Print ISSN: 1609-5693

Online ISSN: 2410-7409

Volume 42, Issue 2

Volume 42, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2018, Page 1-111


Isolation and detection of rotavirus by Enzyme linked Immune assay in fecal specimens of buffalo calves

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2018, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 1-6

A total of 50 fecal samples were collected from buffalo calves ages between 3 days to 4 months, in middle area of Iraq (Baghdad, Saladin, Babylon, Diyala, and Waist) between July 2016 to June 2017. All samples were examined by Immuno-chromatographic rapid tests for detection of buffalo rotavirus, twenty samples were positive. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. test was also used and revealed only 8 positive samples, the later samples were used for viral isolation on fetal bovine kidney cell culture for detection the cytopathogenic effects of the virus. The cytopathogenic effects of virus were induced rounded cells and gaps; as a result of rupture of these infected cells by rotavirus. Moreover Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay test used again for detection of rotavirus cytopathogenic effect in fetal bovine kidney cell culture for more confirmation. The TCID 50 was estimated for rotavirus on fetal bovine kidney cells 104.5 virus/0.05 ml 4.5 10 0.05 ml / .

Role of Salvia officinal's Silver Nanoparticles in Attenuating Renal Damage in Rats Exposed to Methotrexate(Part I)

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2018, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 7-20

The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of Salvia officinal's silver nanoparticles as antioxidant on nephrotic damage induced by methotrexate in adult rats. Green silver nanoparticles were synthesized using alcoholic extract of salvia officinal's leaves, and were characterized by UV-spectrophotometry and scanning electron microscope. The mixing of the plant extract of Salvia. officinal's with silver nitrate solution (1mM), lead to changing of the reaction mixture color to yellowish within one hour and to dark brown after 8 hours, indicating the generation of Salvia officinal's silver nanoparticles , due to the reduction of silver metal ions silver (Ag+) into Nano silver particles via the active compounds present in the S. officinal's plant extracts. Changing in color after the reduction of Ag+ to Salvia officinal's silver nanoparticles. The reduction rate and formation of nanoparticles can be increased further by increase in incubation time. Silver nitrate conversion to Nano silver particles was found to be successful as suggested by the change in color of the solution to brown. For studying the protective role of Salvia officinal's silver nanoparticles , twenty eight adult Wister albino rats were randomly assigned and divided in to four groups as follows T1, T2, T3, and T4, They were treated intramuscularly (twice per week) for 45 days as follows; T1:animals in this group, were given Salvia officinal's (150mg /Kg/.B.W), T2: animals in this groups were given Salvia officinal's Silver nanoparticles (150mg/Kg B.W.); T3:animals of this groups were given both Methotrexate(0.25mg/kg/ B.W.) and Salvia officinal's silver nanoparticles (150mg/Kg/B.W); T4: animals in this groups were given methotrexate (0.25mg/Kg B.W.) for 45 days . The animals of all groups were considered as control group at day zero and injected only doubled distilled water Intramuscala. Fasting blood samples were collected at 0, 15, 30 and 45 days of experimental periods from anesthetized rats using retro-orbital sinus technique and cardiac puncture technique, then sera was isolated for measuring: malondialdehyde, glutathione in serum, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen and uric acid concentrations. The results showed that animals received methotrexate (group T4) caused a case of oxidative stress manifested by significant decrease grower in, elevation in malondialdehyde concentrations, renal dysfunction as documented by significant elevation in serum creatinine, urea and uric acid concentrations. On the other hand, the protective role of salvia officinal's and Salvia officinal's silver nanoparticles given concurrently with methotrexate was clarified in groups T2and T3 ,where there was alleviation of renal damage through correction of the previous mentioned parameters and correction of antioxidant status. In conclusion, the current study documented the antioxidant activity and reno protective effects of Salvia officinal's silver nanoparticles against damaging effects of methotrexate in rats. .

