rank of 99.8 U/ml. The highest positivity rate was among camels 10-15 years old with statistically insignificant difference (P= 0.88). Similarly, the anti-MERS-CoV IgG Ab titer was insignificantly higher in the same age group (P= 0.79). The anti- MERS-CoV IgG positivity rate was equally distributed among female and male camels (90.0%), so the difference was statistically insignificant (P=1). While the mean, median and Inter-quartile range of anti-MERSCoV-IgG titer was insignificantly higher among males compared to females (P=0.57). In conclusion, the majority of Iraqi camels are infected by MERS-CoV. Further studies are urgently needed to explore the ability of Iraqi camels to transmit the virus to human population

The differences in sensitivity and specificity between three different kits for the detection Rotavirus

Atheer Abdulrazzaq Abdulazeeza; Modher Nagem Abed

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 168-173

Rotavirus is the common key etiologic agents of attained diarrhea in infant, young children and neonatal calves globally. It is very important to early diagnose the disease in purpose of effective patient treatment. This study was conducted by using three different kits for detecting Rotavirus in calves in five Iraqi governorates (Al-qadissiya, Babel, Kerbala, Missan, Wassit). A total of 125 stool specimens were examined, they were collected from calves in the (period from November 2015 to February 2016). The ages ranged from 1 to 16 weeks. Stool samples were collected and examined using Chromatographic Immunoassay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Polymerase-chain reaction. The results obtained by chromatographic immunoassay were 44% positive, ELISA 42% positive, and 38% Polymerase-chain reaction positive. Chromatographic immunoassay was easy, simple, economic, and rapid and showed high sensitivity with accepted specificity while ELISA permit quantitative estimation of Rotavirus antigens. These results indicate that ELISA is as sensitive and specific assay as the chromatographic immunoassay, and it could be applied on a large scale for screening stool specimens in suspected rotavirus diarrhea. Conventional Polymerase-chain reaction demonstrated more sensitivity and highest specificity.

Anatomical and histological changes in the spleen of post hatching indigenous chicken in Iraq

Ali Faris Reshag; Rabab Adnan Hamza

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2017, Volume 41, Issue 2, Pages 174-178

The structure of the indigenous chickens spleen during the post-hatching period was determined by gross and light microscopical examination by using Hematoxylin and eosin and Massons Trichrome staining techniques. At one day old chicks the spleen was rounded in shape, pink in color. At two weeks old chicks the spleen was triangular in shape. At the progress of the aged the color of spleen became red-brown. In all ages the spleen consisted of white pulp and red pulp which were fused together. The spleen was encapsulated by thin connective tissue capsule contain few smooth muscles, the trabiculi were rare and thin. The red pulp consisted of venous sinuses surrounded by lymphatic cords. The white pulp consisted of peri-artery lymphoid sheath, peri-venous lymphoid sheath, peri ellipsoid lymphoid sheath, and Lymphatic follicles. The appearance of these elements was age dependant. At the first week of age the peri-artery lymphoid sheath and peri-venous lymphoid sheath were developed. At the third week, the peri ellipsoid lymphoid sheath, Lymphatic follicles were noticed and the plasma cells were scattered in the white pulp in addition to the lymphocytes. At one month of age, the germinal center appeared in some lymphatic follicle. The present study revealed that the spleen was well developed lymphatic organ at the age of three weeks