Evaluation of two biological matrices for repairing of ventral hernia in bucks

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2018, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 21-33

This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of a mixture of propolis and phytogenic (Digestarom)on immune responses against Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease , also Heterophil/lymphocyte ratios in vaccinated broiler under thermoneutral (maintained on usual heat program)and heat stress maintained in )33 ± 2°C). total of three hundred, one-day-old broilers (Rose 308) chicks were distributed equally in two separated room, thermoneutral groups and heat stress HS groups along the duration of the experiment (42)day, then each group subdivided in to five groups( 30 chicks for each ) as follow: (thermoneutral group and heat stress group )fed a basal diet supplemented with propolis (2g/kg of diet),(thermoneutral group 2and heat stress2)fed Digestarom(150mg/kg).( thermoneutral group 3 and heat stress group 3) fed a mixture of (propolis2g/kg +Digestarom150mg/kg) and two control groups without additive. Antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease were measured and Heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was estimated. In heat stress chickens the results revealed a significant decrease (P<0.05)in immune response with significant increased(P<0.05) in Heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, while higher significant (P<0.05)in antibody titers with significant decrease (P<0.05) in Heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was showed in all thermoneutral chickens but more significant in thermoneutral group 3 and heat stress group 3 groups were gave the best values in comparing with others groups. The role of Propolis or phytogenic on broiler health and immunity had already been reported, but in this study was reported the effects of their mixture on ameliorating the deleterious effects of heat stress .

The immune response of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with Propolis and Digestarom under heat stress condition

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2018, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 34-41

This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of a mixture of propolis and phytogenic (Digestarom)on immune responses against Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease , also Heterophil/lymphocyte ratios in vaccinated broiler under thermoneutral (maintained on usual heat program)and heat stress maintained in )33 ± 2°C). total of three hundred, one-day-old broilers (Rose 308) chicks were distributed equally in two separated room, thermoneutral groups and heat stress HS groups along the duration of the experiment (42)day, then each group subdivided in to five groups( 30 chicks for each ) as follow: (thermoneutral group and heat stress group )fed a basal diet supplemented with propolis (2g/kg of diet),(thermoneutral group 2and heat stress2)fed Digestarom(150mg/kg).( thermoneutral group 3 and heat stress group 3) fed a mixture of (propolis2g/kg +Digestarom150mg/kg) and two control groups without additive. Antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease were measured and Heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was estimated. In heat stress chickens the results revealed a significant decrease (P<0.05)in immune response with significant increased(P<0.05) in Heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, while higher significant (P<0.05)in antibody titers with significant decrease (P<0.05) in Heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was showed in all thermoneutral chickens but more significant in thermoneutral group 3 and heat stress group 3 groups were gave the best values in comparing with others groups. The role of Propolis or phytogenic on broiler health and immunity had already been reported, but in this study was reported the effects of their mixture on ameliorating the deleterious effects of heat stress.

Isolation and Identification of Wild Isolate of Newcastle Disease Virus from Broiler Farm in Diyala Province: Virological and Histopathological Study

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2018, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 42-50

A broiler poultry farm of six weeks old, vaccinated with LaSota Newcastle disease virus vaccine. The flock was infected with a virulent Newcastle disease virus with mortality rate up to 90%. Newcastle disease virus was isolated from infected birds in embryonated chicken eggs and identified by haemagglutination inhibition test using hyperimmune serum prepared against LaSota viral vaccine. Median Death Time, Intracerebral Pathogenicity Index and Intravenous Pathogenicity Index proved that the virus was a virulent viscerotropic isolate. In experimental infection, broilers were vaccinated twice with LaSota strain, the level of anti-Newcastle disease virus IgG was checked by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test pre and post vaccination and the birds were challenged with the same isolated virulent isolate at 35 days old, the virus was inoculated by oral and nostril routs. The challenge virus produced the same sever clinical signs and the mortality rate reached up to 70%. Tissue samples were collected from intestine, kidneys, lung, trachea, spleen, liver, and the brain of the experimentally infected broilers, they showed sever pathological changes. It seems that vaccination with commercial available vaccine could not produce enough protection against virulent circulating Newcastle disease virus strains, accordingly preparation of viral vaccine from local virulent isolate is recommended after attenuation or inactivation. .

Role of Alpha Lipoic Acid in Oxidant /Antioxidant Status and Gene Expression of Glutathione Reductase in Hydrogen Peroxide Exposed Rats: (Part -2)

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2018, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 51-58

This study was designated to evaluate the protective role of alpha lipoic acid against oxidative stress resulted by hydrogen peroxide on some oxidants/ antioxidants parameters and gene expression of glutathione peroxidase in adult Wistar rats. Forty adult male rats were randomly divided into four equal groups (10 rats /group) and were handled daily as follows for 56 days : Control group were intubated distal water and received ordinary tap water ; group T1 were intubated 60mg/kg B.W of alpha lipoic acid and received ordinary tap water ; group T2 were received hydrogen peroxide in tap water at concentration of 0.5% , while group T3 were intubated 60mg/kg B.W of alpha lipoic acid and received ordinary tap water containing 0.5% hydrogen peroxide. Fasting blood samples were collected at 0, 28 and 56 days of experimental periods for measurement of serum peroxynitrite and malondialdehyde concentrations, as well catalase activity. Furthermore, gene expression of glutathione reductase in liver was investigated. Administration of 0.5% hydrogen peroxide in drinking water (group T2) manifested a significant elevation in serum peroxynitrite and malondialdehyde with significant decrease in catalase and Glutathione, concentrations. Also, a significant decrease in gene expression of glutathione reductase was observed as compared to other treated groups. Nevertheless, rats in group T3 shows a significantly improvement in oxidant /antioxidant status with increase in folds changes of gene expression of glutathione reductase as compared to control and T2. In conclusion, supplementation of alpha lipoic acid to rats significantly reduced oxidative stress –induced by hydrogen peroxide and caused improvement of gene expression of glutathione reductase in liver via its antioxidant properties.

Histomorphological Study of Epididymis, ductus deferens and phallus in Adult Male Guinea Fowl (Numida meleagris)

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2018, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 59-66

This study was conducted to investigate the anatomical, histological characteristic features of epididymis, ductus deferens and phallus of male guinea fowl (Numidia meleagris ). Fifteen healthy male guinea fowl aged between 18-24 months, weighing 1280 - 1405 gram were used in current study, which brought from local market in Baghdad governorate. The epididymis of guinea fowl consisted from rete testis, efferent ductless, connecting duct and epididymal duct. The study revealed that the mean diameter of epididymal ducts was 285.17± 2.43µm lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium. The epididymal duct continuous with ductus deferens which become wider caudally towards the cloaca, the length of right and left ductus deferens were 9.16±1.20 cm and 9.80±1.24cm respectively. The copulatory organ (phallus) of guinea fowl was not well developed and non-intermittent type consist from right and left lateral lymphoid bodies with median eminences, the transverse width 5.01±0.24mm, the cranio-caudal width 3.51±0.07mm and dorso- ventral width 4.32±0.25mm. The lining epithelium of coprodeum was pseudo stratified columnar epithelium. This study concluded that the epididymis of male guinea fowl located on dorsomedial surface of the testes and without definite parts as in domestic animals, the ductus deferens of guinea fowl was tortuous, the phallus of guinea fowl is non - intermittent type.. .

Effects of Azorubine food additive on female reproductive organs and hormones in Sprague Dawley rat

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2018, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 67-72

The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of various doses of Azorubine which is a food additive on the female reproductive organs in Sprague Dawley rats. Twenty four female Sprgue Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 equal groups. Group 1(control group), group, 2, 3 and 4 were received Azorubine (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) orally, daily for 30 days respectively. Blood samples were taken for estimation of white blood cells, red blood cells, hemoglobin and platelets, in addition Luteinizing, follicular stimulation, estrogen and progesterone hormones from the sera. The reproductive hormones levels affected drastically under the effects of different doses of treatment like Luteinizing hormone (0.69±0.25, 0.60±0.75 and 0.55±0.63), Follicular Stimulation hormone (0.17±0.11, 0.13±0.33 and 0.3±0.45), Progesterone hormone (0.50±0.77, 0.14±0.56 and 0.10±0.85), and estrogen hormone (0.45+0.43, 0.30±0.29 and 0.14±0.27) hormones were decreased significantly (P˂0.05) in groups of rats treated with each 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg doses of Azorubine respectively. Histopathologically, the ovaries treated with 5 mg/kg doses of Azorubine showing follicles at the beginning stages of growth with no Graffian follicle while the ovaries with 10 mg/kg doses of Azorubine contain fully grown Graffian follicles with no follicles at various stages as well as those with 20 mg/kg doses of treatment displaying no mature Graffian follicle with many atretic and shrunk follicles. The hematological outcomes are significantly affected by this food additive. The results of this work is concluded that Azorubine can be considered as one of the most important causes of infertility, hormonal disturbances and irregular estrus cycle in the rat female. ٌ.

Histopathological changes of chronic cestodes infection in local domesticated ducks (Anas platyrhynchas) in Baghdad city.

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2018, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 73-77

This study was conducted to investigate the histopathological changes of cestodes chronic intestinal infections in ten local domesticated ducks (Anas platyrhynchas) during the period 1/9/2016- 1/10/2017 in Baghdad city. Results showed severe destruction in the intestinal mucosa ,sloughing and desquamation of the epithelia and severe destruction with distortion or complete loss of the intestinal villi, complete loss of the mucosal and submucosa layers with destruction of intestinal glands and there is a severe infiltration of inflammatory cells mainly mononuclear cells in the lamina propria, and a focal necrosis in the intestinal mucosa.The submucosa showed an infiltration of macrophages and few lymphocytes, severe necrosis , calcification in some mucosal glands or with a cystic dilation with cellular debris in their lumen surrounded by inflammatory cells infiltration mainly mononuclear and plasma cells.The conclusion of the present study was that the cestodes chronic infection cause severe inflammatory response mainly lymphocytes and monocytes in mucosa and sub mucosa and destruction of some intestinal glands of the intestin

Evaluation of diatomaceous earth on production, anatomical traits and quality of eggs in Japanese quail

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2018, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 78-81

An experiment has been carried out to evaluate a diatomaceous earth on performance and egg traits of Japanese quail. The diatomaceous earth used in the current trial was food grade which produced in Germany and is listed Generally Regarded As Safe. Eighty layer Japanese quail were randomly divided into 2 treatments from 16-20 weeks of age. Each treatment consisted 4 replicates (pens) of 10 birds each. The first treatment (control) contained a standard recommended diet with no added diatomaceous earth. The second treatment was the basal diet of the first treatment plus 1.5% diatomaceous earth in the feed. Feed and water were offered ad libitum from days 1 to 140. Egg production per pen was recorded daily. Egg traits were measured at the end of each week during experimental period. Utilization of diatomaceous earth did not have a pronounced effect on the production parameters and weight of egg, albumen, and shell, but significantly improved yolk size.

Investigation of Biological Activity, Open Porosity and Water Absorption of Ternary Polymeric Blend (Polymethylmethacrylate / Starch) used for Bone Scaffold

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2018, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 82-89

In this study a fabrication of three groups of biological system for bone scaffold, which consist of first group samples (Acrylic bone cement: % X poly methyl meth acrylate ), second group samples (poly methyl meth acrylate: % X Acrylic bone cement), with selected weight percentages of second material are (5, 10,15 and 20 % wt.) and third group, (Acrylic bone cement: 15 % poly methyl meth acrylate : % X starch) with selected weight percentage ratios of starch are (2, 4 and 6 %wt.). In vitro biological activity and water absorption have been studied. The results clarified that the in vitro biological activity test showed that all fabricated samples have no biological influence on the gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli . The results show that the first group of polymer blend have low open porosity and water uptake capacity than a second group. The increasing in starch weight fraction for the third group led to increasing in open porosity and water absorption

Applying of B-mode ultrasound for determining pregnancy by means of measurement of Placentomes Diameter and Fetal Bi-parietal diameter in dairy cows

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2018, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 90-96

The objective of the current study was to estimate whether fetal age could be accurately estimated using trans-rectal and trans-abdominal ultrasonographic measurements for placentomes diameter and Bi-parietal diameter. This experiment was carried out in the College of Veterinary Medicine in Diyala University. Twelve Multiparous cows (4-7 years old) were inseminated artificially, and Serial transrectal and trans-abdominal ultrasonic examinations were done during the 7 – 13 week and during 10 -26th week of gestation, respectively. Using 5-7.5 MHz linear array transducer and also 3.5-5MHz convex transducer. Possible discrimination of placentomes and Bi-parietal diameter for the first time at the fifth and ninth week of gestation, respectively. The mean values for placentomes diameter were 7.5mm and 69 mm during 7 and 26 weeks of pregnancy, respectively, as well the placentome increased in diameter an average of 3.0028 mm per week. Besides that, the mean Bi-parietal diameter was 17.5mm and 33mm during 9 and 13 week of pregnancy, respectively. The Bi-parietal diameter was increased linearly an average of 3.620mm per week. The obtained results revealed that using TRUS during 3rd month of gestation to observed pregnancy and fetal organs as well as fetal viability with fast and easy during mid-gestation onward .High correlations were found between different studied parameters and gestational age with high significant for both which were (R=0.97**; P<0.01) and(R=0.95**; P<0.01) for placenttomes diameter and, Bi-parietal diameter respectively. In conclusion, the trans-abdominal ultrasonography it reliable technique for determining pregnancy and the best window for fetal viability during third month of gestation until term and a strong positive with a high significant correlation of coefficient between gestational periods and placentomes diameter, fetal bi-pareital diameter in cows and relatively the highest correlation was also evident in placenttomes diameter ,moreover, this study prove that widely restricted factors of ultrasound are that its efficient, is always depending on skill of the operato

Evaluation of lipid profile and inflammatory parameters in female diabetes type2 induced rabbits treated with glimepride, bromocriptine and fluoxtein

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2018, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 97-104

This study was performed to evaluate the improvement in serum lipid profile and inflammatory parameters in female diabetic rabbits after two month treatment with glimepride, bromocriptine and fluoxtein in order to decrease cardiovascular diseases risk related to type 2diaetes mellitus. Twenty five local female rabbits divided equally in to five groups, four groups were diabetes type 2 induced by alloxan 120 mg/kg and nicotinamide 50 mg/kg and the fifth group was control negative (Cv-).The animal were allocated to different treatment regimen ,dosed orally on daily base for two months treatment, as following, T1 (glimepride 0.11mg/kg),T2 (glimepride 0.11+bromocriptine 0.04 mg/kg),T3 (glimepride 0.11+fluoxtein 0.29 mg/kg), control positive group(Cve+) diabetic without treatment and the fifth group was control negative group (Cve-) dosed with distall water. Lipid profile, interleukin-6,C-reactive protein were determined after diabetes induction and at the end of experiment. IL-6 significantly reduced in T2,while C-Reactive Protein non-significantly reduced. All treated groups showed nearly similar total cholesterol level, T1demonstrate the higher level of High Density Lippoprotein -C level . In the same time all treated groups showed non-significant decrease in Low Density Lippoprotein-C, T2 showed superiority in reducing Very Low DennsityLippoprotein-C and triglyceride level over all other diabetic groups In.conclusion ,diabete agonist (Bromocriptine)+glimepride demonstrate the superiority over the combination therapy glimepride +flouxtein and glimepride as monotherapy in improving diabetes type 2 related cardiovascular complications

Histological Study on the Nasal Cavity of Black Iraqi Goat (Capra hircus)

The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 2018, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 105-111

The histological observations of this study which conducted on nasal cavity of black Iraqi goatrevealed that the nasal cavity consisted of three regions (vestibular, respiratory and olfactory.(The vestibular region was narrow zone, lined with (non keratinized) stratified squamousepithelium, and its propria submucosa contained serous glands and blood vessels. The respiratory region was lined with ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelia with gobletcells. The vascular propria submucosa had mucous glands, which were positive to periodic acdic shieffand Alcian blue stains. The olfactory region was lined with thick pseudostratified columnarepithelium devoid of goblet cells and contained, the propria submucosa serous simple acinusAlcian positive glands (Bowman's glands) and numerous nerve bundles. The histological resultsconcluded that the nasal cavity of black Iraqi goat was good adaptive toole for hot dustyenvironment. .